An effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will very likely have to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses to control HIV-1 strains of diverse geographic and genetic origins. We have utilized a pathogenic chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) rhesus macaque animal model system to evaluate the protective efficacy of a vaccine regimen that uses recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV-1 structural proteins in combination with intact inactivated SIV and HIV-1 particles. Following virus challenge, control animals experienced a rapid and complete loss of CD4+ T cells, sustained high viral loads, and developed clinical disease by 17 to 21 weeks. Although all of the vaccinated monkeys became infected, they displayed reduced postpeak viremia, had no significant loss of CD4+ T cells, and have remained healthy for more than 15 months postinfection. CD8+ T-cell and neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated animals following challenge were demonstrable. Despite the control of disease, virus was readily isolated from the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all vaccinees at 22 weeks postchallenge, indicating that immunologic control was incomplete. Virus recovered from the animal with the lowest postchallenge viremia generated high virus loads and an irreversible loss of CD4+ T-cell loss following its inoculation into a naïve animal. These results indicate that despite the protection from SHIV-induced disease, the vaccinated animals still harbored replication-competent and pathogenic virus.
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of humans result in variable but generally fatal disease outcomes. Most SIV-infected macaques progress to AIDS over a period of 1 to 3 years, in the face of robust SIV-specific immune responses (conventional progressors [CP]). A small number of SIV-inoculated macaques mount transient immune responses and progress rapidly to AIDS (rapid progressors [RP]). We speculated that the underlying pathogenic mechanisms may differ between RP and CP macaques. We compared the pathological lesions, virus loads, and distribution of virus and target cells in SIVsmE660- or SIVsmE543-infected RP and CP rhesus macaques at terminal disease. RP macaques developed a wasting syndrome characterized by severe SIV enteropathy in the absence of opportunistic infections. In contrast, opportunistic infections were commonly observed in CP macaques. RP and CP macaques showed distinct patterns of CD4+ T-cell depletion, with a selective loss of memory cells in RP macaques and a generalized (naive and memory) CD4 depletion in CP macaques. In situ hybridization demonstrated higher levels of virus expression in lymphoid tissues (P < 0.001) of RP macaques and a broader distribution to include many nonlymphoid tissues. Finally, SIV was preferentially expressed in macrophages in RP macaques whereas the primary target cells in CP macaques were T lymphocytes at end stage disease. These data suggest distinct pathogenic mechanisms leading to the deaths of these two groups of animals, with CP macaques being more representative of HIV-induced AIDS in humans.
The development of an effective AIDS vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in HIV research. The live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Oka vaccine, safe and effective for prevention of chickenpox and zoster, also has potential as a recombinant vaccine against other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The simian varicella model, utilizing simian varicella virus (SVV), offers an approach to evaluate recombinant varicella vaccine candidates. Recombinant SVV (rSVV) vaccine viruses expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env and gag antigens were constructed. The hypothesis tested was that a live, attenuated rSVV-SIV vaccine will induce immune responses against SIV in the rhesus macaques and provide protection against SIV challenge. The results demonstrated that rSVV-SIV vaccination induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to SIV in immunized rhesus macaques and significantly reduced viral loads following intravenous challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251-CX-1.
Simian varicella virus; Varicella-zoster virus; Simian immunodeficiency virus
Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogencity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by 20 weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.
