Several studies have shown cross-sectional associations between long term exposure to particulate air pollution and survival in general population or convenience cohorts. Less is known about susceptibility, or year to year changes in exposure. We investigated whether particles were associated with survival in a cohort of persons with COPD in 34 US cities, eliminating the usual cross-sectional exposure and treating PM10 as a within city time varying exposure.
Using hospital discharge data, we constructed a cohort of persons discharged alive with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using Medicare data between 1985 and 1999. 12-month averages of PM10 were merged to the individual annual follow up in each city. We applied Cox's proportional hazard regression model in each city, with adjustment for individual risk factors.
We found significant associations in the survival analyses for single year and multiple lag exposures, with a hazard ratio for mortality for an increase of 10 μg/m3 PM10 over the previous 4 years of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.17–1.27).
Persons discharged alive for COPD have substantial mortality risks associated with exposure to particles. The risk is evident for exposure in the previous year, and higher in a 4 year distributed lag model. These risks are significantly greater than seen in time series analyses.
Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level.
This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure.
A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51%, 2.87%), 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%), 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%), 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%), -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%), -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19%) and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49%) changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated.
Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.
The Harvard Southern California Chronic Ozone Exposure Study measured personal exposure to, and indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations of, approximately 200 elementary school children 6-12 years of age for 12 months (June 1995-May 1996). We selected two Southern California communities, Upland and several towns located in the San Bernardino mountains, because certain characteristics of those communities were believed to affect personal exposures. On 6 consecutive days during each study month, participant homes were monitored for indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations, and participating children wore a small passive ozone sampler to measure personal exposure. During each sampling period, the children recorded time-location-activity information in a diary. Ambient ozone concentration data were obtained from air quality monitoring stations in the study areas. We present ozone concentration data for the ozone season (June-September 1995 and May 1996) and the nonozone season (October 1995-April 1996). During the ozone season, outdoor and indoor concentrations and personal exposure averaged 48.2, 11.8, and 18.8 ppb in Upland and 60.1, 21.4, and 25.4 ppb in the mountain towns, respectively. During the nonozone season, outdoor and indoor concentrations and personal exposure averaged 21.1, 3.2, and 6.2 ppb in Upland, and 35.7, 2.8, and 5.7 ppb in the mountain towns, respectively. Personal exposure differed by community and sex, but not by age group.
In different weather conditions, constituents and concentrations of pollutants, personal exposure, and biologic responses to air pollution may vary. In this study we assessed the effects of four air pollutants on mortality in both cool and warm seasons in Hong Kong, a subtropical city. Daily counts of mortality, due to all nonaccidental causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were modeled with daily pollutant concentrations [24-hr means for nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)); 8-hr mean for ozone]. using Poisson regression. We controlled for confounding factors by fitting the terms in models, in line with those recommended by the APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach) protocol. Exposure-response relationships in warm and cool seasons were examined using generalized additive modeling. During the cool season, for a linear extrapolation of 10th-90th percentiles in the pollutant concentrations of all oxidant pollutants, NO(2), SO(2), and O(3), we found significant effects on all the mortality outcomes under study, with relative risks (RR) of 1.04-1.10 (p < 0.038, except p = 0.079 for SO(2) on respiratory mortality). We observed consistent positive exposure-response relationships during the cool season but not during the warm season. The effects of PM(10) were marginally significant (RR = 1.06; p = 0.054) for respiratory mortality but not for the other outcomes (p > 0.135). In this subtropical city, local air quality objectives should take into account that air pollution has stronger health effects during the cool rather than warm season and that oxidant pollutants are more important indicators of health effects than particulates.
Because asthma has been associated with exercise and ozone exposure, an association likely mediated by oxidative stress, we hypothesized that GSTP1, GSTM1, exercise and ozone exposure have inter-related effects on asthma pathogenesis.
We examined associations of the well characterized null variant of GSTM1 and four SNPs that characterized common variation in GSTP1 with new-onset asthma in a cohort of 1,610 school children. Children’s exercise and ozone-exposure status were classified using participation in team sports and community-specific ozone levels, respectively.
