Background and purpose
There have been no published studies assessing the possible association of medical comorbidities with periprosthetic fracture risk. We therefore assessed whether medical comorbidity is associated with risk of periprosthetic fractures after total hip replacement (THR).
Material and methods
We used prospectively collected data from 1989–2008 in the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for 2 cohorts: primary THR and revision THR. The main variables of interest were Deyo-Charlson comorbidities at the time of surgery. Outcome of interest was p ostoperative periprosthetic fracture at postoperative day 1 onwards. Multivariable
Cox regression models were additionally adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and operative diagnosis.
We identified 14,065 primary THRs and 6,281 revision THRs with mean follow-up times of 6.3 and 5.6 years, respectively. There were 305 postoperative periprosthetic fractures in the primary THR cohort and 330 in the revision THR cohort. In patients who underwent primary THR, 2 comorbidities were associated with higher risk of periprosthetic fracture: peptic ulcer disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and heart disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.7 (CI: 1.2–2.4). In patients with revision THR, peptic ulcer disease was associated with a higher adjusted risk of periprosthetic fracture, 1.6 (CI: 1.1–2.3).
Peptic ulcer disease and heart disease in primary THR patients and peptic ulcer disease in revision THR patients were associated with higher postoperative periprosthetic fracture risk. Further studies are needed to understand whether disease severity or specific medications used for treatment, or both, are responsible for this association. This may allow identification of modifiable factors.
To study the use of pain medications for persistent index knee pain and their predictors after primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).
The Mayo Total Joint Registry collects patient-reported data including pain medication use on all patients who undergo TKA. We used data from patients who underwent primary TKA from 1993-2005. We examined whether gender, age (reference, ≤60 yrs), body mass index (BMI; reference, <25 kg/m2), comorbidities measured by Deyo-Charlson index (5-point increase), anxiety and depression predicted use of pain medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids) 2- and 5-years after primary TKA. Multivariable logistic regression additionally adjusted for operative diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, implant fixation and distance from the medical center.
7,139 of the 10,957 eligible (65%) at 2-years and 4,234 of 7,404 eligible (57%) completed questionnaires. Significant predictors of NSAIDs use were (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)): male gender at 2- and 5-years, 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) and 0.6 (0.5, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.7 (0.5, 0.9), 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); and depression, 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) and 1.7 (1.1, 2.5). BMI ≥40 was associated with NSAIDs use only at 2-years, 1.6 (1.1, 2.5). Significant predictors of opioid pain medication use at 2- and 5-years were: male gender, 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) and 0.4 (0.2, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.3 (0.1, 0.6), 0.3 (0.1, 0.8); and anxiety, 3.0 (1.6, 5.7) and 4.0 (1.7, 9.4).
Female gender and younger age were associated with higher risk of use of NSAIDs and opioids after primary TKA. Depression was associated with higher NSAID use and anxiety with higher opioid pain medication use after primary TKA.
Study the frequency and predictors of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications following primary shoulder arthroplasty
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry from 1976–2008. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented.
3,480 patients underwent 4,019 primary shoulder arthroplasties. 90-day cardiac and thromboembolic complication rates following primary shoulder arthroplasty were 2.6% (92/3480) and 1.2% (42/3480). After multivariable-adjustment, age >70 years (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–5.9; p-value= 0.01; relative to age <60), Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 1 or more (OR, 3.27; 95% CI:1.9–5.6; p<0.0001; relative to index of 0) and prior cardiac events (OR, 7.87; 95% CI: 4.89–12.68; p<0.0001; relative to no prior event) were associated with higher odds of 90-day cardiac complications. Due to few thromboembolic events, only univariate analyses were performed. Univariately, female gender, age >70 years, BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, Deyo Charlson index of 1 or more, underlying diagnosis of trauma, prior thromboembolic event and surgery type were each associated with significantly higher risk of 90-day thromboembolic event (p≤0.03 for all).
Cardiac and thromboembolic complications are uncommon after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Patients can be informed of their risk of cardiac complications following shoulder arthroplasty based on presence of risk factors.
