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1.  The Correlation of Brody High Resolution Computed Tomography Scoring System with Clinical Status and Pulmonary Function Test in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis 
Background: To reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to have an effective clinical management, it is important to monitor the progression of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the progression of lung disease in CF patients by means of assessing the correlation of the CT scoring system with clinical status and pulmonary function test at the Pediatric Pulmonary Ward of Masih Daneshvari Hospital in 2008.
Methods: Pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in 23 CF patients using the Brody's scoring system. Morphologic signs as well as the extent and severity of each sign were scored, and the total score was calculated. The correlation of HRCT scores (total score as well as the score for each parameter) with Shwachman Kuczycki scoring system and pulmonary function test were examined.
Results: The study included 9 female and 14 male patients with an age range of 5-23 years (mean: 13.42 years). Bronchiectasis (100%) and peribronchial wall thickening (100%) were the most frequent CT abnormalities. Mucus plugging, air trapping and parenchymal involvements were respectively seen in 95.7%, 91.3% and 47.8% of patients. The overall CT score for all patients was 57.6±24.2 (means±SD). The results of pulmonary function test showed a restrictive pattern; however, in 5.3% of the patients PFT was normal. The overall Shwachman-Kulczycki score was 53.48±13.8. There was a significantly (P=0.015) negative correlation between the total CT score and Shwachman-Kulczycki score; however, there was no significant correlation between total CT score and the results of PFT (P=0.481)
Conclusion: The Brody's scoring system for high resolution computed tomography seems to be a sensitive and efficient method to evaluate the progression of CF, and can be more reliable when we combine the CT scores with clinical parameters.
PMCID: PMC3559112  PMID: 23365473
Clinical status; pulmonary function test; cystic fibrosis
2.  Radiofrequency ablation of a misdiagnosed Brodie’s abscess 
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy is recognised as a safe and effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma. This case report describes a 27-year-old man who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RFA for a femoral osteoid osteoma, which was diagnosed based on his clinical presentation and CT findings. The patient developed worsening symptoms complicated by osteomyelitis after the procedure. His clinical progression and subsequent MRI findings had led to a revised diagnosis of a Brodie’s abscess, which was further supported by the eventual resolution of his symptoms following a combination of antibiotics treatment and surgical irrigations. This case report illustrates the unusual MRI features of osteomyelitis mimicking soft tissue tumours following RFA of a misdiagnosed Brodie’s abscess and highlights the importance of a confirmatory histopathological diagnosis for an osteoid osteoma prior to treatment.
doi:10.2349/biij.7.2.e17
PMCID: PMC3265155  PMID: 22291860
Brodie’s abscess; osteoid osteoma; radiofrequency ablation; misdiagnosis
3.  The Sensitivity of Lung Disease Surrogates in Detecting Chest CT Abnormalities in Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
Pediatric Pulmonology  2011;47(6):567-573.
Rationale
Chest CT scans detect structural abnormalities in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), even when pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are normal. The use of chest CT is limited in clinical practice, because of concerns over expense, increased resource utilization, and radiation exposure. Quantitative chest radiography scores are useful in detecting mild lung disease, but whether they are sensitive to the presence of CT scan abnormalities has not been evaluated.
Objective
To determine in a cross-sectional study if quantitative chest radiography is a more sensitive marker of chest CT abnormalities than other lung disease surrogates.
Methods
Brody chest CT scores were calculated for 81 children enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project. We determined the sensitivity for Wisconsin (WCXR) and Brasfield (BCXR) chest radiography scores, PFTs, positive cultures for P. aeruginosa (PA), and parental report of symptoms to detect a Brody score worse than the median score for study participants.
Measurements and Main Results
The mean FEV1 for the study population was 91% predicted. Abnormal WCXR and BCXR scores had the highest sensitivity to detect a chest CT score worse than the median; abnormal PFTs, parental report of symptoms, and the presence of PA had much lower sensitivity (p<0.001).
Conclusions
In this cross sectional study, quantitative chest radiography has excellent sensitivity to detect an abnormal chest CT and may have a role in monitoring lung disease progression in children with CF.
doi:10.1002/ppul.21621
PMCID: PMC3309112  PMID: 22170734
Chest x-ray; quantitative radiography; pulmonary function
4.  Regional Differences in the Evolution of Lung Disease in Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
Pediatric Pulmonology  2011;47(7):635-640.