A two SNP model (rs6591255, rs1695 [Ile105Val]) best captured the association between GSTP1 and asthma. Compared to children with common alleles for both the SNPs, the risk of asthma was lower for those with the Val allele of Ile105Val (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.4, 0.8) and higher for the variant allele of rs6591255 (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.1–1.9). Asthma risk increased with level of exercise among ile105 homozygotes but not among those with at least one val105 allele (interaction p-value=0.02). Risk was highest among ile105 homozygotes who participated in ≥3 sports in the high-ozone communities (HR: 6.15, 95%CI: 2.2–7.4). GSTM1 null was independently associated with asthma and showed little variation with air pollution or GSTP1 genotype. These results were consistent in two independent fourth-grade cohorts in the study population recruited in 1993 and 1996.
Children who inherit a val105 variant allele may be protected from the increased risk of asthma associated with exercise, especially in high-ozone communities. GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased risk of asthma.
Oxidative stress; Candidate gene; Asthma genetics; Gene-environmental interaction; Air pollution
Ozone has been associated with daily mortality, mainly in the summer period. Despite the ample literature on adaptation of inflammatory and pulmonary responses to ozone, and the link, in cohort studies, between lung function and mortality risk there has been little done to date to examine the question of adaptation in the acute mortality risk associated with ambient ozone.
We applied a case-crossover design in 48 US cities to examine the ozone effect by season, by month and by age groups, particularly focusing on whether there was an adaptation effect.
We found that the same day ozone effect was highest in summer with a 0.5% (95% CI: 0.38, 0.62) increase in total mortality for 10 ppb increase in 8-hr ozone, whilst the effect decrease to null in autumn and winter. We found higher effects in the months May- July with a 0.46% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.68) increase in total mortality for 10 ppb increase in ozone in June, and a 0.65% (95% CI: 0.47, 0.82) increase in mortality during July. The effect decreased in August and became null in September. We found similar effects from the age group 51–60 up to age 80 and a lower effect in 80 years and older.
The mortality effects of ozone appear diminished later in the ozone season, reaching the null effect previously reported in winter by September. More work should address this issue and examine the biological mechanism of adaptation.
Several studies have examined the effect of particulate pollution (PM) on survival in general populations, but less is known about susceptible groups. Moreover, previous cohort studies have been cross-sectional and subject to confounding by uncontrolled differences between cities.
We investigated whether PM was associated with progression of disease or reduced survival in a study of 196,000 persons from 21 U.S. cities discharged alive following an acute myocardial infarction (MI), using within-city between-year exposure to PM. We constructed city-specific cohorts of survivors of acute MI using Medicare data between 1985 and 1999, and defined three outcomes on follow-up: death, subsequent MI, and a first admission for congestive heart failure (CHF). Yearly averages of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm) were merged to the individual annual follow-up in each city. We applied Cox’s proportional hazard regression model in each city, with adjustment for individual risk factors. In the second stage of the analysis, the city-specific results were combined using a meta-regression.
We found significant associations with a hazard ratio for the sum of the distributed lags of 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–1.5] for mortality, a hazard ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.7) for a hospitalization for CHF, and a hazard ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1–1.8) for a new hospitalization for MI per 10 μg/m3 PM10.
This is the first long-term study showing a significant association between particle exposure and adverse post-MI outcomes in persons who survived an MI.
air pollution; epidemiology; heart diseases; myocardial infarction; survival
Current evidence indicates that individuals exposed to short term elevations in ambient ozone may experience both upper and lower respiratory effects. Some respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes are mild and reversible in nature, while others involve more severe outcomes, including hospital admissions and emergency room visits. However, many questions remain about the effects of acute ozone exposure and the implications of this exposure for chronic disease outcomes. For example, the identification of sensitive subgroups, the delineation of the entire spectrum of health effects due to exposure to ozone, the potential synergy between viral infections and ozone exposure, and the nature of adaptation to ozone are not well characterized. In addition, studies that examine the association between acute responses to ozone and potential biological indicators of a chronic disease process would be desirable. This paper serves to provide an overview of the types of epidemiologic studies that may be appropriate and factors to consider in addressing these questions.