Complications; shoulder arthroplasty; predictors; Cardiopulmonary; humeral head replacement
We assessed important patient risk factors for postoperative periprosthetic fractures after revision total hip replacement (THR) using prospectively collected Institutional Joint Registry data. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. There were 330 postoperative periprosthetic fractures after 6,281 revision THRs. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, hazard [95% confidence interval] of periprosthetic fracture was higher for: women, 1.66 [1.32, 2.08], p<0.001; higher Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 2, 1.46 (1.03, 2.07) and index of 3+, 2.01 (1.48, 2.73), overall p<0.001; and operative diagnosis, especially previous non-union, 5.76 (2.55, 13.02), overall p<0.001. Hazard was lower in 61–70 year old, 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) and 71–80 year old 0.57 (0.43, 0.76), compared to <60 years (overall p<0.0001). Our study identified important modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors for fractures after revision THR.
The osteosynthesis of the periprosthetic fractures following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be technically difficult with the relatively small satisfactory outcomes and the high complication rates. The purpose of the study is to analyze the mid-term radiological and functional outcomes following the locked plating of the distal femur periprosthetic fractures after a TKA.
Records of 20 patients with a periprosthetic distal femur fracture following TKA treated by the locked plate osteosynthesis were retrospectively evaluated. The union rate, complications and functional outcome measures were analyzed.
Successful union was achieved in 18 of the 19 patients available for the follow-up. The mean follow-up was 39 ± 10 months. Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the range of motion and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were evident in the follow-up. Secondary procedures were required in 5 patients to address the delay in union and the reduced knee range of motion. The osteosynthesis failed in 1 patient who underwent a revision TKA.
The satisfactory union rates can be achieved with the locked plate osteosynthesis in the periprosthetic distal femur fractures after TKA. Prolonged rehabilitation coupled with the un-modifiable risk factors can decrease the activity and satisfaction levels, which can significantly alter the functional outcome.
Total knee arthroplasty; Periprosthetic fractures; Locked plating; Distal femur fractures; Osteosynthesis
Examine 90-day postoperative mortality and its predictors following shoulder arthroplasty
We identified vital status of all adults who underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty (Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or humeral head replacement (HHR)) at the Mayo Clinic from 1976-2008, using the prospectively collected information from Total Joint Registry. We used univariate logistic regression models to assess the association of gender, age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, an underlying diagnosis and implant fixation with odds of 90-day mortality after TSA or HHR. Multivariable models additionally adjusted for the type of surgery (TSA versus HHR). Adjusted Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
Twenty-eight of the 3, 480 patient operated died within 90-days of shoulder arthroplasty (0.8%). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, the following factors were associated with significantly higher odds of 90-day mortality: higher Deyo-Charlson index (OR, 1.54; 95% CI:1.39, 1.70; p < 0.001); a diagnosis of tumor (OR, 16.2; 95%CI:7.1, 36.7); and ASA class III (OR, 3.57; 95% CI:1.29, 9.91; p = 0.01) or class IV (OR, 13.4; 95% CI:2.44, 73.86; p = 0.003). BMI ≥ 30 was associated with lower risk of 90-day mortality (OR, 0.25; 95% CI:0.08, 0.78). In univariate analyses, patients undergoing TSA had significantly lower 90-day mortality of 0.4% (8/2, 580) compared to 1% in HHR (20/1, 411) (odds ratio, 0.22 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.50); p = 0.0003).
90-day mortality following shoulder arthroplasty was low. An underlying diagnosis of tumor, higher comorbidity and higher ASA class were risk factors for higher 90-day mortality, while higher BMI was protective. Pre-operative comorbidity management may impact 90-day mortality following shoulder arthroplasty. A higher unadjusted mortality in patients undergoing TSA versus HHR may indicate the underlying differences in patients undergoing these procedures.
