Background and Aims
The timing of cambial reactivation plays an important role in the control of both the quantity and the quality of wood. The effect of localized heating on cambial reactivation in the main stem of a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii × P. grandidentata) was investigated.
Electric heating tape (20–22 °C) was wrapped at one side of the main stem of cloned hybrid poplar trees at breast height in winter. Small blocks were collected from both heated and non-heated control portions of the stem for sequential observations of cambial activity and for studies of the localization of storage starch around the cambium from dormancy to reactivation by light microscopy.
Cell division in phloem began earlier than cambial reactivation in locally heated portions of stems. Moreover, the cambial reactivation induced by localized heating occurred earlier than natural cambial reactivation. In heated stems, well-developed secondary xylem was produced that had almost the same structure as the natural xylem. When cambial reactivation was induced by heating, the buds of trees had not yet burst, indicating that there was no close temporal relationship between bud burst and cambial reactivation. In heated stems, the amount of storage starch decreased near the cambium upon reactivation of the cambium. After cambial reactivation, storage starch disappeared completely. Storage starch appeared again, near the cambium, during xylem differentiation in heated stems.
The results suggest that, in deciduous diffuse-porous hardwood poplar growing in a temperate zone, the temperature in the stem is a limiting factor for reactivation of phloem and cambium. An increase in temperature might induce the conversion of storage starch to sucrose for the activation of cambial cell division and secondary xylem. Localized heating in poplar stems provides a useful experimental system for studies of cambial biology.
Populus sieboldii × Populus grandidentata; localized heating, cambial reactivation; model system; storage starch; xylem differentiation
Background and Aims
Cambial reactivation in trees occurs from late winter to early spring when photosynthesis is minimal or almost non-existent. Reserve materials might be important for wood formation in trees. The localization and approximate levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) and number of starch granules in cambium and phloem were examined from cambial dormancy to the start of xylem differentiation in locally heated stems of Cryptomeria japonica trees in winter.
Electric heating tape was wrapped on one side of the stem of Cryptomeria japonica trees at breast height in winter. The localization and approximate levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) and number of starch granules were determined by image analysis of optical digital images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
Localized heating induced earlier cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of Cryptomeria japonica, as compared with non-heated stems. There were clear changes in the respective localizations and levels of starch and lipids (as droplets) determined in terms of relative areas on images, from cambial dormancy to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems. In heated stems, the levels and number of starch granules fell from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation. There was a significant decrease in the relative area occupied by lipid droplets in the cambium from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems.
The results showed clearly that the levels and number of storage starch granules in cambium and phloem cells and levels of lipids (as droplets) in the cambium decreased from cambial reactivation to the start of xylem differentiation in heated stems during the winter. The observations suggest that starch and lipid droplets might be needed as sources of energy for the initiation of cambial cell division and the differentiation of xylem in Cryptomeria japonica.
Cambial reactivation; confocal laser scanning microscopy; Cryptomeria japonica; lipid; starch; xylem differentiation
Cell-to-cell communication is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms, especially during the generation of new tissues and organs. Secondary growth—the lateral expansion of plant growth axes—is a highly dynamic process that depends on the activity of the cambium. The cambium is a stem cell–like tissue whose activity is responsible for wood production and, thus, for the establishment of extended shoot and root systems. Attempts to study cambium regulation at the molecular level have been hampered by the limitations of performing genetic analyses in trees and by the difficulty of accessing this tissue in model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the roles of two receptor-like kinases, REDUCED IN LATERAL GROWTH1 (RUL1) and MORE LATERAL GROWTH1 (MOL1), as opposing regulators of cambium activity. Their identification was facilitated by a novel in vitro system in which cambium formation is induced in isolated Arabidopsis stem fragments. By combining this system with laser capture microdissection, we characterized transcriptome remodeling in a tissue- and stage-specific manner and identified series of genes induced during different phases of cambium formation. In summary, we provide a means for investigating cambium regulation in unprecedented depth and present two signaling components that control a process responsible for the accumulation of a large proportion of terrestrial biomass.