An ozone exposure assessment study was conducted in a Southern California community. The Harvard ozone passive sampler was used to monitor cohorts of 22 and 18 subjects for 8 weeks during the spring and fall of 1994, respectively. Ozone exposure variables included 12-hr personal O3 measurements, stationary outdoor O3 measurements from a continuous UV photometer and from 12-hr Harvard active monitors, and time-activity information. Results showed that personal O3 exposure levels averaged one-fourth of outdoor stationary O3 levels, attributable to high percentages of time spent indoors. Personal O3 levels were not predicted well by outdoor measurements. A random-effect general linear model analysis indicated that variance in personal exposure measurements was largely accounted for by random error (59-82%), followed by inter-subject (9-18%) and between-day (9-23%) random effects. The microenvironmental model performs differently by season, with the regression model for spring cohorts exhibiting two times the R2 of the fall cohorts (R2 = 0.21 vs. 0.09). When distance from the stationary monitoring site, elevation, and traffic are taken into account in the microenvironmental models, the adjusted R2 increased almost twofold for the fall personal exposure data. The low predictive power is due primarily to the apparent spatial variation of outdoor O3 and errors in O3 measurements and in time-activity records (particularly in recording the use of air conditioning). This study highlights the magnitude of O3 exposure misclassification in epidemiological settings and proposes an approach to reduce exposure uncertainties in assessing air pollution health effects.
Response functions for the effect of ozone on cadmium (Cd) (toxic to humans) and zinc (Zn) (essential nutrient for plants and humans) in wheat grain were derived for the first time. Data from four open-top chamber (OTC) experiments with field-grown wheat, performed in southwest Sweden, were used. Ozone exposure was expressed as the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol/m2 per sec (POD6), and AOT40. Grain Zn concentration was significantly enhanced by ozone, while Zn yield was not affected. The positive ozone effect on grain Zn concentration was almost twice as large as the corresponding effect on grain protein concentration, most likely as a result of nitrogen availability being more limiting than Zn availability. Cd concentration was unaffected by ozone, but Cd yield was significantly negatively affected. For the variables studied, correlation was stronger with POD6 than AOT40, but in several cases, for example, for Zn concentration and Cd yield, there was practically no difference in the performance between the two exposure indices. From the literature, it is obvious that ozone has important adverse effects on wheat yield and certain quality traits. As shown in this study, there are also examples of ozone leading to improved quality, for example, in terms of enhanced Zn concentration of wheat grain. While OTC enclosure did not affect Zn accumulation in wheat grain, Cd accumulation was significantly positively affected, most likely through transpiration being enhanced by the OTC environment, promoting Cd uptake and transport through the plant.
Cadmium; dose–response function; open-top chamber; ozone; protein; wheat; zinc
To evaluate the short term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular admissions in 14 Spanish cities
The period under study was from 1995 to 1999. Daily emergency admissions for all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and heart diseases (HD) were obtained from hospital records, and the corresponding daily levels of particulates, SO2, NO2, CO, and ozone were recorded. The magnitude of association was estimated using Poisson generalised additive models controlling for confounding and overdispersion. For each cause, lagged effects, up to three days, of each pollutant were examined and combined estimates were obtained. For ozone the analyses were restricted to the warm period. One and two pollutant models were performed.
Associations were more consistent in lag 0 (concurrent day) and 1 (lag 0–1), except in the case of ozone where there was a more delayed relation (lag 2–3). For combined estimates an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 levels in lag 0–1 was associated with an increase of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4 to 1.5%) in the number of hospital admissions for CVD, and 1.6% (0.8 to 2.3%) for HD. For ozone the corresponding estimates for lag 2–3 were 0.7% (0.3 to 1.0) for CVD, and 0.7% (0.1 to 1.2) for HD. An increase of 1 mg/m3 in CO levels was associated with an increase of 2.1% (0.7 to 3.5%) in CVD admissions, and 4.2% (1.3 to 7.1%) in HD admissions. SO2 and NO2 estimates were more sensitive in two pollutant models
A short term association between increases in daily levels of air pollutants and the number of daily admissions for cardiovascular diseases, with specificity for heart diseases, has been described in Spanish cities.
air pollution; cardiovascular diseases; hospital admissions; multicentre study
The association between chronic exposure to air pollution and adverse health outcomes has not been well studied.
This project investigated the impact of chronic exposure to high ozone levels on childhood asthma admissions in New York State.
We followed a birth cohort born in New York State during 1995–1999 to first asthma admission or until 31 December 2000. We identified births and asthma admissions through the New York State Integrated Child Health Information System and linked these data with ambient ozone data (8-hr maximum) from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We defined chronic ozone exposure using three indicators: mean concentration during the follow-up period, mean concentration during the ozone season, and proportion of follow-up days with ozone levels > 70 ppb. We performed logistic regression analysis to adjust for child’s age, sex, birth weight, and gestational age; maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, insurance status, smoking during pregnancy, and poverty level; and geographic region, temperature, and copollutants.