mortality; shoulder arthroplasty; humeral head replacement; shoulder hemiarthroplasty
While the occurrence of periprosthetic fractures around total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) is well know, little is known about intraoperative fractures that occur during TKA. We describe the incidence, location, and outcomes of iatrogenic intraoperative fracture during primary TKA. We reviewed 17,389 primary TKAs performed between 1985 and 2005 and identified 66 patients with 67 intraoperative fractures including 49 femur fractures, 18 tibia fractures, and no patella fractures. There were 12 men and 54 women with a mean age of 65.2 ± 16 years. Of the 49 femur fractures, locations included medial condyle (20), lateral condyle (11), supracondylar femur (eight), medial epicondyle (seven), lateral epicondyle (two), and posterior cortex (one). Tibia fractures (18) included lateral plateau (six), anterior cortex (four), medial plateau (three), lateral cortex (three), medial cortex (one), and posterior cortex (one). Twenty-six fractures occurred during exposure and preparation, 22 while trialing, 13 during cementation, and three while inserting the polyethylene spacer. The minimum followup was 0.15 years (mean, 5.1 years; range, 0.15–15.4 years). All fractures healed clinically and radiographically. Knee Society scores and function scores improved from 46.4 and 34.6 to 79.5 and 61, respectively. Fourteen of the 66 (21%) patients were revised at an average of 2.8 years. Intraoperative fracture is an uncommon complication of primary TKA with a prevalence of 0.39%. Intraoperative fracture occurred more commonly in women (80.6%) and in the femur (73.1%). The majority of fractures occurred during exposure and bone preparation and trialing of the components.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
To examine the rates and predictors of deep peri-prosthetic infections following shoulder hemi-arthroplasty.
We used prospectively collected Institutional Registry data on all primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasty patients from 1976–2008. We estimated survival-free of deep peri-prosthetic infections using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Using univariate Cox regression analyses, we examined the association of patient-related factors (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)), comorbidity (Charlson index), ASA grade, underlying diagnosis and implant fixation with the risk of infection.
1,349 patients, with mean age 63 years (standard deviation, 16) with 63% women, underwent 1,431 primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasties. Mean follow-up was 8 years (standard deviation, 7 years). Fourteen deep peri-prosthetic infections occurred during the follow-up, confirmed by medical record review. Most common organisms were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus coagulase negative and Propionobacterium acnes, each accounting for 3 cases (21% each). The 5-, 10- and 20-year prosthetic infection-free rates (95% confidence interval) were 98.9% (98.3%, 99.5%), 98.7% (98.1%, 99.4%) and 98.7% (98.1%, 99.4%) respectively. None of the factors evaluated were significantly associated with risk of prosthetic infection after primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasty, except that an underlying diagnosis of trauma was associated with significantly higher hazard ratio of 3.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–9.56) of infection compared to all other diagnoses (p=0.04). A higher body mass index showed a non-statistical trend towards association with higher hazard (p=0.13).
The periprosthetic infection rate after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty was low, estimated at 1.3% at 20-year follow-up. An underlying diagnosis of trauma was associated with a higher risk of periprosthetic infection. These patients should be observed closely for development of infection.
Shoulder hemiarthroplasty; humeral head replacement; infection; age
Assess long-term risk of revision surgery and its predictors after undergoing humeral head replacement (HHR).
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry and other institutional electronic databases. Revision-free survival for HHR at 5-, 10- and 20-years was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of revision surgery. Hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented.
1,359 patients underwent 1,431 shoulder HHRs during the study period, 1976–2008. The average age was 63 years, 63% were female, mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 and 60% implants were cemented. 114 HHRs were revised during the follow-up. At 5-, 10- and 20-years, the shoulder implant survival was 93.6% (95% CI, 92.1%–95%), 90% (95% CI, 88%–92%) and 85% (95% CI, 81.8%–88.4%) respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, older age was associated with lower hazard of revision, hazard ratio, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.99; p-value<0.001) and higher BMI with higher hazard ratio of 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p-value=0.02).
Long-term survival of HHR at 20-years was excellent. Obesity and younger age are risk factors for higher revision rate after HHR. Further studies should investigate the biologic rationale for these important associations. Surgeons can discuss these differences in revision risk with patients, especially in young obese patients.
