matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are postulated to facilitate follicular rupture. In the present study, expression of the stromelysins (MMP3, MMP10, MMP11) was analyzed in the periovulatory human and rat ovary. Human granulosa and theca cells were collected from the dominant follicle at various times after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue (tissue remaining after granulosa cell collection) were isolated from equine CG (eCG)-hCG-primed animals. Mmp10 mRNA was highly induced in human granulosa and theca cells and intact rat ovaries, granulosa cells, and residual tissue. Localization of MMP10 to granulosa and theca cells in both human and rat ovarian follicles was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Mmp3 mRNA was unchanged in human cells and rat granulosa cells, but increased in intact rat ovaries and residual tissue. Mmp11 mRNA decreased following hCG treatment in human granulosa and theca cells as well as rat granulosa cells. Regulation of Mmp10 in cultured rat granulosa cells revealed that the EGF inhibitor AG1478 and the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 suppressed the induction of Mmp10 mRNA, whereas the prostaglandin inhibitor NS398 had no effect. Studies on the Mmp10 promoter demonstrated that forskolin plus PMA stimulated promoter activity, which was dependent upon a proximal AP1 site. In conclusion, there are divergent patterns of stromelysin expression associated with ovulation, with a marked induction of Mmp10 mRNA and a decrease in Mmp11 mRNA, yet a species-dependent pattern on Mmp3 mRNA expression. The induction of Mmp10 expression suggests an important role for this MMP in the follicular changes associated with ovulation and subsequent luteinization.
Expression of the metalloproteinase Mmp10 mRNA is stimulated by hCG prior to follicular rupture in both the human and the rat ovary, indicating involvement in ovulation and subsequent luteinization.
extracellular matrix; granulosa cells; matrix metalloproteinase; ovulation; ovulatory cycle; proteinases; theca cells
The process of ovulation involves weakening of the follicular wall by proteolytic enzymes. The function of FURIN (also known as PCSK3) is to activate various proteolytic enzymes. In the present study, the expression, localization, and function of FURIN were investigated in the periovulatory rat ovary. Immature female rats were injected with equine chorionic gonadotropin followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 48 h later to stimulate ovulation. Ovaries were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after hCG injection. Administration of hCG increased Furin mRNA expression in both intact ovaries and cultured ovarian follicles to maximal levels at 8 and 12 h before decreasing at 24 h. In cultured granulosa cells, Furin mRNA levels were significantly induced at 12 h after hCG. In situ hybridization of Furin mRNA demonstrated expression in the granulosa cells, with predominant expression in the theca layer. Regulation studies demonstrated that Furin mRNA was induced in residual tissue by forskolin or amphiregulin. To examine the role of FURIN in protease activation and ovulation, rats were treated with a FURIN inhibitor and oocyte release was determined. There was a 38% decrease in the number of oocytes released in ovaries treated with the FURIN inhibitor. Likewise, the FURIN inhibitor decreased the activation of MMP2. The induction of Furin mRNA after treatment with hCG, along with the decrease in MMP2 activation and oocyte release after FURIN inhibition, supports the hypothesis that FURIN is upregulated during the preovulatory period, which results in activation of proteinases associated with the breakdown of the follicular wall during ovulation.
Furin mRNA is upregulated by hCG prior to ovulation and FURIN inhibition blocks MMP2 activation and oocyte release.
follicle; ovary; ovulation; proteinase; theca cells
Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR) constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis indomethacin (INDO) and a progesterone (P) receptor (PR) antagonist (RU486). Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.
The LH surge induces specific transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in periovulatory follicles to bring about ovulation and luteinization. The present study determined 1) the localization of RUNX1, a nuclear transcription factor, 2) regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression, and 3) its potential function in rat ovaries. Up-regulation of mRNA and protein for RUNX1 is detected in preovulatory follicles after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection in gonadotropin-treated immature rats as well as after the LH surge in cycling animals by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. The regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression was investigated in vitro using granulosa cells from rat pre-ovulatory ovaries. Treatments with hCG, forskolin, or phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression. The effects of hCG were reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase, indicating that Runx1 expression is regulated by the LH-initiated activation of these signaling mediators. In addition, hCG-induced Runx1 mRNA expression was inhibited by a progesterone receptor antagonist and an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, whereas amphiregulin stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression, demonstrating that the expression is mediated by the activation of the progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, knockdown of Runx1 mRNA by small interfering RNA decreased progesterone secretion and reduced levels of mRNA for Cyp11a1, Hapln1, Mt1a, and Rgc32. The hormonally regulated expression of Runx1 in periovulatory follicles, its involvement in progesterone production, and regulation of preovulatory gene expression suggest important roles of RUNX1 in the periovulatory process.