In contrast to animals, plants have the capacity to grow and form new organs throughout their entire life cycle, thereby building up some of the largest organisms on earth. This remarkable capacity is based on the activity of stem cell–like tissues—the meristems—located at shoot and root apices and, in a large repertoire of species, in lateral positions at the flanks of growth axes. In comparison to apical meristems, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of lateral meristems like the cambium is very limited. This is despite the fact that lateral growth is responsible for wood formation, and thus for the accumulation of large amounts of terrestrial biomass, and for fixation of atmospheric CO2. Here, we introduce an in vitro system by which cambium initiation can be stimulated under controlled conditions in stems of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By revealing genome-wide and tissue-specific alterations in transcript accumulation during cambium initiation, we identify two novel receptor-like kinases, namely MOL1 and RUL1, as opposing cambium regulators. These findings demonstrate that our in vitro system represents a valuable tool for studying cambium regulation and open up possibilities to dissect lateral growth in plants from novel perspectives.
Secondary phloem and xylem tissues are produced through the activity of vascular cambium, the cylindrical secondary meristem which arises among the primary plant tissues. Most dicotyledonous species undergo secondary development, among them Arabidopsis. Despite its small size and herbaceous nature, Arabidopsis displays prominent secondary growth in several organs, including the root, hypocotyl and shoot. Together with the vast genetic resources and molecular research methods available for it, this has made Arabidopsis a versatile and accessible model organism for studying cambial development and wood formation. In this review, we discuss and compare the development and function of the vascular cambium in the Arabidopsis root, hypocotyl, and shoot. We describe the current understanding of the molecular regulation of vascular cambium and compare it to the function of primary meristems. We conclude with a look at the future prospects of cambium research, including opportunities provided by phenotyping and modelling approaches, complemented by studies of natural variation and comparative genetic studies in perennial and woody plant species.
Background and Aims
Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routinely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere.
Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1–9 years per site from 1998 to 2011.
The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern
The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond differently to changes in environmental conditions.
Cambium; cell differentiation; cell production; climate change; conifers; growth; meristem; phenology; productivity; secondary wall formation; xylogenesis
The woody tissue of trees is composed of xylem cells that arise from divisions of stem cells within the cambial meristem. The rate of xylem cell formation is dependent upon the rate of cell division within the cambium and is controlled by both genetic and environmental factors [1, 2]. In the annual plant Arabidopsis, signaling between a peptide ligand CLE41 and a receptor kinase PXY controls cambial cell divisions [3–5]; however, the pathway regulating secondary growth in trees has not been identified. Here, we show that an aspen receptor kinase PttPXY and its peptide ligand PttCLE41 are functional orthologs and act to control a multifunctional pathway that regulates both the rate of cambial cell division and woody tissue organization. Ectopic overexpression of PttPXY and PttCLE41 genes in hybrid aspen resulted in vascular tissue abnormalities and poor plant growth. In contrast, precise tissue-specific overexpression generated trees that exhibited a 2-fold increase in the rate of wood formation, were taller, and possessed larger leaves compared to the controls. Our results demonstrate that the PXY-CLE pathway has evolved to regulate secondary growth and manipulating this pathway can result in dramatically increased tree growth and productivity.
•PXY receptor kinase and CLE peptide signal to regulate radial growth in trees•Engineering PXY-CLE expression can lead to large increases in wood formation•Manipulating PXY-CLE also leads to increased tree height and leaf size•The results can be used to generate trees that are more productive
Etchells et al. show that altering the expression of the poplar homologs of the receptor kinase PXY and its peptide ligand CLE41 results in increased cambial cell division in hybrid aspen. 2-fold increases in the rate of wood formation were observed, demonstrating that engineering PXY/CLE41 signaling offers a means to increase tree productivity.
Background and Aims
Teak forms xylem rings that potentially carry records of carbon sequestration and climate in the tropics. These records are only useful when the structural variations of tree rings and their periodicity of formation are known.
The seasonality of ring formation in mature teak trees was examined via correlative analysis of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and climate throughout 1·5 years. Xylem and phloem differentiation were visualized by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
A 3 month dry season resulted in semi-deciduousness, cambial dormancy and formation of annual xylem growth rings (AXGRs). Intra-annual xylem and phloem growth was characterized by variable intensity. Morphometric features of cambium such as cambium thickness and differentiating xylem layers were positively correlated. Cambium thickness was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall (R2 = 0·7535). In all sampled trees, xylem growth zones (XGZs) were formed within the AXGRs during the seasonal development of new foliage. When trees achieved full leaf, the xylem in the new XGZs appeared completely differentiated and functional for water transport. Two phloem growth rings were formed in one growing season.