Shoulder hemiarthroplasty; humeral head replacement; revision; obesity; age
We assessed whether higher Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with higher risk of moderate-severe knee pain 2- and 5-years after primary or revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). We adjusted for gender, age, comorbidity, operative diagnosis and implant fixation in multivariable logistic regression. BMI (reference, <25 kg/m2) was not associated with moderate-severe knee pain at 2-years post-primary TKA (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 25-29.9, 1.02 (0.75,1.39), p=0.90; 30-34.9, 0.93 (0.65,1.34), p=0.71; 35-39.9, 1.16 (0.77,1.74), p=0.47; ≥40, 1.09 (0.69,1.73), (all p-values ≥0.47). Similarly, BMI was not associated with moderate-severe pain at 5-year primary TKA and at 2- and 5-yr revision TKA follow-up. Lack of association of higher BMI with poor pain outcomes post-TKA implies that TKA should not be denied to obese patients for fear of suboptimal outcomes.
Poor pain and function outcomes are undesirable after an elective surgery such as total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Recent studies have indicated that the presence of contralateral joint influences outcomes of THA/TKA, however the impact of ipsilateral knee/hip involvement on THA/TKA outcomes has not been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the association of ipsilateral knee/hip joint involvement on short-term and medium-term pain and function outcomes after THA/TKA.
In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, we used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of ipsilateral knee or hip joint involvement with moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary and revision THA and TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses.
At 2 years, 3,823 primary THA, 4,701 primary TKA, 1,218 revision THA and 725 revision TKA procedures were studied. After adjusting for multiple covariates, ipsilateral knee pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary THA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, odds ratio (OR), 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 3.6); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3); at 5 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.0). Ipsilateral hip pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary TKA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.9); at 5 years, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Similar associations were noted for revision THA and TKA patients.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the presence of ipsilateral joint involvement after THA or TKA is strongly associated with poor pain and function outcomes. A potential way to improve outcomes is to address ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement.
Arthroplasty; Ipsilateral; Joint replacement; Outcomes; Risk factors; Total hip replacement; Total knee replacement
This is a study of the impact of specific and overall comorbidity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in men with primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In a population-based sample of male veterans who responded to a cross-sectional survey using the validated short-form 36 for veterans (SF-36 V) and had undergone primary TKA prior to survey, eight SF-36 V domain and two summary scores (physical and mental component (PCS and MCS) summary) were compared using multivariable-adjusted multiple linear regressions between patients with and without five comorbidities—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma, diabetes, depression, hypertension, and heart disease. Analyses were adjusted for age, five comorbidities, and time since TKA. Two hundred ninety-three male patients constituted the analytic set with mean (SD) age of 70.3 (8.8) years; 97% were Caucasian and mean (SD) duration since TKA was 2.1 (0.7) years. COPD/asthma was associated with significantly lower adjusted MCS (mean±standard error of mean, 47.1±0.7 vs. 43.1±1.2; p≤0.001) and PCS (30.1±0.6 vs. 27.7±1.0; p<0.05), depression with significantly lower MCS (48.9±0.7 vs. 37.6±1.2; p≤0.001) but not PCS, hypertension with significantly lower MCS (47.0±0.7 vs. 44.3±1.0; p<0.05) but not PCS, and heart disease with significantly lower MCS (47.4±0.8 vs. 44.2±0.9; p≤0.001) and PCS (30.5±0.7 vs. 28.1±0.8; p<0.05). Diabetes was not associated with lower MCS or PCS. The overall number of comorbidities was associated with lower MCS and PCS (p≤0.001 for both). Medical and psychiatric comorbidity impacts physical and mental/emotional HRQoL in patients with primary TKA. The impact differs by comorbidity. Higher comorbidity load negatively impacts both physical and mental/emotional HRQoL.
Comorbidity; Health-related quality of life; HRQoL; Knee arthroplasty; Quality of life; Total knee arthroplasty
Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be an alternative method for treating distal femoral fractures in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA with the Medial Pivot prosthesis for distal femoral fractures.
Materials and Methods
Eight displaced distal femoral fractures in 8 patients were treated with TKA using the Medial Pivot prosthesis and internal fixation. The radiographic and clinical evaluations were performed using simple radiographs and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores during a mean follow-up period of 49 months.
All fractures united and the mean time to radiographic union was 15 weeks. The mean range of motion of the knee joint was 114.3° and the mean HSS knee score was 85.1 at the final follow-up.