SUMMARY
Progression of lung disease is a major event in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but regional differences in its evolution are unclear. We hypothesized that regional differences occur beginning in early childhood. We examined this issue by evaluating 132 patients followed in the Wisconsin Neonatal Screening Project between 1985 and 2010. We scored chest x-rays obtained every 1–2 years with the Wisconsin chest x-ray system, in which we divided the lungs into quadrants, and gave special attention to ratings for bronchiectasis (BX) and nodular/branching opacities. We compared the upper and lower quadrant scores, and upper right and left quadrant scores, as patients aged using a multivariable generalized estimation equation (GEE) model. We did a confirmatory analysis for a subset of 81 patients with chest computerized tomography (CT) images obtained in 2000 and scored using the Brody scoring system. The chest x-ray analysis shows that the upper quadrants have higher BX (p<0.001) and nodular/branching opacities (p<0.001) scores than the lower quadrants. CT analysis likewise reveals that the upper quadrants have more BX (p=0.02). Patients positive for mucoid PA showed significantly higher BX scores than patients with nonmucoid PA (p= 0.001). Chest x-ray scoring also revealed that the upper right quadrant has more BX (p< 0.001) than the upper left quadrant, and CT analysis was again confirmatory (p< 0.001). We conclude that pediatric patients with CF develop more severe lung disease in the upper lobes than the lower lobes in association with mucoid PA infections and also have more severe lung disease on the right side than on the left side in the upper quadrants. A variety of potential explanations such as aspiration episodes may be clinically relevant and provide insights regarding therapies.
doi:10.1002/ppul.21604
PMCID: PMC3310260  PMID: 22162514
cystic fibrosis; lung disease; bronchiectasis; upper lobes; mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5.  Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis 
The availability of sensitive, reproducible, and feasible outcome measures for quantifying lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) younger than 6 years is critical to the conduct of clinical trials in this important population. Historically, identifying and quantifying the presence of lung disease in very young children with CF was hampered by a lack of reproducible measures of lung function or lung pathology. Over the past 10 years, significant progress has led to physiologic, anatomic, and bronchoscopic measures that may serve as endpoints for future intervention trials. These endpoints include infant and preschool lung function testing, computed tomography of the chest, and bronchoalveolar lavage markers of inflammation and infection. Much progress has occurred in standardizing lung function testing, which is essential for multicenter collaboration. Pulmonary exacerbation has the potential to serve as a clinical endpoint; however, there is currently no standardized definition in children with CF younger than 6 years. Further development of these outcomes measures will enable clinical trials in the youngest CF population with the objective of improving long-term prognosis.
doi:10.1513/pats.200703-041BR
PMCID: PMC2647606  PMID: 17652509
infant; child, preschool; respiratory function tests, computed tomography scanners, X-ray; bronchoalveolar lavage
6.  Association of Radiographic Emphysema and Airflow Obstruction with Lung Cancer 
Rationale: To study the relationship between emphysema and/or airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high-risk population.
Objective: We studied lung cancer related to radiographic emphysema and spirometric airflow obstruction in tobacco-exposed persons who were screened for lung cancer using chest computed tomography (CT).
Methods: Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry, and low-dose helical chest CT. CT scans were scored for emphysema based on National Emphysema Treatment Trial criteria. Multiple logistic regressions estimated the independent associations between various factors, including radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction, and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis.
Measurements and Main Results: Among 3,638 subjects, 57.5, 18.8, 14.6, and 9.1% had no, trace, mild, and moderate–severe emphysema, and 57.3, 13.6, 22.8, and 6.4% had no, mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] I), moderate (GOLD II), and severe (GOLD III–IV) airflow obstruction. Of 3,638 subjects, 99 (2.7%) received a lung cancer diagnosis. Adjusting for sex, age, years of cigarette smoking, and number of cigarettes smoked daily, logistic regression showed the expected lung cancer association with the presence of airflow obstruction (GOLD I–IV, odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–3.27). A second logistic regression showed lung cancer related to emphysema (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.21–5.73). After additional adjustments for GOLD class, emphysema remained a strong and statistically significant factor related to lung cancer (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.91–5.15).