The seasonal formation pattern and microstructure of teak xylem suggest that AXGRs and XGZs can be used as proxies for analyses of the tree history and climate at annual and intra-annual resolution.
Growth rings; teak; Tectona grandis; vascular cambium; xylem and phloem formation
Background and Aims
Latewood formation in conifers occurs during the later part of the growing season, when the cell division activity of the cambium declines. Changes in temperature might be important for wood formation in trees. Therefore, the effects of a rapid decrease in temperature on cellular morphology of tracheids were investigated in localized heating-induced cambial reactivation in Cryptomeria japonica trees and in Abies firma seedlings.
Electric heating tape and heating ribbon were wrapped on the stems of C. japonica trees and A. firma seedlings. Heating was discontinued when 11 or 12 and eight or nine radial files of differentiating and differentiated tracheids had been produced in C. japonica and A. firma stems, respectively. Tracheid diameter, cell wall thickness, percentage of cell wall area and percentage of lumen area were determined by image analysis of transverse sections and scanning electron microscopy.
Localized heating induced earlier cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in stems of C. japonica and A. firma as compared with non-heated stems. One week after cessation of heating, there were no obvious changes in the dimensions of the differentiating tracheids in the samples from adult C. japonica. In contrast, tracheids with a smaller diameter were observed in A. firma seedlings after 1 week of cessation of heating. Two or three weeks after cessation of heating, tracheids with reduced diameters and thickened cell walls were found. The results showed that the rapid decrease in temperature produced slender tracheids with obvious thickening of cell walls that resembled latewood cells.
The results suggest that a localized decrease in temperature of stems induces changes in the diameter and cell wall thickness of differentiating tracheids, indicating that cambium and its derivatives can respond directly to changes in temperature.
Cambial activity; conifers; latewood formation; morphology of tracheids; rapid decrease in temperature
Background and Aims
Secondary growth via successive cambia has been intriguing researchers for decades. Insight into the mechanism of growth layer formation is, however, limited to the cellular level. The present study aims to clarify secondary growth via successive cambia in the mangrove species Avicennia marina on a macroscopic level, addressing the formation of the growth layer network as a whole. In addition, previously suggested effects of salinity on growth layer formation were reconsidered.
A 1-year cambial marking experiment was performed on 80 trees from eight sites in two mangrove forests in Kenya. Environmental (soil water salinity and nutrients, soil texture, inundation frequency) and tree characteristics (diameter, height, leaf area index) were recorded for each site. Both groups of variables were analysed in relation to annual number of growth layers, annual radial increment and average growth layer width of stem discs.
Between trees of the same site, the number of growth layers formed during the 1-year study period varied from only part of a growth layer up to four growth layers, and was highly correlated to the corresponding radial increment (0–5 mm year–1), even along the different sides of asymmetric stem discs. The radial increment was unrelated to salinity, but the growth layer width decreased with increasing salinity and decreasing tree height.
A patchy growth mechanism was proposed, with an optimal growth at distinct moments in time at different positions around the stem circumference. This strategy creates the opportunity to form several growth layers simultaneously, as observed in 14 % of the studied trees, which may optimize tree growth under favourable conditions. Strong evidence was provided for a mainly endogenous trigger controlling cambium differentiation, with an additional influence of current environmental conditions in a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability.
Avicenia marina; cambial marking; mangrove; phloem; salinity; secondary growth; successive cambia; xylem
• Background and Aims The effect of heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in part of the stem of Norway spruce (Picea abies) was investigated.
• Methods A heating experiment (23–25 °C) was carried out in spring, before normal reactivation of the cambium, and cooling (9–11 °C) at the height of cambial activity in summer. The cambium, xylem and phloem were investigated by means of light- and transmission electron microscopy and UV-microspectrophotometry in tissues sampled from living trees.
• Key Results Localized heating for 10 d initiated cambial divisions on the phloem side and after 20 d also on the xylem side. In a control tree, regular cambial activity started after 30 d. In the heat-treated sample, up to 15 earlywood cells undergoing differentiation were found to be present. The response of the cambium to stem cooling was less pronounced, and no anatomical differences were detected between the control and cool-treated samples after 10 or 20 d. After 30 d, latewood started to form in the sample exposed to cooling. In addition, almost no radially expanding tracheids were observed and the cambium consisted of only five layers of cells. Low temperatures reduced cambial activity, as indicated by the decreased proportion of latewood. On the phloem side, no alterations were observed among cool-treated and non-treated samples.