SIV; DNA vaccine; vif; immunogenicity
Live attenuated simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), such as nef deletion mutants, are the most effective vaccines tested in the SIV-macaque model so far. To modulate the antiviral immune response induced by live attenuated SIV vaccines, we had previously infected rhesus monkeys with a nef deletion mutant of SIV expressing interleukin 2 (SIV-IL2) (B. R. Gundlach, H. Linhart, U. Dittmer, S. Sopper, S. Reiprich, D. Fuchs, B. Fleckenstein, G. Hunsmann, S. Stahl-Hennig, and K. Überla, J. Virol. 71:2225–2232, 1997). In the present study, SIV-IL2-infected macaques and macaques infected with the nef deletion mutant SIVΔNU were challenged with pathogenic SIV 9 to 11 months postvaccination. In contrast to the results with naive control monkeys, no challenge virus could be isolated from the SIV-IL2- and SIVΔNU-infected macaques. However, challenge virus sequences could be detected by nested PCR in some of the vaccinated macaques. To determine the role of immune responses directed against Env of SIV, four vaccinated macaques were rechallenged with an SIV-murine leukemia virus (MLV) hybrid in which the env gene of SIV had been functionally replaced by the env gene of amphotropic MLV. All vaccinated macaques were protected from productive infection with the SIV-MLV hybrid in the absence of measurable neutralizing antibodies, while two naive control monkeys were readily infected. Since the SIV-MLV hybrid uses the MLV Env receptor Pit2 and not CD4 and a coreceptor for virus entry, chemokine inhibition and receptor interference phenomena were not involved in protection. These results indicate that the protective responses induced by live attenuated SIV vaccines can be independent of host immune reactions directed against Env.
Despite comparable levels of virus replication, simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) infection is non-pathogenic in natural hosts, such as sooty mangabeys (SM), whereas it is pathogenic in non-natural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM). Comparative studies of pathogenic and non-pathogenic SIV infection can thus shed light on the role of specific factors in SIV pathogenesis. Here, we determine the impact of target-cell limitation, CD8+ T cells, and Natural Killer (NK) cells on virus replication in the early SIV infection. To this end, we fit previously published data of experimental SIV infections in SMs and RMs with mathematical models incorporating these factors and assess to what extent the inclusion of individual factors determines the quality of the fits. We find that for both rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, target-cell limitation alone cannot explain the control of early virus replication, whereas including CD8+ T cells into the models significantly improves the fits. By contrast, including NK cells does only significantly improve the fits in SMs. These findings have important implications for our understanding of SIV pathogenesis as they suggest that the level of early CD8+ T cell responses is not the key difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic SIV infection.
Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) are typically non-pathogenic in their natural hosts. However, if the same virus infects a non-natural host it often leads to AIDS-like symptoms. Therefore, comparing SIV infections in these two types of host might help explain the pathogenesis of SIV in non-natural hosts and thereby also that of HIV. We combined mathematical modeling with data on the levels of virus and immune cells early in infection, and compared both non-pathogenic SIV infections of sooty mangabeys and pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques with respect to how the virus grows in them and to what extent it is controlled by the immune system. We found that the impact of the immune system on early virus replication is remarkably similar in both species. In particular, for both species virus replication can only be explained by the effect of CD8+ T cells. These findings have important implications for our understanding of SIV pathogenesis as they suggest that the impact of the early immune responses is not the key difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic SIV infection.
Sooty mangabeys are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that remain asymptomatic and do not exhibit increased immune activation or increased T-lymphocyte turnover despite sustained high levels of SIV viremia. In this study we asked whether an altered immune response to SIV contributes to the lack of immunopathology in sooty mangabeys as opposed to species with pathogenic lentivirus infection. SIV-specific cellular immune responses were investigated in a cohort of 25 sooty mangabeys with natural SIV infection. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses targeting a median of four SIV proteins were detected in all 25 mangabeys and were comparable in magnitude to those of 13 rhesus macaques infected with SIVmac251 for more than 6 months. As with rhesus macaques, Th2 ELISPOT responses to SIV were absent or >10-fold lower than the IFN-γ ELISPOT response to the same SIV protein. The SIV-specific ELISPOT response was predominantly mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes; the frequency of circulating SIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes ranged between 0.11% and 3.26% in 13 mangabeys. Functionally, the SIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were cytotoxic; secreted IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β; and had an activated effector phenotype. Although there was a trend toward higher frequencies of SIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in mangabeys with lower viral loads, a significant inverse correlation between SIV viremia and SIV-specific cellular immunity was not detected. The consistent detection of Th1-type SIV-specific cellular immune responses in naturally infected sooty mangabeys suggests that immune attenuation is neither a feature of nor a requirement for maintenance of nonpathogenic SIV infection in its natural host.
Sexual transmission of HIV is the most common route of HIV transmission throughout the world. To prevent sexually transmitted HIV infection, a vaccine is urgently needed. A previous report demonstrated the targeted immunization of the iliac lymph nodes with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) subunits protects rhesus macaques from rectal challenge with SIV. We sought to determine whether this immunization strategy could protect rhesus macaques from vaginal challenge with SIV.