Conclusions: Emphysema on CT scan and airflow obstruction on spirometry are related to lung cancer in a high-risk population. Emphysema is independently related to lung cancer. Both radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction should be considered when assessing lung cancer risk.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200803-435OC
PMCID: PMC2556456  PMID: 18565949
emphysema; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; lung cancer
7.  Lung disease assessment in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a comparison between chest high-field magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution computed tomography findings 
Background
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with pulmonary involvement that requires periodical assessment. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has become the method of choice to evaluate chronic lung disease, but entails exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a potential radiation-free technique in several chest disorders. Aim of our study is to evaluate whether high-field MRI is as effective as HRCT in identifying PCD pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the relationships between the severity and extension of lung disease, and functional data.
Methods
Thirteen PCD patients (8 children/5 adults; median age, 15.2 yrs) underwent chest HRCT and high-field 3T MRI, spirometry, and deep throat or sputum culture. Images were scored using a modified version of the Helbich system.
Results
HRCT and MRI total scores were 12 (range, 6–20) and 12 (range, 5–17), respectively. Agreement between HRCT and MRI scores was good or excellent (r > 0.8). HRCT and MRI total scores were significantly related to forced vital capacity (r = -0.5, p = 0.05; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (r = -0.6, p = 0.03; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively).
Conclusion
Chest high-field 3T MRI appears to be as effective as HRCT in assessing the extent and severity of lung abnormalities in PCD. MRI scores might be used for longitudinal assessment and be an outcome surrogate in future studies.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-35-24
PMCID: PMC2737542  PMID: 19660117
8.  Normal expiratory flow rate and lung volumes in patients with combined emphysema and interstitial lung disease: A case series and literature review 
Pulmonary function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern including small lung volumes and increased expiratory flow rates resulting from a reduction in pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. When the diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated, and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. The present report describes 10 patients with progressive breathlessness, three of whom experienced severe limitation in their quality of life. All patients showed lung interstitial involvement and emphysema on computed tomography scan of the chest. The 10 patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange. Normal lung volumes do not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.
PMCID: PMC3267611  PMID: 21969934
Emphysema; Expiratory flow rates; Intersitial lung disease; Lung volumes
9.  Ca2+ homeostasis in Brody's disease. A study in skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells and the effects of dantrolene an verapamil. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1994;94(2):741-748.
Brody's disease, i.e., sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) deficiency, is a rare inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function. Pseudo-myotonia is the most important clinical feature. SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ homeostasis are examined in m. quadriceps and/or cultured muscle cells of controls and 10 patients suffering from Brody's disease. In both m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells of patients, the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity is decreased by approximately 50%. However, the concentration of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and SERCA1 are normal. SERCA1 accounts for 83 and 100% of total SR Ca(2+)-ATPase in m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells, respectively. This implies a reduction of the molecular activity of SERCA1 in Brody's disease. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) at rest and the increase of [Ca2+]i after addition of acetylcholine are the same in cultured muscle cells of controls and patients. The half-life of the maximal response, however, is raised three times in the pathological muscle cells. Addition of dantrolene or verapamil after the maximal response accelerates the restoration of the [Ca2+]i in these muscle cells. The differences in Ca2+ handling disappear by administration of dantrolene or verapamil concomitantly with acetylcholine. The reduced Ca2+ re-uptake from the cytosol presumably due to structural modification(s) of SERCA1 may explain the pseudo-myotonia in Brody's disease. Single cell measurements suggest a beneficial effect of dantrolene or verapamil in treating patients suffering from Brody's disease.
Images
PMCID: PMC296154  PMID: 8040329
10.  Critical evaluation of three chest radiograph scores in cystic fibrosis. 
Thorax  1994;49(9):863-866.