Asthma admissions were significantly associated with increased ozone levels for all chronic exposure indicators (odds ratios, 1.16–1.68), with a positive dose–response relationship. We found stronger associations among younger children, low sociodemographic groups, and New York City residents as effect modifiers.
Chronic exposure to ambient ozone may increase the risk of asthma admissions among children. Younger children and those in low socioeconomic groups have a greater risk of asthma than do other children at the same ozone level.
air pollution; asthma; children; chronic; hospital admissions; ozone
A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to assess the effect of recurrent ozone exposure in humans. For the most part, they have failed to document convincingly an association between chronic ozone exposure and differences in lung function performance or respiratory symptoms. This is not surprising given the small respiratory effects observed in animals chronically exposed to ozone and assuming that people with abnormal respiratory function resulting from other occupational or environmental exposures, such as tobacco smoke, would make up a much larger percentage of the population than people with respiratory effects attributable to ozone. Therefore, either more sensitive end points must be developed to detect subtle changes due to chronic ozone exposure, or ways of selecting subpopulations that are especially sensitive to ozone must be devised. It has been well documented that there are large and reproducible differences in the acute response of individuals to ozone as measured by pulmonary function tests. Recently, it has also been shown that there are large differences in the acute response of individuals to ozone as measured by inflammatory and other biochemical parameters. This paper discusses the problems of selecting individuals who are sensitive to ozone depending on the end point chosen. It also describes potential new sensitive end points that might be available for ozone epidemiology studies in the near future.
Ozone exposure in the lab and environment causes airway hyperreactivity lasting at least 3 days in humans and animals. In guinea pigs 1 day after ozone exposure, airway hyperreactivity is mediated by eosinophils that block neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function, thus increasing acetylcholine release from airway parasympathetic nerves. However, mechanisms of ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity change over time, so that depleting eosinophils 3 days after ozone makes airway hyperreactivity worse rather than better. Ozone exposure increases IL-1β in bone marrow, which may contribute to acute and chronic airway hyperreactivity. To test whether IL-1β mediates ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity 1 and 3 days after ozone exposure, guinea pigs were pretreated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra, 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 minutes before exposure to filtered air or to ozone (2 ppm, 4 h). One or three days after exposure, airway reactivity was measured in anesthetized guinea pigs. The IL-1 receptor antagonist prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity 3 days, but not 1 day, after ozone exposure. Ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity was vagally mediated, since bronchoconstriction induced by intravenous acetylcholine was not changed by ozone. The IL-1 receptor antagonist selectively prevented ozone-induced reduction of eosinophils around nerves and prevented ozone-induced deposition of extracellular eosinophil major basic protein in airways. These data demonstrate that IL-1 mediates ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity at 3 days, but not 1 day, after ozone exposure. Furthermore, preventing hyperreactivity was accompanied by decreased eosinophil major basic protein deposition within the lung, suggesting that IL-1 affects eosinophil activation 3 days after ozone exposure.
asthma; eosinophils; cytokines; parasympathetic nerves; lungs
Previous studies have demonstrated associations of high ozone levels with increased epidemiologic as well as lung function measures of asthma activity.
In an observational study during the summer months, we hypothesized that higher ambient ozone levels are associated with more frequent symptoms, higher airway and systemic inflammation, as well as worse lung function in asthmatics as compared with non-asthmatic individuals.
Thirty-eight asthmatics and thirteen healthy control subjects residing in metropolitan Atlanta were enrolled during peak ozone season. Medical histories, quality-of-life questionnaires, spirometry, serum immunoglobulin (IgE), peripheral eosinophil counts, and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) were obtained during study visits. Personal ozone exposures over the 2 days before presentation were estimated based on location and activity surveys.
Upper airway symptoms were more frequent in asthmatics. Higher levels of ozone were associated with worse airflow obstruction, lower quality of life scores, greater eosinophilia, and higher exhaled NO levels in asthmatics. Finally, both asthmatics and non-asthmatics with allergies showed associations between air quality and airway inflammation.