AML1, Acute myeloid leukemia 1; AREG, amphiregulin; cdkn, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; C/EBPβ, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β; CG, chorionic gonadotropin; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; EGF, epidermal growth factor; Hapln1, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1; MEK, MAPK kinase; Mt1a, metallothionein 1a; PGR, progesterone receptor; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; PMA, phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate; PMSG, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; Rgc32, response gene to complement 32; siRNA, small interfering RNA; Timp1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1
FAM110C belongs to a family of proteins that regulates cell proliferation. In the present study, the spatiotemporal expression pattern of FAM110C and its potential role were examined during the periovulatory period. Immature female rats were injected with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ovaries or granulosa cells were collected at various times after hCG administration (n = 3/time point). Expression levels of Fam110c mRNA and protein were highly induced both in intact ovaries and granulosa cells at 8 to 12 h after hCG treatment. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated Fam110c mRNA expression was induced in theca and granulosa cells at 4 h after hCG, primarily localized to granulosa cells at 8 h and 12 h, and decreased at 24 h after hCG. There was negligible Fam110c mRNA detected in newly forming corpora lutea. In rat granulosa cell cultures, hCG induced expression of Fam110c mRNA was inhibited by RU486, whereas NS398 and AG1478 had no effect, suggesting that Fam110c expression is regulated in part by the progesterone receptor pathway. Promoter activity analysis revealed that an Sp1 site was important for the induction of Fam110c expression by hCG. Overexpression of FAM110C promoted granulosa cells to arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle but did not change progesterone levels. In summary, hCG induces Fam110c mRNA expression in granulosa cells by activation of an Sp1-binding site and the actions of progesterone. Our findings suggest that FAM110C may control granulosa cell differentiation into luteal cells by arresting cell cycle progression.
Human chorionic gonadotropin induces Fam110c mRNA expression in granulosa cells, which promotes their arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle; this suggests that FAM110C may control granulosa cell differentiation into luteal cells.
differentiation; granulosa cell; ovary; ovulation; progesterone; SP1
Tissue from 54 histologically-identified basal cell carcinomas of the skin was obtained at surgery and assayed using a combination of functional and immunochemical procedures for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with collagenolytic activity and for MMPs with gelatinolytic activity. Collagenolytic enzymes included MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-8 (neutrophil collagenase) and MMP-13 (collagenase-3). Gelatinolytic enzymes included MMP-2 (72-kDa gelatinase A/type IV collagenase) and MMP-9 (92-kDa gelatinase B/type IV collagenase). Inhibitors of MMP activity including tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and -2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were also assessed. All three collagenases and both gelatinases were detected immunochemically. MMP-1 appeared to be responsible for most of the functional collagenolytic activity while gelatinolytic activity reflected both MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMP inhibitor activity was also present, and appeared, based on immunochemical procedures, to reflect the presence of TIMP-1 but not TIMP-2. As a group, tumours identified as having aggressive-growth histologic patterns were not distinguishable from basal cell carcinomas with less aggressive-growth histologic patterns. In normal skin, the same MMPs were detected by immunochemical means. However, only low to undetectable levels of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities were present. In contrast, MMP inhibitor activity was comparable to that seen in tumour tissue. In previous studies we have shown that exposure of normal skin to epidermal growth factor in organ culture induces MMP up-regulation and activation. This treatment concomitantly induces stromal invasion by the epithelium (Varani et al (1995) Am J Pathol146: 210–217; Zeigler et al (1996 b) Invasion Metastasis16: 11–18). Taken together with these previous data, the present findings allow us to conclude that the same profile of MMP/MMP inhibitors that is associated with stromal invasion in the organ culture model is expressed endogenously in basal cell carcinomas of skin. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
interstitial collagenase; collagenase-3; tissue inhibitoral metalloproteinase invasion; fibroblast; epithelial cells; endothelial cells