• Conclusions Heating and cooling can influence cambial activity and cell differentiation in Norway spruce. However, at the ultrastructural and topochemical levels, no changes were observed in the pattern of secondary cell-wall formation and lignification or in lignin structure, respectively.
Norway spruce; Picea abies; cambium; xylem; phloem; cell differentiation; heating; cooling; light microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; UV-microspectrophotometry
Background and Aims
Studies on xylogenesis focus essentially on the stem, whereas there is basically no information about the intra-annual growth of other parts of the tree. As roots strongly influence carbon allocation and tree development, knowledge of the dynamics of xylem production and maturation in roots at a short time scale is required for a better understanding of the phenomenon of tree growth. This study compared cambial activity and xylem formation in stem and roots in two conifers of the boreal forest in Canada.
Wood microcores were collected weekly in stem and roots of ten Abies balsamea and ten Picea mariana during the 2004–2006 growing seasons. Cross-sections were cut using a rotary microtome, stained with cresyl violet acetate and observed under visible and polarized light. The number of cells in the cambial zone and in differentiation, plus the number of mature cells, was counted along the developing xylem.
Xylem formation lasted from the end of May to the end of September, with no difference between stem and roots in 2004–2005. On the contrary, in 2006 a 1-week earlier beginning of cell differentiation was observed in the stem, with cell wall thickening and lignification in roots ending up to 22 d later than in the stem. Cell production in the stem was concentrated early in the season, in June, while most cell divisions in roots occurred 1 month later.
The intra-annual dynamics of growth observed in stem and roots could be related to the different amount of cells produced by the cambium and the patterns of air and soil temperature occurring in spring.
Abies balsamea; boreal forest; cambium; cell differentiation; cell wall thickening; lignification; Picea mariana; root; stem; xylem
Arabidopsis CyclinD3 genes are revealed as central regulators of cambial cell proliferation and vascular development, which constitutes part of a novel mechanism controlling secondary growth and radial organ size.
A major proportion of plant biomass is derived from the activity of the cambium, a lateral meristem responsible for vascular tissue formation and radial organ enlargement in a process termed secondary growth. In contrast to our relatively good understanding of the regulation of primary meristems, remarkably little is known concerning the mechanisms controlling secondary growth, particularly how cambial cell divisions are regulated and integrated with vascular differentiation. A genetic loss-of-function approach was used here to reveal a rate-limiting role for the Arabidopsis CYCLIN D3 (CYCD3) subgroup of cell-cycle genes in the control of cambial cell proliferation and secondary growth, providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between the cell cycle and vascular development. It is shown that all three CYCD3 genes are specifically expressed in the cambium throughout vascular development. Analysis of a triple loss-of-function CYCD3 mutant revealed a requirement for CYCD3 in promoting the cambial cell cycle since mutant stems and hypocotyls showed a marked reduction in diameter linked to reduced mitotic activity in the cambium. Conversely, loss of CYCD3 provoked an increase in xylem cell size and the expression of differentiation markers, showing that CYCD3 is required to restrain the differentiation of xylem precursor cells. Together, our data show that tight control of cambial cell division through developmental- and cell type-specific regulation of CYCD3 is required for normal vascular development, constituting part of a novel mechanism controlling organ growth in higher plants.
Arabidopsis; cambium; cell cycle; cell division; cell expansion; cyclin D3; inflorescence stem; organ size; secondary growth; vascular development; xylem.
• Background and Aims Physiological and architectural plant models have originally been developed for different purposes and therefore have little in common, thus making combined applications difficult. There is, however, an increasing demand for crop models that simulate the genetic and resource‐dependent variability of plant geometry and architecture, because man is increasingly able to transform plant production systems through combined genetic and environmental engineering.
• Model GREENLAB is presented, a mathematical plant model that simulates interactions between plant structure and function. Dual‐scale automaton is used to simulate plant organogenesis from germination to maturity on the basis of organogenetic growth cycles that have constant thermal time. Plant fresh biomass production is computed from transpiration, assuming transpiration efficiency to be constant and atmospheric demand to be the driving force, under non‐limiting water supply. The fresh biomass is then distributed among expanding organs according to their relative demand. Demand for organ growth is estimated from allometric relationships (e.g. leaf surface to weight ratios) and kinetics of potential growth rate for each organ type. These are obtained through parameter optimization against empirical, morphological data sets by running the model in inverted mode. Potential growth rates are then used as estimates of relative sink strength in the model. These and other ‘hidden’ plant parameters are calibrated using the non‐linear, least‐square method.