In adults with asthma but not controls studied during peak ozone season, increasing ozone exposure predicted lower lung function and increased biomarkers of respiratory and systemic inflammation. These associations were enhanced in atopic participants, both with and without asthma. Importantly, the study findings were noted while atmospheric ozone levels were predominantly within the current and revised national air quality standards.
ozone; asthma; lung function; allergies
The working group on tropospheric ozone of the Health Effects Institute has evaluated the need for epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ozone (O3) exposure. This paper summarizes current data and identifies possible research questions. The extent to which ozone exposure results in chronic health effects is largely undefined and is the central issue for epidemiologic studies. Most current data focus on transient endpoints; the link between acute changes in symptoms and/or lung function and possible chronic effects has not been established. Concepts of ozone-induced health effects have been extended to include processes of chronic disease (e.g., markers of ongoing inflammation and repair, markers of accelerated lung aging). Traditional epidemiologic studies performed have focused only on accelerated lung aging and are limited by a number of methodologic problems. Recent, very preliminary, studies suggest new opportunities for the use of human lung tissue and a variety biological response markers as part of epidemiologic studies. The identification of sensitive subpopulations with regard to ozone-induced health effects has been studied incompletely and is important both in terms of study efficiency and mechanistic insight. Methodologic advances in the reconstruction of past ozone exposure are seen as essential, as is the incorporation of emerging markers of biologic response to ozone into traditional epidemiologic study designs. Finally, more data on the joint and independent contribution of other ambient air pollutants to putative ozone-induced health effects is warranted.
The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-unexposed and untrained (control or group 1, n = 6), ozone-exposed and untrained (group 2, n = 6), ozone-unexposed and trained (group 3, n = 8), ozone-exposed and trained (group 4, n = 8). All animals in groups 3 and 4 were regularly running (20 m/min, 30 min/day) on a treadmill for 7 weeks (5 day/week). After the last ozone exposure [0.3 ppm, 30 min per sessions], blood samples were obtained from the cardiac puncture and hematological parameters as well as blood lactate were measured using automatic analyzers. Data were expressed as means (± SD) and analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests at p < 0.05.
All the hematological parameters differences (except RBC and hemoglobin rate) were significantly higher in the trained groups (p < 0.001). However, ozone-induced leukocytosis in the trained (but not in the sedentary) rats was statistically higher than in the counterpart groups.
Repeated acute ozone exposure has more additive effect on peripheral leukocyte counts in active animals. But, more researches are needed to identify effects of ozone exposure on other components of the immune system in athletes and non-athletes.
Moderate Aerobic Exercise; Ozone Exposure; Leukocytosis; Wistar Rats
Ozone is an intrinsically toxic gas and its hazardous employment has led to a poor consideration of ozone therapy. The aim of this review is to indicate that a wrong dogma and several misconceptions thwart progress: in reality, properly performed ozone therapy, carried out by expert physicians, can be very useful when orthodox medicine appears inadequate. The unbelievable versatility of ozone therapy is due to the cascade of ozone-derived compounds able to act on several targets leading to a multifactorial correction of a pathological state. During the past decade, contrary to all expectations, it has been demonstrated that the judicious application of ozone in chronic infectious diseases, vasculopathies, orthopedics and even dentistry has yielded such striking results that it is deplorable that the medical establishment continues to ignore ozone therapy.
Exposure to ambient levels of ozone (0.5 ppm) was shown to alter the pathogenesis of respiratory infection after aerosol infection of mice with influenza A virus. A semiquantitative method for determination of the sites of virus replication by direct immunofluorescence indicated that exposure to ozone reduced the involvement of respiratory epithelium in the infectious process and resulted in a less widespread infection of the alveolar parenchyma. Furthermore, the ozone-mediated alteration in viral antigen distribution was consistent with significantly reduced influenza disease mortality and prolonged survival time, but only when the oxidant was present during the course of infection. Reduced disease severity in ozone-exposed animals appeared to be independent of peak pulmonary virus titers, pulmonary interferon titers, and pulmonary and serum-neutralizing antibody titers. These studies suggested that the distribution of influenza virus in the murine lung was a key factor in disease severity.
Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease.
We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh) to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy.
The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks.