Macaques were immunized with either whole-killed SIV or envelope and core subunit antigen vaccines. Using three independent groups, with three macaques in each group, macaques were immunized by the targeted iliac lymph-node (TILN) route, injecting the vaccine close to the iliac lymph nodes that drain the genital tract.
The TILN immunization procedure induced high-titer SIV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies in serum in all animals and anti-SIV IgG and IgA antibodies in the cervicovaginal secretions of most animals. After a series of three or four TILN immunizations, the animals were intravaginally challenged with SIVmac251. All animals became virus isolation-positive, except one animal immunized with SIV p27 and gp120. This animal was virus isolation-negative but SIV DNA proviral sequences were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
In this series of studies, reliable protection from vaginal transmission of SIV was not achieved by the TILN immunization procedure.
Targeted iliac lymph node; simian immunodeficiency virus; intravaginal challenge; rhesus macaques; vaginal immunity
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques is a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SIV vector with a deletion in the nef gene (SIV(delta nef)) and expressing gamma interferon (SIV(HyIFN)) (L. Giavedoni and T. Yilma, J. Virol. 70:2247-2251, 1996). We now show that rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIV(HyIFN) have a lower viral load than a group similarly immunized with SIV(delta nef). Viral loads remained low in the SIV(HyIFN)-vaccinated group even though SIV expressing gamma interferon could not be isolated after 6 weeks postimmunization in these animals. All immunized and two naive control macaques became infected when challenged with virulent SIV(mac251), at 25 weeks postvaccination. In contrast to the two naive controls that died by 12 and 18 weeks postchallenge, all vaccinated animals remained healthy for more than 32 weeks. In addition, postchallenge cell-associated virus load was significantly lower in SIV(HyIFN)-immunized animals than in the group vaccinated with SIV(delta nef). These findings indicate that cytokine-expressing viruses can provide a novel approach for development of safe and efficacious live attenuated vaccines for AIDS.
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge of rhesus macaques provides a relevant model for the assessment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategies. To ensure that all macaques become infected, the vaccinees and controls are exposed to large doses of pathogenic SIV. These nonphysiological high-dose challenges may adversely affect vaccine evaluation by overwhelming potentially efficacious vaccine responses. To determine whether a more physiologically relevant low-dose challenge can initiate infection and cause disease in Indian rhesus macaques, we used a repeated low-dose challenge strategy designed to reduce the viral inoculum to more physiologically relevant doses. In an attempt to more closely mimic challenge with HIV, we administered repeated mucosal challenges with 30, 300, and 3,000 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of pathogenic SIVmac239 to six animals in three groups. Infection was assessed by sensitive quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and was achieved following a mean of 8, 5.5, and 1 challenge(s) in the 30, 300, and 3,000 TCID50 groups, respectively. Mortality, humoral immune responses, and peak plasma viral kinetics were similar in five of six animals, regardless of challenge dose. Interestingly, macaques challenged with lower doses of SIVmac239 developed broad T-cell immune responses as assessed by ELISPOT assay. This low-dose repeated challenge may be a valuable tool in the evaluation of potential vaccine regimes and offers a more physiologically relevant regimen for pathogenic SIVmac239 challenge experiments.
This chapter summarizes advances in the following areas: (1) dendritic cell (DC)-mediated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission, (2) role of DCs in innate and adaptive immunity against SIV, and (3) approaches to harness DC function to induce anti-SIV responses. The nonhuman primate (NHP) model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in rhesus macaques and other Asian NHP species is highly relevant to advance the understanding of virus–host interactions critical for transmission and disease pathogenesis. HIV infection is associated with changes in frequency, phenotype, and function of the two principal subsets of DCs, myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. DC biology during pathogenic SIV infection is strikingly similar to that observed in HIV-infected patients. The NHP models provide an opportunity to dissect the requirements for DC-driven SIV infection and to understand how SIV distorts the DC system to its advantage. Furthermore, the SIV model of mucosal transmission enables the study of the earliest events of infection at the portal of entry that cannot be studied in humans, and, importantly, the involvement of DCs. Nonpathogenic infection in African NHP hosts allows investigations into the role of DCs in disease control. Understanding how DCs are altered during SIV infection is critical to the design of therapeutic and preventative strategies against HIV.