The highly conserved polo-like kinases (Plks) are potent regulators of multiple functions in the cell cycle before and during mitotic cell division. We investigated the expression pattern of Plk genes and their potential role(s) in the rat ovary during the periovulatory period. Plk2 and Plk3 were highly induced both in intact ovaries and granulosa cells in vivo after treatment with the luteinizing hormone (LH) agonist, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In vitro, hCG stimulated the expression of Plk2 in granulosa cells, but not Plk3. This induction of Plk2 expression was mimicked by both forskolin and phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Moreover, Plk2 expression was reduced by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis or the EGF pathway, but not by progesterone receptor antagonist (RU486) treatment. At the promoter level, mutation of the Sp1 binding sequence abolished the transcriptional activity of the Plk2 gene. ChIP assays also revealed the interaction of endogenous Sp1 protein in the Plk2 promoter region. Functionally, the over-expression of Plk2 and Plk3 arrested granulosa cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, the knockdown of Plk2 expression in granulosa cells decreased the number of cells in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, but increased granulosa cell viability. In summary, hCG induced Plk2 and Plk3 expression in the rat ovary. Prostaglandins and the EGF signaling pathway are involved in regulating Plk2 expression. The transcription factor Sp1 is important for Plk2 transcriptional up-regulation. Our findings suggest that the increase in Plk2 and Plk3 expression contributes to the cell cycle arrest of granulosa cells which is important for the luteinization of granulosa cells during the periovulatory period.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulators of extracellular matrix remodeling, but have also important intracellular targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the activity and subcellular localization of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in skeletal muscle of control and physically trained rats. In control hind limb muscle, the activity of the gelatinases was barely detectable. In contrast, after 5 days of intense exercise, in Soleus (Sol), but not Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, significant upregulation of gelatinolytic activity in myofibers was observed mainly in the nuclei, as assessed by high resolution in situ zymography. The nuclei of quiescent satellite cells did not contain the activity. Within the myonuclei, the gelatinolytic activity colocalized with an activated RNA Polymerase II. Also in Sol, but not in EDL, there were few foci of mononuclear cells with strongly positive cytoplasm, associated with apparent necrotic myofibers. These cells were identified as activated satellite cells/myoblasts. No extracellular gelatinase activity was observed. Gel zymography combined with subcellular fractionation revealed training-related upregulation of active MMP-2 in the nuclear fraction, and increase of active MMP-9 in the cytoplasmic fraction of Sol. Using RT-PCR, selective increase in MMP-9 mRNA was observed. We conclude that training activates nuclear MMP-2, and increases expression and activity of cytoplasmic MMP-9 in Sol, but not in EDL. Our results suggest that the gelatinases are involved in muscle adaptation to training, and that MMP-2 may play a novel role in myonuclear functions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00418-012-0940-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Matrix metalloproteinase; Exercise; Skeletal muscle; Rat; Cell nucleus; Satellite cells
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been identified as a PG necessary for ovulation, but the ovulatory gonadotropin surge also increases PGF2α levels in primate periovulatory follicles. To better understand the role of PGF2α in ovulation, pathways utilized for PGF2α synthesis by the primate follicle were examined. Monkeys were treated with gonadotropins to stimulate multiple follicular development; follicular aspirates and whole ovaries were removed before and at specific times after administration of an ovulatory dose of hCG to span the 40-hour periovulatory interval. Human granulosa cells were also obtained (typically 34-36 hours after hCG) from in vitro fertilization patients. PGF2α can be synthesized from PGH2 via the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3. AKR1C3 mRNA and protein levels in monkey granulosa cells were low before hCG and peaked 24-36 hours after hCG administration. Human granulosa cells converted PGD2 into 11β-PGF2α, confirming that these cells possess AKR1C3 activity. PGF2α can also be synthesized from PGE2 via the enzymes AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. Monkey granulosa cell levels of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 mRNA was low 0-12 hours, peaked at 24 hours, and returned to low levels by 36 hours after hCG administration. Human granulosa cell conversion of 3H-PGE2 into 3H-PGF2α was reduced by a AKR1C2-selective inhibitor, supporting the concept that granulosa cells preferentially express AKR1C2 over AKR1C1. In summary, the ovulatory gonadotropin surge increases granulosa cell expression of AKR1C1/AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Both of these enzyme activities are present in periovulatory granulosa cells. These data support the concept that follicular PGF2α can be synthesized via two pathways during the periovulatory interval.