These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether outdoor air pollution levels in London influence daily mortality. DESIGN--Poisson regression analysis of daily counts of deaths, with adjustment for effects of secular trend, seasonal and other cyclical factors, day of the week, holidays, influenza epidemic, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation, from April 1987 to March 1992. Pollution variables were particles (black smoke), sulphur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide, lagged 0-3 days. SETTING--Greater London. OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative risk of death from all causes (excluding accidents), respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Ozone levels (same day) were associated with a significant increase in all cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality; the effects were greater in the warm seasons (April to September) and were independent of the effects of other pollutants. In the warm season an increase of the eight hour ozone concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile of the seasonal change (7-36 ppb) was associated with an increase of 3.5% (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 5.3), 3.6% (1.04 to 6.1), and 5.4% (0.4 to 10.7) in all cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality respectively. Black smoke concentrations on the previous day were significantly associated with all cause mortality, and this effect was also greater in the warm season and was independent of the effects of other pollutants. For black smoke an increase from the 10th to 90th centile in the warm season (7-19 microg/m3) was associated with an increase of 2.5% (0.9 to 4.1) in all cause mortality. Significant but smaller and less consistent effects were also observed for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. CONCLUSION--Daily variations in air pollution within the range currently occurring in London may have an adverse effect on daily mortality.
The antimicrobial effects of ozonated water in a recirculating concurrent reactor were evaluated against four gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria, two yeasts, and spores of Aspergillus niger. More than 5 log units each of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli cells were killed instantaneously in ozonated water with or without addition of 20 ppm of soluble starch (SS). In ozonated water, death rates among the gram-negative bacteria--S. typhimurium, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia enterocolitica--were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Among gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes was significantly P < 0.05) more sensitive than either Staphylococcus aureus or Enterococcus faecalis. In the presence of organic material, death rates of S. aureus compared with L. monocytogenes and E. coli compared with S. typhimurium in ozonated water were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by SS addition but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by addition of 20 ppm of bovine serum albumin (BSA). More than 4.5 log units each of Candida albicans and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells were killed instantaneously in ozonated water, whereas less than 1 log unit of Aspergillus niger spores was killed after a 5-min exposure. The average ozone output levels in the deionized water (0.188 mg/ml) or water with SS (0.198 mg/ml) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) but were significantly lower in water containing BSA (0.149 mg/ml).
Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.
The effects of ozone at 0.25, 0.40, and 1.00 ppm on Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline. Differences in sensitivity to ozone were found to exist among the six strains examined. Greater cell death was found following exposure at lower temperatures. Early stationary-phase cells were less sensitive to ozone than mid-exponential- and late stationary-phase cells. Ozonation at 1.00 ppm of cabbage inoculated with L. monocytogenes effectively inactivated all cells after 5 min. The abilities of in vivo catalase and superoxide dismutase to protect the cells from ozone were also examined. Three listerial test strains were inactivated rapidly upon exposure to ozone. Both catalase and superoxide dismutase were found to protect listerial cells from ozone attack, with superoxide dismutase being more important than catalase in this protection.
The assessment of air pollution regulatory programs designed to improve ground level ozone concentrations is a topic of considerable interest to environmental managers. To aid this assessment, it is necessary to model the space-time behavior of ozone for predicting summaries of ozone across spatial domains of interest and for the detection of long-term trends at monitoring sites. These trends, adjusted for the effects of meteorological variables, are needed for determining the effectiveness of pollution control programs in terms of their magnitude and uncertainties across space. This paper proposes a space-time model for daily 8-hour maximum ozone levels to provide input to regulatory activities: detection, evaluation, and analysis of spatial patterns of ozone summaries and temporal trends. The model is applied to analyzing data from the state of Ohio which has been chosen because it contains a mix of urban, suburban, and rural ozone monitoring sites in several large cities separated by large rural areas. The proposed space-time model is auto-regressive and incorporates the most important meteorological variables observed at a collection of ozone monitoring sites as well as at several weather stations where ozone levels have not been observed. This problem of misalignment of ozone and meteorological data is overcome by spatial modeling of the latter. In so doing we adopt an approach based on the successive daily increments in meteorological variables. With regard to modeling, the increment (or change-in-meteorology) process proves more attractive than working directly with the meteorology process, without sacrificing any desired inference. The full model is specified within a Bayesian framework and is fitted using MCMC techniques. Hence, full inference with regard to model unknowns is available as well as for predictions in time and space, evaluation of annual summaries and assessment of trends.
Dynamic model; forecasting/prediction; Markov chain Monte Carlo; misalignment; spatial variability; stationarity