• Key Results and Conclusions The model reproduced accurately the dynamics of plant growth, architecture and geometry of various annual and woody plants, enabling 3D visualization. It was also able to simulate the variability of leaf size on the plant and compensatory growth following pruning, as a result of internal competition for resources. The potential of the model’s underlying concepts to predict the plant’s phenotypic plasticity is discussed.
Plant architecture; phenotypic plasticity; demand functions; competition among sinks; source–sink relationships; structural‐functional models
Wounds caused by fire, herbivorism, rock impacts, etc. cause the direct loss of photosynthetic, storage and/or vascular tissue. In addition, they may entail other damages, such as desiccation of the exposed internal parts, or become a gateway to infection by fungi and other pathogens. To successfully overcome such injuries, plants must reorganize their meristems or even differentiate new ones, producing new traumatic tissues to cover the wound and restore the vascular connection.
In this work we analyse the anatomical growth response in conifers after debarking and injuring the vascular cambium, using Pinus canariensis as model species, due to its high wound recovery ability. Conversely to angiosperm woody species, this process is initiated and largely driven by the damaged vascular cambium and not by proliferation in the wound surface. We have detected alterations and switches in the divisions of cambial cells, associated to their position relative to the surface and edges of the wound, resulting in disordered traumatic xylem. We also describe the formation of column-like structures, after girdling, which are in part formed by the proliferation of xylem parenchymatous cells, associated to axial resin ducts.
Abundant resinosis on the wound surface, typical of conifers, is an efficient barrier against opportunistic fungi, insects, etc. but it also hinders the healing process directly from the surface. Thus, wound closure must be largely carried out from the wound margins, being a much slower process, which very often remains unconcluded for long years. This work also describes for the first time the proliferation of inner parenchymatous cells to form column-like structures, which accelerates wound closure in girdled P. canariensis. Irregularities in the surface of the healing edge or column-like structures result in the production of disordered vascular tissues, compromising their future functionality, and which must be overcome through the fast restoration of the proper polarity in vascular cambium.
Wound closure; Vascular cambium; Parenchymatic xylem cells; Conifers
Secondary growth by successive cambia is a rare phenomenon in woody plant species. Only few plant species, within different phylogenetic clades, have secondary growth by more than one vascular cambium. Often, these successive cambia are organised concentrically. In the mangrove genus Avicennia however, the successive cambia seem to have a more complex organisation. This study aimed (i) at understanding the development of successive cambia by giving a three-dimensional description of the hydraulic architecture of Avicennia and (ii) at unveiling the possible adaptive nature of growth by successive cambia through a study of the ecological distribution of plant species with concentric internal phloem.
Avicennia had a complex network of non-cylindrical wood patches, the complexity of which increased with more stressful ecological conditions. As internal phloem has been suggested to play a role in water storage and embolism repair, the spatial organisation of Avicennia wood could provide advantages in the ecologically stressful conditions species of this mangrove genus are growing in. Furthermore, we could observe that 84.9% of the woody shrub and tree species with concentric internal phloem occurred in either dry or saline environments strengthening the hypothesis that successive cambia provide the necessary advantages for survival in harsh environmental conditions.
Successive cambia are an ecologically important characteristic, which seems strongly related with water-limited environments.
Background and Aims
Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion–tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics.
A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations.
The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading.
Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.
Functional–structural plant modelling; functional–structural plant models; Scots pine; Pinus sylvestris; long-distance transport; turgor; xylem tension; unloading; structure; LIGNUM; phloem transport; 3-D model; tree crown; canopy gas exchange
Background and Aims
Cambium reactivation after dormancy and budbreak in deciduous trees requires a supply of mobilized reserve materials. The pathway and mode of transfer of these materials are poorly understood.
Transport of reserve materials during cambium reactivation in Populus nigra was investigated by conventional and immunocytochemical TEM analyses, SDS–PAGE, western blotting and intracellular microinjection of fluorescent dyes.