ovulation; ovary; prostaglandin; granulosa cell; monkey; primate
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates many effects of the midcycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge within the periovulatory follicle. Differential expression of the four PGE2 (EP) receptors may contribute to the specialized functions of each granulosa cell subpopulation. To determine if EP receptors are differentially expressed in granulosa cells, monkeys received gonadotropins to stimulate ovarian follicular development. Periovulatory events were initiated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); granulosa cells and whole ovaries were collected before (0 h) and after (24–36 h) hCG to span the 40-h primate periovulatory interval. EP receptor mRNA and protein levels were quantified in granulosa cell subpopulations. Cumulus cells expressed higher levels of EP2 and EP3 mRNA compared with mural cells 36 h after hCG. Cumulus cell EP2 and EP3 protein levels also increased between 0 and 36 h after hCG. Overall, mural granulosa cells expressed low levels of EP1 protein at 0 h and higher levels 24–36 h after hCG. However, EP1 protein levels were higher in granulosa cells away from the follicle apex compared with apex cells 36 h after hCG. Higher levels of PAI-1 protein were measured in nonapex cells, consistent with a previous study showing EP1-stimulated PAI-1 protein expression in monkey granulosa cells. EP4 protein levels were low in all subpopulations. In summary, cumulus cells likely respond to PGE2 via EP2 and EP3, whereas PGE2 controls rupture of a specific region of the follicle via EP1. Therefore, differential expression of EP receptors may permit each granulosa cell subpopulation to generate a unique response to PGE2 during the process of ovulation.
Each of four PGE2 receptors is differentially expressed in subpopulations of granulosa cells, suggesting each subpopulation may generate a unique response to PGE2 during ovulation.
cumulus cells; granulosa cells; hormone receptors; ovulation; prostaglandins
The ovulatory gonadotropin surge increases synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by the periovulatory follicle. PGE2 actions on granulosa cells are essential for successful ovulation. The aim of the present study is to determine if PGE2 also acts directly at the oocyte to regulate periovulatory events.
Oocytes were obtained from monkeys and mice after ovarian follicular stimulation and assessed for PGE2 receptor mRNA and proteins. Oocytes were cultured with vehicle or PGE2 and assessed for cAMP generation, resumption of meiosis, and in vitro fertilization.
Germinal vesicle intact (GV) oocytes from both monkeys and mice expressed mRNA for the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4. EP2 and EP4 proteins were detected by confocal microscopy in oocytes of both species. Monkey and mouse oocytes responded to PGE2 as well as agonists selective for EP2 and EP4 receptors with elevated cAMP, consistent with previous identification of EP2 and EP4 as Gαs/adenylyl cyclase coupled receptors. Incubation of mouse GV stage oocytes with PGE2 delayed oocyte nuclear maturation in vitro, but PGE2 treatment did not alter the percentage of mouse oocytes that fertilized successfully. PGE2 treatment also decreased the percentage of monkey oocytes that resumed meiosis in vitro. In contrast with mouse oocytes, the percentage of monkey oocytes which fertilized in vitro was lower after treatment with PGE2. Monkey oocytes with intact cumulus showed delayed nuclear maturation, but fertilization rate was not affected by PGE2 treatment.
Monkey and mouse oocytes express functional PGE2 receptors. PGE2 acts directly at mammalian oocytes to delay nuclear maturation. Surrounding cumulus cells modulate the effect of PGE2 to alter subsequent fertilization.