Achieving humoral immunity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major obstacle in AIDS vaccine development. Despite eliciting robust humoral responses to HIV, exposed hosts rarely produce broadly neutralizing antibodies. The present study utilizes simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to identify viral epitopes that conferred antibody neutralization to clone SIV/17E-CL, an in vivo variant derived from neutralization resistant SIVmac239. Neutralization assays using rhesus macaque monoclonal antibodies were performed on viruses engineered to express single or multiple amino acid mutations. Results identified a single amino acid mutation, P334R, in the carboxy-terminal half of the V3 loop as a critical residue that induced neutralization while retaining normal glycoprotein expression on the surface of the virus. Furthermore, the R334 residue yielded neutralization sensitivity by antibodies recognizing diverse conformational and linear epitopes of gp120, suggesting that neutralization phenotype was a consequence of global structural changes of the envelope protein rather than a specific site epitope.
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are a critical effector component of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and play an important role in mucosal immunity as well as in the maintenance of the epithelial cell integrity and barrier function. The objective of this study was to determine whether simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques would cause alterations in the immunophenotypic profiles of IEL and their mitogen-specific cytokine (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and MIP-1β) responses (by flow cytometry) and virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity (by the chromium release assay). Virally infected IEL were detected through the entire course of SIV infection by in situ hybridization. Severe depletion of CD4+ single-positive and CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells occurred early in primary SIV infection, which was coincident with an increased prevalence of CD8+ T cells. This was in contrast to a gradual depletion of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. The CD8+ IEL were the primary producers of IFN-γ and MIP-1β and were found to retain their potential to produce both IFN-γ and MIP-1β through the entire course of SIV infection. SIV-specific CTL activity was detected in primary IEL at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-SIV infection. These results demonstrated that IEL may be involved in generating antiviral immune responses early in SIV infection and in suppressing viral infection thereafter. Alterations in homeostasis in epithelia due to severe CD4+ T-cell depletion accompanied by changes in the cytokine and chemokine production by IEL may play a role in the enteropathogenesis of SIV infection.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are potent producers of alpha interferon (IFN-α) in response to enveloped viruses and provide a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Although the loss of peripheral blood PDC function and numbers has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progression in humans, a suitable animal model is needed to study the effects of immunodeficiency virus infection on PDC function. The rhesus macaque SIV model closely mimics human HIV infection, and recent studies have identified macaque PDC, potentially making the macaque a good model to study PDC regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that peripheral blood PDC from healthy macaques are both phenotypically and functionally similar to human PDC and that reagents used for human studies can be used to study macaque PDC. Both human and macaque PBMC expressed IFN-α in response to herpes simplex virus (HSV), the prototypical activator of PDC, as measured by using an IFN bioassay and IFN-α-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Similar to human PDC, macaque PDC were identified by using flow cytometry as CD123+ HLA-DR+ lineage− cells. In addition, like human PDC, macaque PDC expressed intracellular IFN-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β/CCL4, and IFN-inducible protein 10/CXCL10 upon stimulation with HSV, all as determined by intracellular flow cytometry. We found that IFN regulatory factor 7, which is required for the expression of IFN-α genes, was, similar to human PDC, expressed at high levels in macaque PDC compared to monocytes and CD8+ T cells. These findings establish the phenotypic and functional similarity of human and macaque PDC and confirm the utility of tools developed for studying human PDC in this animal model.