BACKGROUND--A number of chest radiographic scores have been developed to assess the severity of respiratory disease in cystic fibrosis but critical statistical evaluation has been limited. In particular, the chest radiograph component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical score has not previously been validated. Three different chest radiograph scores have been compared and the association between them and lung function tests investigated. METHODS--The interobserver and intraobserver variation of the Brasfield, NIH chest radiograph, and the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) chest radiograph score was assessed by three observers--a paediatric radiologist, a junior and a senior respiratory physician--who independently scored, on separate occasions, 62 chest radiographs randomly selected from three age strata of patients ranging from 7 to 18 years. Lung function tests were available for 61 patients obtained within three months of the chest radiograph. Two way analysis of variance was used to estimate components of variation in scores. RESULTS--Results were similar for the Brasfield and NIH scores, both of which demonstrated greater precision than the RCH score, but the estimated repeatability of the Brasfield and NIH scores can be expected to differ by up to 20% of the maximum score. The reliabilities (intraclass correlation) are all reasonably high at 0.74, 0.73, and 0.61 for the Brasfield, NIH, and RCH scores, respectively. The estimated correlation between radiographic scores and lung function tests, adjusted for attenuation caused by measurement error, showed a similar correlation for all three scoring methods ranging from 0.55 to 0.78. Correlations were slightly greater with FEV1% than FVC%. These correlations are substantial but not high, indicating that a large proportion of the variability in radiographic scores cannot be explained by lung function measurements. CONCLUSIONS--The Brasfield and NIH chest radiograph scores have very similar statistical profiles and can be equally recommended if a chest radiograph score is to be used. The RCH radiographic score appears to be less reliable. The limitations of these scores need to be understood.
PMCID: PMC475172  PMID: 7940423
11.  18F-FDG PET/CT as a potential valuable adjunct to MRI in characterising the Brodie’s abscess 
Chronic osteomyelitis (Brodie’s abscess) is essentially a problem of diagnosis, and there may be considerable difficulty in distinguishing it from other benign and malignant bone lesions. Early diagnosis of Brodie’s abscess is deemed important as the disease has a good curative potential following an appropriate antibiotic treatment. Of late, PET/CT using 18F-FDG is taking a centre stage in the imaging of bone infection though documentation on its role in characterising the feature of Brodie’s abscess is exceedingly scarce. On the other hand, it is well known that MRI imaging plays a very important role in distinguishing abscess loculation from malignancy. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old boy with pain in the right heel for few months. Radiograph of the right foot revealed a lucent focus with sclerotic margin in the right calcaneum. MRI T1-weighted images were inconclusive of penumbra sign to characterise abscess cavity due to the small volume lesion. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan showed multiple small avid lesions at the margin of the sclerotic rim in the right calcaneum. Final diagnosis of Brodie’s abscess with Klebsiella culture was confirmed via bone debridement.
doi:10.2349/biij.6.3.e26
PMCID: PMC3097771  PMID: 21611044
18F-FDG PET/CT; Brodie’s abscess; penumbra
12.  Assessment of hyperinflation in children with cystic fibrosis. 
Thorax  1994;49(11):1164-1166.
BACKGROUND--Radiological estimates of hyperinflation are used in several clinical and radiographic scoring systems for cystic fibrosis, but it is not known if these estimates of hyperinflation are related to measured total lung capacity. METHODS--Comparison was made of independent clinical estimates of hyperinflation from chest radiographs with objective plethysmographic and radiographic measurements of total lung capacity in 25 children with cystic fibrosis. RESULTS--There was good agreement between plethysmographic and radiographic measurements. Clinical estimation correctly predicted the extremes of hyperinflation, but grading was no more than 50% accurate in all other groups. CONCLUSION--The degree of hyperinflation cannot be estimated by inspecting chest radiographs in many children with cystic fibrosis. This does not invalidate the scoring systems, but suggests that a better term than "hyperinflation" should be sought.
Images
PMCID: PMC475283  PMID: 7831636
13.  Radiography, tomosynthesis, CT and MRI in the evaluation of pulmonary cystic fibrosis: an untangling review of the multitude of scoring systems 
Insights into Imaging  2013;4(6):787-798.