The ovulatory gonadotropin surge increases granulosa cell prostaglandin synthesis as well as prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH), the key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin metabolism. To investigate gonadotropin regulation of PGDH in the primate follicle, monkey granulosa cells were obtained across the 40-hour periovulatory interval. PGDH activity was low before the ovulatory hCG stimulus, peaked 12-24 hours after hCG, and was low again 36 hours after hCG administration. Granulosa cells maintained in vitro with hCG showed a similar temporal pattern of PGDH. The LH/CG receptor can utilize multiple signaling pathways to regulate intracellular events. Gonadotropin-stimulated cAMP appears to act primarily via the Epacs to increase PGDH mRNA, protein, and activity. In contrast, PLC activation of PKC likely decreases PGDH mRNA, protein, and activity late in the periovulatory interval. Increased, then decreased PGDH activity may delay accumulation of prostaglandins in the follicle until late in the periovulatory interval, contributing to timely ovulation in primates.
ovulation; ovary; prostaglandin; granulosa cell; hCG; luteinizing hormone
The distribution of binding sites for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the preovulatory follicle was studied by autoradiography. An ovulatory dose (10 IU/rat) of [125I]hCG (1.4 muCi/IU) was administered intravenously, and large Graafian follicles were isolated 3 h later by microdissection. Injection of excess unlabeled hCG (500 IU/rat) prevented uptake of radioactivity by the follicle, indicating that binding of iodinated hormone was confined to specific and saturable receptor sites. The density of bound hormone molecules was highest in the theca interna and in three to four layers of mural granulosa cells adjacent to the basement membrane; labeling was chiefly associated with the cell borders. No significant binding could be detected either on the oocyte or on the cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte. We therefore suggest that the induction of ovum maturation does not require attachment of the hormone to the oocyte itself or to follicle cells in its immediate vicinity.
Purpose: The aim was to investigate which ovarian hyperstimulation protocol performed in the same patients causes development of oocytes of good quality.
Methods: Twenty normo-ovulatory women underwent three different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols for in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer. Patients underwent follicle aspiration after administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The total number of retrieved oocytes, the number of mature oocytes, and the rate of mature oocytes were examined. Recovered granulosa cells were stained with Hoechst 33258 and examined by fluorescence microscopy to estimate the incidence of apoptotic cells.
Results: The total number of oocytes and the number of mature oocytes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) + human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) + hCG and hMG + hCG cycles were higher than those in the natural cycle (P < 0.0001). The rate of mature oocytes in hMG + hCG cycle was the highest among the three protocols (P < 0.04). In the mural granulosa cells, the incidence of apoptotic cells in the GnRHa + hMG + hCG cycle was significantly higher than those of the natural (P < 0.002) and hMG + hCG cycles (P = 0.0002). The incidence of apoptotic cumulus granulosa cells in the GnRHa + hMG + hCG cycle was significantly higher than those of natural and hMG + hCG cycles (P < 0.002). Moreover, the incidence of apoptotic cumulus granulosa cells in the hMG + hCG cycle was significantly lower than that in the natural cycle (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: These results indicated that hMG + hCG is the most appropriate controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocol among the three examined with regard to oocyte quality.
apoptosis; controlled ovarian hyperstimulation; granulosa cells; in vitro fertilization; oocyte quality
Tissue reactions to bacteria lead to proinflammatory reactions involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Synthetic protease inhibitors may offer new possibilities to regulate bacterial proteases. We investigated proteolytic activities of certain periodontal bacteria, their effects on the latent proMMP-9, and the effects of synthetic MMP inhibitors and a serine protease inhibitor Pefabloc. The strains studied were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptoccus micros, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and 5 Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Their gelatinolytic activities and the effects of certain synthetic MMP inhibitors and Pefabloc were analyzed by zymography. Bacterial effects on proMMP-9 conversion were investigated by Western immunoblot. All investigated periodontal bacteria produced gelatinolytic cell-bound and extracellular proteinases which could fragment latent proMMP-9, suggesting co-operative processing cascades in oral tissue remodeling. A. actinomycetemcomitans produced the weakest gelatinolytic activity. Synthetic proteinase inhibitors exhibited slight but clear reductive effects on the bacterial proteolytic activities. We conclude that targeted anti-proteolytic treatment modalities against bacterial-host proteolytic cascades can be developed.