Whereas several recent AIDS vaccine strategies have protected rhesus macaques against a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P challenge, similar approaches have provided only modest, transient reductions in viral burden after challenge with virulent, pathogenic SIV, which is more representative of HIV infection of people. We show here that priming with replicating adenovirus recombinants encoding SIV env/rev, gag, and/or nef genes, followed by boosting with SIV gp120 or an SIV polypeptide mimicking the CD4 binding region of the envelope, protects rhesus macaques from intrarectal infection with the highly pathogenic SIVmac251. Using trend analysis, significant reductions in acute-phase and set point viremia were correlated with anti-gp120 antibody and cellular immune responses, respectively. Within immunization groups exhibiting significant protection, a subset (39%) of macaques have exhibited either no viremia, cleared viremia, or controlled viremia at the threshold of detection, now more than 40 weeks postchallenge. This combination prime-boost strategy, utilizing replication competent adenovirus, is a promising alternative for HIV vaccine development.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef downregulates HLA-A and -B molecules, but not HLA-C or -E molecules, based on amino acid differences in their cytoplasmic domains to simultaneously evade cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer cell surveillance. Rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys express orthologues of HLA-A, -B, and -E, but not HLA-C, and many of these molecules have unique amino acid differences in their cytoplasmic tails. We found that these differences also resulted in differential downregulation by primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsmm/mac and HIV-2 Nef alleles. Thus, selective major histocompatibility complex class I downregulation is a conserved mechanism of immune evasion for pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques and nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys.
Adaptive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses have been associated with control of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) replication. Here, we have designed a study with Indian rhesus macaques to more directly assess the role of CD8 SIV-specific responses in control of viral replication. Macaques were immunized with a DNA prime-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-SIV boost regimen under normal conditions or under conditions of antibody-induced CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Depletion of CD4+ cells was performed in the immunized macaques at the peak of SIV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses following the DNA prime dose. A group of naïve macaques was also treated with the anti-CD4 depleting antibody as a control, and an additional group of macaques immunized under normal conditions was depleted of CD8+ T cells prior to challenge exposure to SIVmac251. Analysis of the quality and quantity of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells demonstrated that SIV-specific CD8+ T cells generated under conditions of CD4+ T-cell deficiency expressed low levels of Bcl-2 and interleukin-2 (IL-2), and plasma virus levels increased over time. Depletion of CD8+ T cells prior to challenge exposure abrogated vaccine-induced protection as previously shown. These data support the notion that adaptive CD4+ T cells are critical for the generation of effective CD8+ T-cell responses to SIV that, in turn, contribute to protection from AIDS. Importantly, they also suggest that long-term protection from disease will be afforded only by T-cell vaccines for HIV that provide a balanced induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and protect against early depletion of CD4+ T cells postinfection.
The pathogenicity of the primate lentiviruses, human and simian immunodeficiency viruses, is host-specific. Previous studies indicated that the highly pathogenic human lentivirus HIV-1 has markedly reduced pathogenicity compared to the pathogenic simian lentivirus SIV in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). We therefore hypothesized that the pigtail macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) would respond differently to infections of HIV-1 and pathogenic SIV. To elucidate the cellular responses to the infections of HIV-1 and SIV, we infected mPBMC with these two viruses. Like infections in vivo, HIV-1 and SIV demonstrated distinct replication kinetics in mPBMCs, with HIV-1 replicating at significantly lower levels. Similarly, gene expression profiling facilitated by macaque-specific oligonucleotide microarrays also revealed distinct expression patterns of genes between the HIV-1 and SIV infected mPBMCs; in particular, genes associated with the antigen presentation, T-cell receptor, ERK/MAPK signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and natural killer cell signaling pathways were differentially regulated between these two viruses. Most interestingly, despite the lower levels of replication, HIV-1 triggered a more robust regulation of immune response genes early after infection; the converse was true in SIV-infected mPBMCs. Our results therefore suggest that macaques may be controlling the infection of HIV-1 at an early stage through coordinated regulation of host defense pathways.
HIV-1; SIV; Macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Microarray; Gene expression
Purpose of review
Significant gastrointestinal pathology occurs in progressive HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. This review will examine the relationship between the detrimental events to the gastrointestinal tract during the acute phase of infection and disease progression through the chronic phase and, ultimately, AIDS.
Gastrointestinal tract CD4 T cells are dramatically depleted in acutely HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques, sooty mangabeys, and African green monkeys. In addition, HIV infection of humans and SIV-infection of rhesus macaques are characterized by enteropathy and increased intestinal permeability. While SIV-infected rhesus macaques and HIV-infected humans manifest chronic and systemic immune activation and microbial translocation, and progress to chronic infection and AIDS, however, SIV-infected sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys do not.