Objective
The first radiographic scoring system for pulmonary cystic fibrosis was presented in 1958. Since then a multitude of scoring systems for radiography and computed tomography (CT) have been presented, recently also for tomosynthesis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the current review was to analyse and compare the plethora of scoring systems for cystic fibrosis, especially regarding which scoring components are considered most important.
Methods
Four scoring systems for chest radiography, one for tomosynthesis, eight for CT and one for MRI were compared regarding components evaluated and their terminology; the areas scored; scoring levels; the weighting of each component in percentage of the total score; and the calculations for the final score.
Results
In most radiological scoring systems the lungs are evaluated for increased volume, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, atelectasis and consolidation. In addition, for instance abscesses, bullae, septal thickening, mosaic perfusion, ground glass opacities and air trapping are evaluated in some CT scoring systems. Pleural affection and perfusion defects are scored on MRI.
Conclusions
Bronchiectasis alone, or in combination with mucus plugging, is given the highest weighting in most scoring systems and is thus commonly considered to be the most significant finding when evaluating cystic fibrosis lung disease.
Teaching points
• Scoring of examinations is used for comparison of outcome in studies.
• Scoring of examinations can also be used for monitoring disease progression.
• Cystic fibrosis can be scored on radiography, tomosynthesis, CT or MRI.
• The typical imaging findings of cystic fibrosis depend on the imaging modality used.
• Bronchiectasis is commonly considered the most significant finding when scoring cystic fibrosis.
doi:10.1007/s13244-013-0288-y
PMCID: PMC3846934  PMID: 24065629
Cystic fibrosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Radiography; Tomography, X-ray; Tomography, X-ray computed
14.  Is chest CT useful in newborn screened infants with cystic fibrosis at 1 year of age? 
Thorax  2013;69(4):320-327.
Rationale
Sensitive outcome measures applicable in different centres to quantify and track early pulmonary abnormalities in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) are needed both for clinical care and interventional trials. Chest CT has been advocated as such a measure yet there is no validated scoring system in infants.
Objectives
The objectives of this study were to standardise CT data collection across multiple sites; ascertain the incidence of bronchial dilatation and air trapping in newborn screened (NBS) infants with CF at 1 year; and assess the reproducibility of Brody-II, the most widely used scoring system in children with CF, during infancy.
Methods
A multicentre observational study of early pulmonary lung disease in NBS infants with CF at age 1 year using volume-controlled chest CT performed under general anaesthetic.
Main results
65 infants with NBS-diagnosed CF had chest CT in three centres. Small insignificant variations in lung recruitment manoeuvres but significant centre differences in radiation exposures were found. Despite experienced scorers and prior training, with the exception of air trapping, inter- and intraobserver agreement on Brody-II score was poor to fair (eg, interobserver total score mean (95% CI) κ coefficient: 0.34 (0.20 to 0.49)). Only 7 (11%) infants had a total CT score ≥12 (ie, ≥5% maximum possible) by either scorer.
Conclusions
In NBS infants with CF, CT changes were very mild at 1 year, and assessment of air trapping was the only reproducible outcome. CT is thus of questionable value in infants of this age, unless an improved scoring system for use in mild CF disease can be developed.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204176
PMCID: PMC3963531  PMID: 24132911
15.  Computed tomography in children with cystic fibrosis: a new way to reduce radiation dose 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;91(5):388-390.
Aims
To determine whether the monitoring of respiratory disease progression in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) can be made using six pre‐selected computed tomography (CT) cuts in lieu of the conventional full study.
Methods
Forty one lung CT scans from 21 paediatric patients with CF were analysed. The Bhalla and Nathanson scores of the total lung CT and the six pre‐selected CT cuts were compared.
Results
The Bhalla mean score of the total lung CT evaluated by two radiologists was 5.62. It was 5.36 when just the six pre‐selected sections were evaluated. The difference between means was not statistically significant. The Nathanson mean score of the total lung CT evaluated by both radiologists was 66.11; it was 66.51 when just the six pre‐selected sections were evaluated. The difference between means was not statistically significant. The mean total radiation dose from a single whole lung CT scan was 716.22 mGy.cm. A dose of 250.66 mGy.cm was estimated if only six sections were used, with a reduction in radiation of about 65%.