Proteinaceous compounds stored in vacuoles and protein bodies of vascular cells and ray cells disappeared within 3 weeks after cambial reactivation and budbreak. Some of these proteins (32 kDa, 30 kDa and 15 kDa) were labelled by lectin antibodies in SDS–PAGE. The same antibodies were localized to plasmodesmata (PDs) between phloem parenchyma, ray cells and fusiform cambial cells. In addition, proteinaceous particles were localized inside the cytoplasmic sleeves of these PDs during budbreak. During this period, the functional diameter of PDs was about 2·2 nm which corresponds approximately to the Stokes' radius of the detected 15-kDa protein.
Lectin-like reserve proteins or their degradation products seem to be transferred through PDs of phloem parenchyma and rays during cambial reactivation and budbreak. PD transfer of storage proteins is a novelty which supports the concept of symplasmic nutrient supply to the cambial region.
Cambial region; lectins; plasmodesmal trafficking; Populus nigra ‘italica’; size exclusion limit; storage proteins; vascular tissues
Background and Aims
Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional–structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning.
In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source–sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions.
The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees.
This work provides a new method for characterizing tree structures and biomass allocation that can be used to build a 3D virtual Mongolian Scots pine forest. The work paves the way for bridging the gap between a single-plant model and a stand model.
Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica; functional–structural plant model; canopy architecture; three-dimensional; forest canopy; virtual plant; GreenLab, parameterization
The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n = 2x = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir.
Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb) were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like) correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed.
In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in Chinese fir.
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals.
functional QTL mapping; wood quality traits; Scots pine; multi-locus model; shrinkage estimation
Wood is the end product of secondary vascular system development, which begins from the cambium. The wood formation process includes four major stages: cell expansion, secondary wall biosynthesis, lignification, and programmed cell death. Transcriptional profiling is a rapid way to screen for genes involved in these stages and their transitions, providing the basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms that control this process.
In this study, cDNA microarrays were prepared from a subtracted cDNA library (cambium zone versus leaf) of Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) and employed to analyze the transcriptional profiles during the regeneration of the secondary vascular system, a platform established in our previous study. Two hundred and seven genes showed transcript-level differences at the different regeneration stages. Dramatic transcriptional changes were observed at cambium initiation, cambium formation and differentiation, and xylem development, suggesting that these up- or downregulated genes play important roles in these stage transitions. Transcription factors such as AUX/IAA and PINHEAD, which were previously shown to be involved in meristem and vascular tissue differentiation, were strongly transcribed at the stages when cambial cells were initiated and underwent differentiation, whereas genes encoding MYB proteins and several small heat shock proteins were strongly transcribed at the stage when xylem development begins.
Employing this method, we observed dynamic changes in gene transcript levels at the key stages, including cambium initiation, cambium formation and differentiation, and xylem development, suggesting that these up- or downregulated genes are strongly involved in these stage transitions. Further studies of these genes could help elucidate their roles in wood formation.
Background and Aims
Our knowledge about the influences of environmental factors on tree growth is principally based on the study of dominant trees. However, tree social status may influence intra-annual dynamics of growth, leading to differential responses to environmental conditions. The aim was to determine whether within-stand differences in stem diameters of trees belonging to different crown classes resulted from variations in the length of the growing period or in the rate of cell production.
Cambial activity was monitored weekly in 2006 for three crown classes in a 40-year-old silver-fir (Abies alba) plantation near Nancy (France). Timings, duration and rate of tracheid production were assessed from anatomical observations of the developing xylem.
Cambial activity started earlier, stopped later and lasted longer in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. The onset of cambial activity was estimated to have taken 3 weeks to spread to 90 % of the trees in the stand, while the cessation needed 6 weeks. Cambial activity was more intense in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. It was estimated that about 75 % of tree-ring width variability was attributable to the rate of cell production and only 25 % to its duration. Moreover, growth duration was correlated to tree height, while growth rate was better correlated to crown area.
These results show that, in a closed conifer forest, stem diameter variations resulted principally from differences in the rate of xylem cell production rather than in its duration. Tree size interacts with environmental factors to control the timings, duration and rate of cambial activity through functional processes involving source–sink relationships principally, but also hormonal controls.
Cambial activity; forest-stand structure; silver fir (Abies alba); tree-ring formation; tree-to-tree competition; social status; wood anatomy; xylem cell differentiation
Trees in temperate zones show periodicity by alternating active and dormant states to adapt to environmental conditions. Although phytohormones and transcriptional regulation were found to be involved in growth cessation and dormancy transition, little is known about the mechanisms of the dormancy-active growth transition, especially dormancy maintenance and release. Small RNAs are a group of short non-coding RNAs regulating gene expressions at the post-transcriptional level during plant development and the responses to environmental stress. No report on the expression profiling of small RNAs in the cambial meristem during the dormancy-active growth transition has been reported to date.