Oral micro-organisms; pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9; activation; proteolytic activity; synthetic proteinase inhibitors
Hemoglobin (Hb) released from extravasated erythrocytes is implicated in brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Hb is a major component of blood and a potent mediator of oxidative stress after ICH. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. This study was designed to elucidate whether Hb-induced oxidative stress contributes to MMP-9 activation and BBB dysfunction in vivo. An intracerebral injection of Hb into rat striata induced increased hydroethidine (HEt) signals in parallel with MMP-9 levels. In situ gelatinolytic activity colocalized with oxidized HEt signals in vessel walls, accompanied by immunoglobulin G leakage and a decrease in immunoactivity of endothelial barrier antigen, a marker of endothelial integrity. Administration of a non-selective MMP inhibitor prevented MMP-9 levels and albumin leakage in injured striata. Moreover, reduction in oxidative stress by copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression reduced oxidative stress, MMP-9 levels, albumin leakage, and subsequent apoptosis compared with wild-type littermates. We speculate that Hb-induced oxidative stress may contribute to early BBB dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis, partly through MMP activation, and that SOD1 overexpression may reduce Hb-induced oxidative stress, BBB dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death.
blood-brain barrier; copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase; hemoglobin; matrix metalloproteinases; oxidative stress
Hemoglobin (Hb) released from extravasated erythrocytes is implicated in brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Hemoglobin is a major component of blood and a potent mediator of oxidative stress after ICH. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. This study was designed to elucidate whether Hb-induced oxidative stress contributes to MMP-9 activation and BBB dysfunction in vivo. An intracerebral injection of Hb into rat striata induced increased hydroethidine (HEt) signals in parallel with MMP-9 levels. In situ gelatinolytic activity colocalized with oxidized HEt signals in vessel walls, accompanied by immunoglobulin G leakage and a decrease in immunoactivity of endothelial barrier antigen, a marker of endothelial integrity. Administration of a nonselective MMP inhibitor prevented MMP-9 levels and albumin leakage in injured striata. Moreover, reduction in oxidative stress by copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) overexpression reduced oxidative stress, MMP-9 levels, albumin leakage, and subsequent apoptosis compared with wild-type littermates. We speculate that Hb-induced oxidative stress may contribute to early BBB dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis, partly through MMP activation, and that SOD1 overexpression may reduce Hb-induced oxidative stress, BBB dysfunction, and apoptotic cell death.
blood–brain barrier; copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase; hemoglobin; matrix metalloproteinases; oxidative stress
Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for obstruction of airflow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or an imbalance between MMPs and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs), is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. We investigated whether the MMPs expression or the imbalance between MMPs and TIMP-1 is associated with the amount of cigarette smoking and the FEV1 value, in the lung parenchyma of 26 subjects (6 non-smokers and 20 cigarette smokers). First, we performed zymographic analysis to identify the profile of the MMPs, which revealed gelatinolytic bands mainly equivalent to MMP-9 in the smokers. We then measured, using enzyme immunoassay, the concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1. Correlation analysis revealed that both the MMP-9 concentrations and the molar ratios of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 (MMP-9/TIMP-1) were correlated with the amount of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, MMP-9 concentrations were inversely correlated with FEV1. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP-9 expression in human lung parenchyma is associated with cigarette smoking and also with the obstruction of airflow, suggesting that MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the cigarette smoke-induced obstruction of airflow known as the characteristic of COPD.
Recent evidence indicates novel role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2), in the regulation of vascular biology that are unrelated to their well-known proteolytic breakdown of matrix proteins. We have previously reported that MMP-2 can modulate vascular reactivity by cleavage of the Gly32-Leu33 bound in big endothelin-1 (ET-1) yielding a novel vasoactive peptide ET-1[1-32]. These studies were conducted to investigate whether gelatinolytic MMPs could affect neutrophil-endothelial cell attachment. ET-1[1-32] produced by MMP-2 up-regulated CD11b/CD18 expression on human neutrophils, thereby promoted their adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. ET-1[1-32] evoked release of gelatinase B (MMP-9), which in turn cleaved big ET-1 to yield ET-1[1-32], thus revealing a self-amplifying loop for ET-1[1-32] generation. ET-1[1-32] was rather resistant to cleavage by neutrophil proteases and further metabolism of ET-1[1-32] was not a prerequisite for its biological actions on neutrophils. The neutrophil responses to ET-1[1-32] were mediated via activation of ETAreceptors through activation of the Ras/Raf-1/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest a novel role for gelatinase A and B in the regulation of neutrophil functions and their interactions with endothelial cells. Here we describe the methods in detail as they relate to our previously published work.