Conclusion
It is possible to obtain the same radiological information from six pre‐selected CT cuts as it is from a full pulmonary CT scan, thereby markedly reducing radiation exposure for children who will require repeat investigations in the future.
doi:10.1136/adc.2005.077842
PMCID: PMC2082753  PMID: 16449255
computed tomography; cystic fibrosis; radiation; scores
16.  Image Analysis for Cystic Fibrosis: Computer-Assisted Airway Wall and Vessel Measurements from Low-Dose, Limited Scan Lung CT Images 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2012;26(1):82-96.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting genetic disease that affects approximately 30,000 Americans. When compared to those of normal children, airways of infants and young children with CF have thicker walls and are more dilated in high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) imaging. In this study, we develop computer-assisted methods for assessment of airway and vessel dimensions from axial, limited scan CT lung images acquired at low pediatric radiation doses. Two methods (threshold- and model-based) were developed to automatically measure airway and vessel sizes for pairs identified by a user. These methods were evaluated on chest CT images from 16 pediatric patients (eight infants and eight children) with different stages of mild CF related lung disease. Results of threshold-based, corrected with regression analysis, and model-based approaches correlated well with both electronic caliper measurements made by experienced observers and spirometric measurements of lung function. While the model-based approach results correlated slightly better with the human measurements than those of the threshold method, a hybrid method, combining these two methods, resulted in the best results.
doi:10.1007/s10278-012-9476-4
PMCID: PMC3553364  PMID: 22549245
Cystic fibrosis; Computed tomography; Image analysis; Semi-automated measurement
17.  Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(6):915-923.
Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.6.915
PMCID: PMC3678010  PMID: 23772158
Lung Disease, Interstitial; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Bronchioles; Inhalation; Toxin, Biological
18.  MUC5B Promoter Polymorphism and Interstitial Lung Abnormalities 
The New England journal of medicine  2013;368(23):2192-2200.
BACKGROUND
A common promoter polymorphism (rs35705950) in MUC5B, the gene encoding mucin 5B, is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. It is not known whether this polymorphism is associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population.
METHODS
We performed a blinded assessment of interstitial lung abnormalities detected in 2633 participants in the Framingham Heart Study by means of volumetric chest computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the relationship between the abnormalities and the genotype at the rs35705950 locus.
RESULTS
Of the 2633 chest CT scans that were evaluated, interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%). Participants with such abnormalities were more likely to have shortness of breath and chronic cough and reduced measures of total lung and diffusion capacity, as compared with participants without such abnormalities. After adjustment for covariates, for each copy of the minor rs35705950 allele, the odds of interstitial lung abnormalities were 2.8 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 3.9; P<0.001), and the odds of definite CT evidence of pulmonary fibrosis were 6.3 times greater (95% CI, 3.1 to 12.7; P<0.001). Although the evidence of an association between the MUC5B genotype and interstitial lung abnormalities was greater among participants who were older than 50 years of age, a history of cigarette smoking did not appear to influence the association.
CONCLUSIONS
The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was found to be associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population. Although this association was more apparent in older persons, it did not appear to be influenced by cigarette smoking. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005121.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1216076
PMCID: PMC3747636  PMID: 23692170
19.  Pulmonary Outcome Differences in U.S. and French Cystic Fibrosis Cohorts Diagnosed through Newborn Screening 
Background
A comparison of the longitudinal progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients identified through newborn screening (NBS) in cohorts located in two different countries has never been performed and was the primary objective of this study.
Methods
The study included 56 patients in Brittany diagnosed through NBS between 1989 and 1994 and 69 similar patients in Wisconsin between 1985 and 1994. The onset and progression of lung disease was radiographically quantified using the Wisconsin Chest X-ray (WCXR) scoring system. A single pediatric pulmonologist blinded to all identifiers scored the films.
Results
Generalized estimating equation analyses adjusted for age, genotype, sex, pancreatic insufficiency, and meconium ileus showed worse WCXR scores in Brittany patients compared to Wisconsin patients (average score difference=4.48; p<0.001). Percent predicted FEV1 was also worse among Brittany patients (p<0.001).