Based on the radiographic and clinical results, TKA with internal fixation can be considered as an option for the treatment of simple distal femoral fractures in elderly patients who have advanced osteoarthritis of the knee with appropriate bone stock.
Knee; Distal femoral fracture; Osteoarthritis; Arthroplasty; Medial Pivot
Surgery is indicated for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) when conservative measures are unsuccessful. High tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are surgical options intended to relieve knee OA pain and dysfunction. The choice of surgical intervention is dependent on several factors such as disease location, patient age, comorbidities, and activity levels. Regardless of surgical treatment, complications such as infection, loosening or lysis, periprosthetic fracture, and postoperative pain are known risks and are indications for revision surgery. The clinical and economic implications for revision surgery are underappreciated. Over 55,000 revision surgeries were performed in 2010 in the US, with 48% of these revisions in patients under 65 years. Total costs associated with each revision TKA surgery have been estimated to be in excess of $49,000. The current annual economic burden of revision knee OA surgery is $2.7 billion for hospital charges alone. By 2030, assuming a 5-fold increase in the number of revision procedures, this economic burden will exceed $13 billion annually. It is appealing to envision a therapy that could delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty. From an actuarial standpoint, this would have the theoretical downstream effect of substantially reducing the number of revision procedures. Although no known therapies currently meet these criteria, such a breakthrough would have a tremendous impact in lessening the clinical and economic burden of knee OA revision surgery.
arthroplasty; knee; osteoarthritis; revision
Hip fractures in the elderly are associated with high 1-year mortality rates, but whether patients with other lower extremity fractures are exposed to a similar mortality risk is not clear.
We evaluated the mortality of elderly patients after distal femur fractures; determined predictors for mortality; analyzed the effect of surgical delay; and compared survivorship of elderly patients with distal femur fractures with subjects in a matched hip fracture group.
Patients and Methods
We included 92 consecutive patients older than 60 years with low-energy supracondylar femur fractures treated between 1999 and 2009. Patient, fracture, and treatment characteristics were extracted from operative records, charts, and radiographs. Data regarding mortality were obtained from the Social Security Death Index.
Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index and a previous TKA were independent predictors for decreased survival. Congestive heart failure, dementia, renal disease, and history of malignant tumor led to shorter survival times. Patients who underwent surgery more than 4 days versus 48 hours after admission had greater 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. No differences in mortality were found comparing patients with native distal femur fractures with patients in a hip fracture control group.
Periprosthetic fractures and fractures in patients with dementia, heart failure, advanced renal disease, and metastasis lead to reduced survival. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index may serve as a useful tool to predict survival after distal femur fractures. Surgical delay greater than 4 days increases the 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. Mortality after native fractures of the distal femur in the geriatric population is high and similar to mortality after hip fractures.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See the guidelines online for a complete description of evidence.
Bleeding during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. One proposed benefit of computer assisted TKA is decreased bleeding as the femoral canal is not invaded. This study assessed blood loss between computer assisted surgery (CAS) and conventional TKA.
Materials and Methods:
73 consecutive patients (37 males, 36 females) underwent primary TKA between 2006 and 2009. Thirty eight patients underwent navigated TKA and 35 underwent conventional TKA for symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. These patients were matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Average age was 70.3 years (range 47-91 years). Mean BMI was 30 (range 17-49). Average preoperative hemoglobin was 13.26 g/dL (range 8.7-18.4 g/dL) in the navigated group and 13.47 g/dL (range 9.6-15.8 g/dL) in the conventional group (P = 0.9). Average tourniquet time was 110 min (range 90-150 min) in the navigated group and 96.7 min (range 60-145 min) in the conventional group (P = 0.77).
Average postoperative hemoglobin in the navigated group was 10.34 g/dL (range 7.5-14.8 g/dL) and in the conventional group was 10.03 g/dL (range 7.5-12.2 g/dL) (P = 0.17). Six patients in both groups required blood transfusions. The mean drain collection was 599 mL (range 150-1370 mL) in the navigated group and 562 mL (range 750-1000 mL) in the conventional group (P = 0.1724). These results suggest that there is no significant reduction in blood loss in CAS TKA.