Three small RNA libraries from the cambium of poplar, representing endodormancy induced by short day conditions, ecodormancy induced by chilling and active growth induced by long day conditions, respectively, were generated and sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. This yielded 123 known microRNAs (miRNAs) with significant expression changes, which included developmental-, phytohormone- and stress-related miRNAs. Interestingly, miR156 and miR172 showed opposite expression patterns in the cambial dormancy-active growth transition. Additionally, miR160, which is involved in the auxin signaling pathway, was expressed specifically during endodormancy release by chilling. Furthermore, 275 novel miRNAs expressed in the cambial zone were identified, and 34 of them had high detection frequencies and unique expression patterns. Finally, the target genes of these novel miRNAs were predicted and some were validated experimentally by 5′RACE.
Our results provided a comprehensive analysis of small RNAs in the cambial meristem during dormancy-release at the genome-wide level and novel evidence of miRNAs involved in the regulation of this biological process.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0267-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cambium; Chilling; Ecodormancy; Endodormancy; MiRNAs; Poplar
1. The adjacent, undifferentiated, uninucleated cells of the lateral meristem or cambium are of two distinct shapes and sizes: (1) small, more or less isodiametric initials which are of the same general order of magnitude as the cells of the terminal meristem and embryo; and (2) large, elongated initials which in certain cases may attain a length of more than 10,000 micra and a volume of 10,000,000 cubic micra. The large initials may be induced to divide to form small initials, and the latter to regenerate elongated cells of normal dimensions. Thus, the cambium affords an unusually favorable medium for the study of a number of fundamental physiological and cytological problems. 2. A study of the cambium reveals the fact that there is a very-much greater variability in the size of meristematic cells in plants than was suspected by Sachs or Strasburger, and that the working sphere of the nucleus is by no means so restricted as assumed by these investigators. 3. Although the larger cambial initials of Pinus strobus tend to have larger nuclei, the nucleocytoplasmic-relation varies within wide limits and the diploid number of chromosomes is constant. The conditions in the cambium do not support Winkler's view that there is a close correlation between chromosomal number (chromosomal mass) and cell size in the somatic tissue of plants, and that giant cells are hyperchromatic. 4. The process of cell plate formation in the cambium is a remarkable phenomenon, and one which is significant in discussing the relative merits of various theories concerning the dynamics of karyokinesis and cytokinesis. 5. The newly formed partition membranes in the cambial initials frequently intersect the side walls at angles of varying degrees of acuteness, which is in contradiction to Errera's (Plateau's) Law of Minimal Area.
Background and Aims
Alterations of plasmodesma (PD) connectivity are likely to be very important for plant development. Here, the repetitive division pattern of cambial initials in Populus nigra ‘italica’ was studied to follow the development of the PD network during maturation. Furthermore, seasonal changes were investigated in order to trace indications for developmental and functional adaptations.
Cambium samples of P. nigra twigs, collected in summer, autumn and spring, were chemically fixed for transmission electron microscopy. The parameters, PD density (number of PDs per square micrometre cell-wall area) and PD frequency (total number of PDs per average cell-wall area), were determined for radial and tangential cell interfaces deposited in chronological order.
Data sets, presented in plasmodesmograms, show a strong variability in the PD network throughout the year. In summer, high PD numbers occur at the division wall which, after PD doubling by longitudinal fission, decline with further development both at the xylem and the phloem side. In autumn, the number of PDs at the division wall is low as they are in subsequent tangential interfaces. In spring, the first cell division coincides with a massive increase in PD numbers, in particular at the division wall. Only the radial walls between initials maintain their PD equipment throughout the year. This feature can be exploited for identification of the initial layer.
PD networks in the cambium go through a strict developmental programme depending on the season, which is associated with changing functional requirements. For instance, PD numbers correlate with proliferative activity and potential pathways for intercellular signalling. Increases in PD numbers are ascribed to longitudinal fission as a major mechanism, whereas the decline in older derivatives is ascribed to PD degradation.
Cambium; meristem initials; plasmodesmata; Populus nigra ‘italica’; seasonal conditions; ultrastructure