Conclusions
The finding of milder radiographically-quantified lung disease using the WCXR scoring system, as well as better FEV1 values, may be explained by variations in nutrition, environmental exposures, or healthcare delivery.
doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2009.10.004
PMCID: PMC2818431  PMID: 19926349
cystic fibrosis; Wisconsin; Brittany; chest x-ray; infection; genotype
20.  Bronchoscopic findings in children with non-cystic fibrosis chronic suppurative lung disease 
Thorax  2002;57(11):935-938.
Background: Published data on the frequency and types of flexible bronchoscopic airway appearances in children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and chronic suppurative lung disease are unavailable. The aims of this study were to describe airway appearances and frequency of airway abnormalities and to relate these airway abnormalities to chest high resolution computed tomography (cHRCT) findings in a cohort of children with non-cystic fibrosis chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD).
Methods: Indigenous children with non-cystic fibrosis CSLD (>4 months moist and/or productive cough) were prospectively identified and collected over a 2.5 year period at two paediatric centres. Their medical charts and bronchoscopic notes were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: In all but one child the aetiology of the bronchiectasis was presumed to be following a respiratory infection. Thirty three of the 65 children with CSLD underwent bronchoscopy and five major types of airway findings were identified (mucosal abnormality/inflammation only, bronchomalacia, obliterative-like lesion, malacia/obliterative-like combination, and no macroscopic abnormality). The obliterative-like lesion, previously undescribed, was present in 16.7% of bronchiectatic lobes. Structural airway lesions (bronchomalacia and/or obliterative-like lesion) were present in 39.7% of children. These lesions, when present, corresponded to the site of abnormality on the cHRCT scan.
Conclusions: Structural airway abnormality is commonly found in children with post-infectious bronchiectasis and a new bronchoscopic finding has been described. Airway abnormalities, when present, related to the same lobe abnormality on the cHRCT scan. How these airway abnormalities relate to aetiology, management strategy, and prognosis is unknown.
doi:10.1136/thorax.57.11.935
PMCID: PMC1746234  PMID: 12403874
21.  Potential Applications of Flat-Panel Volumetric CT in Morphologic and Functional Small Animal Imaging1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2005;7(8):730-740.
Abstract
Noninvasive radiologic imaging has recently gained considerable interest in basic and preclinical research for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. In this report, we introduce flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT) as a powerful new tool for noninvasive imaging of different organ systems in preclinical research. The three-dimensional visualization that is achieved by isotropic high-resolution datasets is illustrated for the skeleton, chest, abdominal organs, and brain of mice. The high image quality of chest scans enables the visualization of small lung nodules in an orthotopic lung cancer model and the reliable imaging of therapy side effects such as lung fibrosis. Using contrast-enhanced scans, fpVCT displayed the vascular trees of the brain, liver, and kidney down to the subsegmental level. Functional application of fpVCT in dynamic contrast-enhanced scans of the rat brain delivered physiologically reliable data of perfusion and tissue blood volume. Beyond scanning of small animal models as demonstrated here, fpVCT provides the ability to image animals up to the size of primates.
PMCID: PMC1501886  PMID: 16207475
computed tomography; flat-panel detector; lung carcinoma; fibrosis; perfusion
22.  Cystic fibrosis, atopy, and airways lability. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1978;53(11):873-877.
In a survey of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Avon area, 48 children with CF from 40 families together with 71 of their parents were studied by spirometry, exercise tests, and pinch tests. A control group of 42 young adults was similarly tested; control data for children were taken from previously published work. The prevalence of atopy (any positive prick test) in children with CF was 48%. Sensitivity to grass pollens and house dust mite was no more common in these children (29%) than in a normal population (34%). Hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus was found in 35% of children with CF and was associated with severe lung disease. The parents had a normal pattern and prevalence of atopy. Exercise-induced airways obstruction was present in only 22% of children with CF; its association with severe lung disease rendered interpretation difficult. The parents had a normal response to exercise. Both hypersensitivity to A. fumigatus and exercise-induced airways lability had the features of acquired characteristics. There was nothing in the present study to support the hypothesis that the possession of a CF gene predisposed to atopy.
PMCID: PMC1545283  PMID: 365112
23.  Relationship between the chest radiograph, regional lung function studies, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1981;56(2):106-111.