matrix metalloproteinases; endothelin-1
Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes to release pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B; pro-MMP-9) and active matrix metalloproteinase-1 (collagenase-1; MMP-1). Human neutrophils also released pro-MMP-9 and a 130-kDa protein with gelatinolytic activity in response to live B. burgdorferi. In addition, U937 cells and human keratinocyte cells were also stimulated to release pro-MMP-9 under the same conditions. However, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) released pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2 in a constitutive manner and were not influenced by live spirochetes. MMPs produced by human monocytes also enhanced the penetration of B. burgdorferi through extracellular matrix component barriers in vitro. Plasmin stabilized on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete was shown to activate pro-MMP-9 to its active form. This active form was also observed in the plasma of mice infected with a relapsing fever borrelia. These results suggest that borreliae can upregulate MMPs and possibly mediate an activation cascade initiated by plasmin bound to the microbial surface. MMPs may play a role in dissemination of the Lyme disease spirochete and in the pathogenesis of Borrelia infection.
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during lung development require extracellular signaling factors that facilitate branching morphogenesis. We show here that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) originating in the mesenchyme are necessary for epithelial branching and alveolization. We found that the delayed lung maturation characterized by abnormal branching and poor alveolization seen in mice deficient in epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr−/−) is accompanied by aberrant expression of MMPs. By in situ zymography, the lungs from newborn Egfr−/− mice had low gelatinolytic activity compared with wildtype. Inhibition of MMPs in developing lungs in vivo or in vitro severely retarded morphogenesis. Egfr−/− mice had low expression of MT1-MMP/MMP14, which is a potent activator of gelatinase A/MMP2, in their lungs. Egf ligand increased MT1-MMP mRNA by tenfold in lung fibroblasts from wild type, but not from Egfr−/− mice. Extracts from lungs of Egfr−/− mice showed a tenfold reduction in active MMP-2, but only a slight decrease in proMMP-2 by zymography. At birth, MMP-2−/− mice had a lung phenotype characterized by abnormal lung alveolization which phenocopied that of Egfr−/− mice, albeit somewhat less severe. We conclude that proteolysis mediates epithelial/mesenchymal interactions during lung morphogenesis. From the phenotypes of the Egfr−/− mice, we identify MT1-MMP as a major downstream target of Egfr signaling in lung in vivo and in vitro. MT1-MMP is, in turn, necessary for activation of MMP-2, a mesenchymal enzyme that is required for normal lung morphogenesis.
Matrix metalloproteases; MMP-2; Branching morphogenesis; Lung development; Egf signaling
The appearance of a high molecular weight gelatinolytic enzyme (230 kDa) correlated with cartilage collagen loss in chick embryonic tibias cultured with lipopolysaccharide. This 230 kDa enzyme was purified and its activity was measured on synthetic and natural substrates. The enzyme was activated by aminophenylmercuric acetate and inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, phenanthroline, marimastat or tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Amino acid sequences of peptides derived from the purified enzyme showed identity with avian MMP-9. Digestion of the intact enzyme with chondroitinase decreased the size of the molecule to 80 kDa on SDS-PAGE. When chick embryonic tibia cultures were radiolabeled with 35S-sulfate, the radiolabel co-purified with the 230 kDa gelatinase. Chondroitinase treated 230 kDa gelatinase also reacted with specific anti-chondroitin sulfate antibodiesand FACE analysis revealed a predominance of chondroitin-4-sulfate. These results demonstrate this avian matrix metalloproteinase contained glycosaminoglycan chains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a matrix metalloproteinase in a proteoglycan form.