Recent studies have increased our understanding of the mechanisms that relate structural and immunological damage to the gastrointestinal tract during the acute phase of HIV/SIV infection to immune activation and disease progression in the chronic phase.
gastrointestinal depletion; immune activation; microbial translocation; natural infection
Vaccines for lentiviruses would ideally induce in the host complete resistance to infection of host cells. However, such sterilizing immunity may be neither readily achievable nor absolutely necessary to provide protection from exposure to the immunodeficiency viruses. To examine the nature of protective immunity to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we studied three macaques that had been immunized with a recombinant vaccinia virus-based SIV subunit vaccine regimen and exhibited protection from a challenge with cell-free SIV (MNE) as determined by viral cultures, serology, and PCR for viral genomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from the protected macaques and analyzed for CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to SIV proteins. CTL reactive to SIV proteins not included in the subunit vaccine, and thus to which these animals had not been exposed prior to challenge, were detected postchallenge in the vaccine-protected animals and persisted for up to 1 year. These CTL, as reflected by studies of cytolytic lines and derived T-cell clones, were CD8+, did not recognize allogeneic targets, and recognized the SIV proteins in the context of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules. The frequency of precursor CD8+ CTL reactive to SIV proteins was determined by limiting-dilution analysis and demonstrated that the responses elicited following challenge of protected animals to SIV proteins not present in the vaccine were quantitatively similar to those of animals persistently infected with SIV. The presence of these CD8+ CTL responses to SIV proteins present only in the challenge virus suggests that infection of some host cells occurred postchallenge. These results suggest that the development of a low level of SIV infection following exposure of vaccinated hosts to SIV does not preclude protection from lethal SIV disease by vaccine-induced immunity.
Recent recombinant viral vector-based AIDS vaccine trials inducing cellular immune responses have shown control of CXCR4-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication but difficulty in containment of pathogenic CCR5-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus macaques. In contrast, controlled infection of live attenuated SIV/SHIV can confer the ability to contain SIV superchallenge in macaques. The specific immune responses responsible for this control may be induced by live virus infection but not consistently by viral vector vaccination, although those responses have not been determined. Here, we have examined in vitro anti-SIV efficacy of CD8+ cells in rhesus macaques that showed prophylactic viral vector vaccine-based control of CXCR4-tropic SHIV89.6PD replication. Analysis of the effect of CD8+ cells obtained at several time points from these macaques on CCR5-tropic SIVmac239 replication in vitro revealed that CD8+ cells in the chronic phase after SHIV challenge suppressed SIV replication more efficiently than those before challenge. SIVmac239 superchallenge of two of these macaques at 3 or 4 years post-SHIV challenge was contained, and the following anti-CD8 antibody administration resulted in transient CD8+ T-cell depletion and appearance of plasma SIVmac239 viremia in both of them. Our results indicate that CD8+ cells acquired the ability to efficiently suppress SIV replication by controlled SHIV infection, suggesting the contribution of CD8+ cell responses induced by controlled live virus infection to containment of HIV/SIV superinfection.
Humans in contact with macaques risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses.
The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), simian virus 40 (SV40), simian retrovirus (SRV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Antibody seroprevalence was 94.9% to RhCMV (37/39), 89.7% to SV40 (35/39), 64.1% to CHV-1 (25/39), and 97.4% to SFV (38/39). Humans who come into contact with macaques at Swoyambhu risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses. We discuss implications for public health and primate management strategies that would reduce contact between humans and primates.