These results suggest that there is no significant difference in blood loss in CAS TKA and conventional TKA. This study also highlights the heterogeneity of methods used in studies related to CAS TKA. We believe that there is a need for a large multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to be performed before a consensus can be reached on the influence of CAS techniques on blood loss during primary TKA.
Blood loss; computer navigated total knee arthroplasty; conventional total knee arthroplasty
Study pain and use of pain medications and their predictors after primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA).
We examined whether gender, age (reference, < = 60 yrs), body mass index (BMI; reference, <25 kg/m2)), comorbidity measured by Deyo-Charlson index (5-point increase), anxiety and depression predict moderate-severe hip pain and use of pain medications 2- and 5-years after primary THA. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for these predictors and distance from medical center, operative diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and implant type.
Moderate-severe pain was reported by 8.1% at 2-years and 10.8% at 5-years. Significant predictors of moderate-severe pain at 2-year follow-up were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: BMI 35-39.9, 1.8 (1.2,2.8); BMI > = 40, 1.7 (1.0,2.9); depression, 2.1 (1.4,3.0). Moderate-severe pain at 5-years was more common in patients with higher BMI: 25-29.9, 1.5 (1.1,2.1); 30-34.9, 1.8 (1.2,2.6); 35-39.9, 1.9 (1.2,3.1); and > = 40, 3.1 (1.7,5.7).
Significant predictors of NSAID use were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: female gender at 2- and 5-years, 1.4 (1.1,1.7) and 1.4 (1.1,1.8); BMI 35-39.9 at 2-years, 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) and 30-34.9 at 2-years, 1.7 (1.2,2.4); and depression at 5-years, 1.8 (1.2,2.8).
Significant predictors of opioid medication use were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: female gender at 2- and 5-years, 2.0 (1.1,3.0) and 2.4 (1.4,4.0); BMI 30-34.9 at 2-years, 2.0 (1.0,3.9); and depression at 2-years, 2.0 (1.1,3.7).
Higher BMI and depression impacted moderate-severe pain; and female gender, higher BMI and depression predicted use of pain medications at 2- and 5-years post-primary THA.
The purpose of this study was to examine how complications in older adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery vary as a function of age, comorbidity, and type of surgical procedure.
We abstracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database for all patients aged ≥ 50 who had undergone cervical laminoplasty, lumbar decompression, lumbar arthrodesis, or primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between July 1 and December 31 in the years 2007 to 2010. Outcome measures included all-cause in-hospital mortality and incidence of major complications. We analyzed the effects of age, sex, comorbidities, and type of surgical procedure on outcomes. Charlson comorbidity index was used to identify and summarize patients’ comorbid burden.
A total of 107,104 patients were identified who underwent cervical laminoplasty (16,020 patients), lumbar decompression (31,605), lumbar arthrodesis (18,419), or TKA (41,060). Of these, 17,339 (16.2%) were aged 80 years or older. Overall, in-hospital death occurred in 121 patients (0.11%) and 4,448 patients (4.2%) had at least one major complication. In-hospital mortality and complication rates increased with increasing age and comorbidity. A multivariate analysis showed mortality and major complications following surgery were associated with advanced age (aged ≥ 80 years; odds ratios 5.88 and 1.51), male gender, and a higher comorbidity burden (Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 3; odds ratio, 16.5 and 5.06). After adjustment for confounding factors, patients undergoing lumbar arthrodesis or cervical laminoplasty were at twice the risk of in-hospital mortality compared with patients undergoing TKA.
Our data demonstrated that an increased comorbid burden as measured by Charlson comorbidity index has a greater impact on postoperative mortality and major complications than age in older adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery. After adjustment, mortality following lumbar arthrodesis or cervical laminoplasty was twice as high as that in TKA. Our findings suggest that an assessment of perioperative risks in elderly patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery should be stratified according to comorbidity burden and type of procedures, as well as by patient’s age.
Orhopaedic surgery; Spine surgery; Arthroplasty; Complication; Mortality; Database; Charlson comorbidity index; Elderly patients
One of the most catastrophic outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a chronic periprosthetic infection with concomitant failure of the knee extensor mechanism. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 7 patients who were treated with a 6 axis circular external fixation frame (Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF)) for this condition. Fusion was achieved in 5 of 7 patients (71%) at an average of 8.4 months after surgery. Complications occurred in the treatment of 5 of 7 patients (71%). Infection was controlled in all cases. The TSF presents another valuable tool, which the orthopaedic surgeon should consider when treating these difficult cases.