This study evaluated the accuracy of the interpretation of the chest film in delineating localised abnormalities of ventilation and perfusion, as well as the overall severity of airways obstruction, exercise tolerance, and clinical condition in children with cystic fibrosis. Radiographic findings in various regions of the chest film were compared with the functional values obtained with regional lung function tests which evaluated the arrival and disappearance of boluses of radioactive nitrogen given by inhalation and infusion. While the more severely affected areas on the chest radiograph were found to correlate with similar regions on the lung function tests, as did overall scores, errors occurred in some cases if the x-ray film alone was used as a judge of regional physiological derangement. In addition the degree of airways obstruction, the exercise tolerance on a cycle ergometer, and clinical grading, each correlated significantly with the radiographic score. We conclude that the chest radiograph is a good indicator of the overall severity of the lung disease and that it correlates well with exercise tolerance and clinical condition in cystic fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC1627138  PMID: 7469460
24.  Prospective evaluation of respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis from newborn screening to 5 years of age 
Thorax  2013;68(7):643-651.
Background
Newborn screening allows novel treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) to be trialled in early childhood before irreversible lung injury occurs. As respiratory exacerbations are a potential trial outcome variable, we determined their rate, duration and clinical features in preschool children with CF; and whether they were associated with growth, lung structure and function at age 5 years.
Methods
Respiratory exacerbations were recorded prospectively in Australasian CF Bronchoalveolar Lavage trial subjects from enrolment after newborn screening to age 5 years, when all participants underwent clinical assessment, chest CT scans and spirometry.
Results
168 children (88 boys) experienced 2080 exacerbations, at an average rate of 3.66 exacerbations per person-year; 80.1% were community managed and 19.9% required hospital admission. There was an average increase in exacerbation rate of 9% (95% CI 4% to 14%; p<0.001) per year of age. Exacerbation rate differed by site (p<0.001) and was 26% lower (95% CI 12% to 38%) in children receiving 12 months of prophylactic antibiotics. The rate of exacerbations in the first 2 years was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s z scores. Ever having a hospital-managed exacerbation was associated with bronchiectasis (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.31) in chest CT scans, and lower weight z scores at 5 years of age (coefficient −0.39, 95% CI −0.74 to −0.05).
Conclusions
Respiratory exacerbations in young children are markers for progressive CF lung disease and are potential trial outcome measures for novel treatments in this age group.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202342
PMCID: PMC3711493  PMID: 23345574
Cystic Fibrosis; Bronchiectasis; Respiratory Infection
25.  Association of Lung Function, Chest Radiographs and Clinical Features in Infants with Cystic Fibrosis 
The European respiratory journal  2013;42(6):10.1183/09031936.00138412.
Background
The optimal strategy for monitoring cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease in infancy remains unclear.
Objective
To describe longitudinal associations between infant pulmonary function tests (iPFTs), chest radiograph (CXR) scores and other characteristics.
Methods
CF patients ≤ 24 months old were enrolled in a 10-center study evaluating iPFTs 4 times over a year. CXRs ~1 year apart were scored with the Wisconsin and Brasfield systems. Associations of iPFT parameters with clinical characteristics were evaluated with mixed effects models.
Results
The 100 participants contributed 246 acceptable flow/volume (FEV0.5, FEF75) and 303 acceptable functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements and 171 CXRs. Both Brasfield and Wisconsin CXR scores worsened significantly over the 1 year interval. Worse Wisconsin CXR scores and S. aureus were both associated with hyperinflation (significantly increased FRC) but not with diminished FEV0.5 or FEF75. Parent-reported cough was associated with significantly diminished FEF75 but not with hyperinflation.
Conclusions
In this infant cohort in whom we previously reported worsening in average lung function, CXR scores also worsened over a year. The significant associations detected between both Wisconsin CXR score and S. aureus and hyperinflation, as well as between cough and diminished flows, reinforce the ability of iPFTs and CXRs to detect early CF lung disease.
doi:10.1183/09031936.00138412
PMCID: PMC3795977  PMID: 23722613
cystic fibrosis; imaging; infants; lung function

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