Avian; embryonic bone formation; extracellular matrix; gelatinase; matrix metalloproteinase; proteoglycan
Glucose is important to the maturation of the oocyte and development of the embryo, while hyperglycemia results in profound reproductive and developmental consequences. However, the normal physiology of glucose in the ovary remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine intra-follicular glucose dynamics during the periovulatory interval in non-human primates undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols. Follicular fluid and mural granulosa cells were isolated before or up to 24 hr after an ovulatory hCG bolus, and the human granulosa-lutein cell line hGL5 was used. Intra-follicular glucose increased 3 hr after hCG, and remained at that level until 12 hr when levels decline back to pre-hCG concentrations. Pyruvate and lactate concentrations in the follicle were not strongly altered by hCG. Mural granulosa cell expression of hexokinase 1 and 2, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA decreased following hCG, while glycogen phosphorylase (liver form) increased following hCG. Glucose uptake by hGL5 cells was delayed until 24 hr following stimulation. In summary, intra-follicular glucose increases following an ovulatory stimulus and mural granulosa cells do not appear able to utilize it, sparing the glucose for the cumulus-oocyte complex.
macaque; (granulosa cells); glucose; glycolysis; luteinization
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate posttranscriptional gene regulation by binding to the 3′ untranslated region of messenger RNAs to either inhibit or enhance translation. The extent and hormonal regulation of miRNA expression by ovarian granulosa cells and their role in ovulation and luteinization is unknown. In the present study, miRNA array analysis was used to identify 212 mature miRNAs as expressed and 13 as differentially expressed in periovulatory granulosa cells collected before and after an ovulatory dose of hCG. Two miRNAs, Mirn132 and Mirn212 (also known as miR-132 and miR-212), were found to be highly upregulated following LH/hCG induction and were further analyzed. In vivo and in vitro temporal expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that LH/hCG and cAMP, respectively, increased transcription of the precursor transcript as well as the mature miRNAs. Locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides complementary to Mirn132 and Mirn212 were shown to block cAMP-mediated mature miRNA expression and function. Computational analyses indicated that 77 putative mRNA targets of Mirn132 and Mirn212 were expressed in ovarian granulosa cells. Furthermore, upon knockdown of Mirn132 and Mirn212, a known target of Mirn132, C-terminal binding protein 1, showed decreased protein levels but no change in mRNA levels. The following studies are the first to describe the extent of miRNA expression within ovarian granulosa cells and the first to demonstrate that LH/hCG regulates the expression of select miRNAs, which affect posttranscriptional gene regulation within these cells.
The ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone induces the expression of microRNAs, which posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of a regulatory protein within mural granulosa cells of the periovulatory follicle.
corpus luteum; granulosa cells; luteinizing hormone; microRNA; ovulation
Endothelin-2 (EDN2) was recently proposed as a granulosa cell-derived contractile signal that facilitates ovulation (Ko et al., Endocrinology 147(4):1770-1779, 2006). Spatially, Edn2 mRNA expression is restricted to granulosa cells of periovulatory follicles. Temporally, mRNA for this contractile peptide is expressed immediately prior to follicle rupture. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that hypoxia mediates END2 expression in granulosa cells at ovulation and if so, to determine the region within the EDN2 promoter responsible for this effect. To determine the effect of hypoxia on Edn2 mRNA expression, immature mice were treated with 5 IU PMSG followed 48 h later by 5 IU hCG. Granulosa cells were isolated at 9 h after hCG, cultured under normal or hypoxic conditions and the expression level of mRNA for Edn2 was compared. Edn2 mRNA expression was increased when granulosa cells were cultured in a hypoxic environment (p < 0.05). Subsequent promoter analysis found that the 5′upstream region of the EDN2 promoter (between -1894 and -1407 bp) was responsible for hypoxia-mediated changes in EDN2 expression. This promoter region contains multiple sites for potential transcriptional regulation including that by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1; ACGTG) at -1297 bp. The second objective of this study was to determine whether the progesterone receptor (PR) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key regulators of periovulatory events, controlled EDN2 expression. To accomplish this, gonadotropin-primed mice were treated with RU-486 or indomethacin and expression of mRNA for Edn2 was determined in ovaries collected at 12 h after hCG. Treatment with RU-486 or indomethacin did not affect expression of mRNA for Edn2 (p > 0.05). Taken together, it is believed that hypoxia, but not the PR or COX-2, regulate gonadotropin-induced EDN2 expression in the periovulatory follicle.
endothelin-2; ovulation; ovary; hypoxia