To evaluate the use of the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) to achieve knee arthrodesis in patients with chronically infected total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) with concomitant failure of the knee extensor mechanism.
We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of 7 patients who were referred to our tertiary care orthopaedic medical center with multiple failed knee arthroplasties, chronic draining infection and complete loss of the extensor mechanism. All patients were treated with a similar protocol including, debridement and bony stabilization with an adjustable, 6 axis circular external fixation frame (TSF). Hospital charts were reviewed for sociodemographic information, surgical details, hospital course and complications. Radiographs were reviewed for healing and alignment. Follow up included clinical examination and radiographs.
The mean age of the patients was 70.9 years (range, 59 – 83 years) at the time of application of the TSF. There were 3 men and 4 women. The average time between TKA and diagnosis of infection was 30.7 months (range, 2.6 – 67.0 months). The 7 patients had undergone an average of 3.3 prior surgical procedures (range, 2-4 procedures) on the ipsilateral extremity. Fusion was achieved in 5 of 7 patients (71%) at an average of 8.4 months after surgery (range, 6 – 10.5 months). Complications occurred in the treatment of 5 of 7 patients (71%) and included infection at the site of the pin tracks (5 patients), antibiotic- induced acute renal failure (1 patient), wound breakdown requiring flap closure (1 patient), and femur fracture secondary to a fall after placement of the antibiotic spacer but before application of the TSF (1 patient). The 2 patients in whom failure of fusion occurred returned to ambulation with an assistive device. Infection was controlled in all cases.
Fusion and complication rates in this cohort are comparable to those reported in previous studies using other techniques to achieve external fixation. The TSF is a versatile external fixator that offers another tool, which the orthopaedic surgeon should consider when treating these difficult cases.
total knee arthroplasty; peri-prosthetic infection; Taylor Spatial Frame; knee arthrodesis
Obesity contributes much to the development of knee osteoarthritis. However, the association between obesity and outcome after knee replacement is controversial. We investigated whether there was an association between the preoperative body mass index (BMI) of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and their quality of life (QoL) and physical function 3–5 years after surgery.
197 patients who had undergone primary TKA participated in a 3–5 year follow-up study. The outcome measures were the patient-reported Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the American Knee Society score (KSS).
Ordinal logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, sex, disease, and surgical approach) revealed a statistically significant correlation between BMI and 9 of the 14 outcome measures. For all outcome measures, we found an odds ratio (OR) of < 1. A difference in BMI of 1 kg/m2 increased the risk of a lower score from a minimum of 2% (OR = 0.98 (0.93–1.03); p = 0.5) (Mental Component score) to a maximum of 13% (OR = 0.87 (0.82–0.93); p < 0.001) (KSS function score).
Our findings indicate that TKA patients’ preoperative BMI is a predictor of the clinical effect and patients’ quality of life 3–5 years postoperatively. A high BMI increases the risk of poor QoL (SF-36) and physical function (KSS).
Using an institutional Joint Registry, we studied frequency, trends and predictors of mortality following elective total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Of the 12,727 and 12,484 patients who underwent THA and TKA respectively, all-cause mortality rates at 7-, 30- and 90-days were as follows: THA, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%; TKA 0.1%. 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Statistically significant downward time-trend in 90-day mortality was noted after TKA (p=0.02), but not after THA (p=0.41). In multivariable-adjusted analyses of THA patients, older age, higher comorbidity index, and prior cardiac disease were significantly associated with higher 90-day mortality. In TKA patients, older age, male gender, ASA class of 3-4, and higher comorbidity index were associated with higher 90-day all-cause mortality. Optimization of disease management may reduce postoperative mortality after THA/TKA.
Objective: An early detection of possible periprosthetic infection may lead to an earlier and potentially less invasive treatment of infected total knee arthroplasty TKA). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate retrospectively our current, affordable clinical practice of intra-operative swab taking during primary TKA.