simian retrovirus; simian T-cell lymphotropic virus; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1; simian foamy virus; SV40; RhCMV; Macaca; primate zoonoses; Asia; temple monkeys; Nepal
Adult rhesus macaques infected with nef-defective simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) exhibit extremely low levels of steady-state virus replication, do not succumb to immunodeficiency disease, and are protected from experimental challenge with pathogenic isolates of SIV. Similarly, rare humans found to be infected with nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants display exceptionally low viral burdens and do not show evidence of disease progression after many years of infection. HIV-1 Nef induces the rapid endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of cell surface CD4 and enhances virus infectivity in primary human T cells and macrophages. Although expression of SIV Nef also leads to down-modulation of cell surface CD4 levels, no evidence for SIV Nef-induced enhancement of virus infectivity was observed in earlier studies. Thus, it remains unclear whether fundamental differences exist between the activities of HIV-1 and SIV Nef. To establish more clearly whether the SIV and HIV-1 nef gene products are functionally analogous, we compared the replication kinetics and infectivity of variants of SIVmac239 that either do (SIVnef+) or do not (SIV delta nef) encode intact nef gene products. SIVnef+ replicates more rapidly than nef-defective viruses in both human and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). As previously described for HIV-1 Nef, SIV Nef also enhances virus infectivity within each cycle of virus replication. As a strategy for evaluating the in vivo contribution of HIV-1 nef alleles and long terminal repeat regulatory sequences to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency disease, we constructed SIV-HIV chimeras in which the nef coding and U3 regulatory regions of SIVmac239 were replaced by the corresponding regions from HIV-1/R73 (SIVR7nef+). SIVR7nef+ displays enhanced infectivity and accelerated replication kinetics in primary human and rhesus PBMC infections compared to its nef-defective counterpart. Converse chimeras, containing SIV Nef in an HIV-1 background (R7SIVnef+) also exhibit greater infectivity than matched nef-defective viruses (R7SIV delta nef). These data indicate that SIV Nef, like that of HIV-1, does enhance virus replication in primary cells in tissue culture and that HIV-1 and SIV Nef are functionally interchangeable in the context of both HIV-1 and SIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes B-cell dysregulation and the loss of memory B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These effects are not completely reversed by antiretroviral treatment (ART). To further elucidate B-cell changes during chronic SIV infection and treatment, we investigated memory B-cell subpopulations and plasma cells/plasmablasts (PC/PB) in blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during ART and upon release from ART. Macaques previously immunized with SIV recombinants and the gp120 protein were included to assess the effects of prior vaccination. ART was administered for 11 weeks, with or without gp120 boosting at week 9. Naïve and resting, activated, and tissue-like memory B cells and PC/PB were evaluated by flow cytometry. Antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and serum antibody titers were assessed. No lasting changes in B-cell memory subpopulations occurred in bone marrow and lymph nodes, but significant decreases in numbers of activated memory B cells and increases in numbers of tissue-like memory B cells persisted in PBMC. Macaque PC/PB were found to be either CD27+ or CD27− and therefore were defined as CD19+ CD38hi CD138+. The numbers of these PC/PB were transiently increased in both PBMC and bone marrow following gp120 boosting of the unvaccinated and vaccinated macaque groups. Similarly, ASC numbers in PBMC and bone marrow of the two macaque groups also transiently increased following envelope boosting. Nevertheless, serum binding titers against SIVgp120 remained unchanged. Thus, even during chronic SIV infection, B cells respond to antigen, but long-term memory does not develop, perhaps due to germinal center destruction. Earlier and/or prolonged treatment to allow the generation of virus-specific long-term memory B cells should benefit ART/therapeutic vaccination regimens.
The development of an animal model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/AIDS that is suitable for preclinical testing of antiretroviral therapy, vaccines, curative strategies, and studies of pathogenesis has been hampered by the human-specific tropism of HIV-1. Although simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or HIV-1/SIV chimeric viruses (SHIVs)-rhesus macaque models are excellent surrogates for AIDS research, the genetic differences between SIV or SHIV and HIV-1 limit their utility as model systems. The identification of innate retro viral restriction factors has increased our understanding about blockades to HIV-1 replication in macaques and provided a guide for the construction of macaque-tropic HIV-1 clones. However, while these viruses replicate in macaque cells in vitro, they are easily controlled and have not caused AIDS in host animals, indicating that we may not fully understand the restrictive barriers of innate immunity. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding HIV-1 restriction factors, particularly as they apply to cross-species transmission of primate lentiviruses and the development of a macaque model of HIV-1/AIDS.
HIV-1; SIV; Macaca nemestrina; AIDS; cross-species; tropism; innate restriction