Methods: A total of 206 primary TKA were analysed retrospectively for intra-operative bacteriology swabs and subsequent periprosthetic infection. All bacteriology swabs were obtained in a standardized manner including a tissue sample. Data was statistically evaluated concerning standard descriptive statistics and using the chi-square test.
Results: Bacteria were identified in 43.4% with coagulase-negative staphylococci being the most frequently isolated pathogens (52.2%). Regarding the contingency tables and chi-squared tests, generally no association was found between positive intra-operative swabs and subsequent periprosthetic infection as well as all other parameters investigated (timing of the antibiotic prophylaxis and pre-operative laboratory results).
Conclusions: Bacteriology swabs during primary total knee arthroplasty are no adequate measure to predict subsequent periprosthetic infections, even if augmented with a tissue sample.
intra-operative bacteriology swab; intra-operative tissue sample; total knee arthroplasty; periprosthetic infection; peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis; pre-operative laboratory infection markers
The objective of this study was to compare comorbidity, functional ability, and health care utilization in veterans with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) versus matched control populations. A cohort of veterans using Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system reported limitations in six activities of daily living (ADLs; bathing, dressing, eating, walking, transferring, and using the toilet), demographics, and physician-diagnosed comorbidity. VA databases provided healthcare utilization and International Classification of Diseases-9/Common procedure terminology codes for TKA/THA. Patients were classified as: (1) primary TKA; (2) primary THA; (3) combination group (≤1 procedure); and (4) control veteran population (no THA/TKA). Multivariable regression analyses compared the risk or counts of ADL limitation and in-/out-patient visits. After multivariable adjustment, TKA, THA or combination groups had significantly higher prevalence of the following compared to veteran controls: arthritis, diabetes, or heart disease (p<0.0001 each), severe (≥3) ADL limitation (33%, 42%, 42% vs. 24%; p<0.0001), and annual hospitalization rate (24%, 19%, 26% vs. 16%, p<0.0001). Annual outpatient surgery visits were more (2.5, 2.3, 2.3 vs. 2, p=0.01) and risk of any mental health outpatient visit was lower (12%, 11%, 12% vs. 18%, p=0.0039). All ADLs, except eating, were significantly more limited in arthroplasty groups (p= 0.0009). Severe ADL limitation was more prevalent in veterans with arthroplasty than in two age-matched US cohorts: 13.4 times in ≥65 years; and 1.2-, 1.6-, and 4-fold in ≥85, 75–84, and 65–74 years. Poorer function and higher comorbidity and utilization in veterans with TKA/THA suggest that this group is appropriate for interventions targeted at improving function and decreasing utilization.
Arthroplasty; Functional status; Healthcare utilization; Total hip arthroplasty; Total joint arthroplasty; Total knee arthroplasty; Veterans
Total knee arthroplasty performed after tibial plateau fracture has a known high rate of complications. We hypothesized TKAs performed after infected tibial plateau fractures would have an even higher complication rate when compared with noninfected tibial plateau fractures. In a matched case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed 19 patients who underwent primary TKAs after infected tibial plateau fractures between 1971 and 2005. The mean time from the most recent infection to arthroplasty was 5.6 years. The minimum clinical followup after TKA was 2 years (mean, 6.4 years; range, 2–15.1 years). Case patients were matched for age, gender, and arthroplasty year with 19 control subjects who underwent TKAs for tibial plateau fractures with no history of infections. After surgery, the Knee Society scores for the study group improved from 45 to 63 for pain and from 37 to 63 for function. Ten case patients (53%) sustained complications, including surgery for wound breakdown (three), manipulation (one), aseptic loosening (two), definitive resection arthroplasty (two), and above-knee amputation (two). Recurrent infections occurred in five patients (26%) at a mean of 1.1 years. Previously infected knees were 4.1 times more likely to require additional procedures compared with knees with no previous infection.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Range of motion (ROM) is an important outcome variable after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This may be compounded by a pre-existing fixed flexion deformity (FFD). We therefore examined the long-term outcomes of patients with a flexion deformity undergoing TKA compared to those without a preoperative fixed flexion deformity. Participants who had undergone TKA at our centre between 1989 and 2002 were examined preoperatively, one, five and ten years after TKA (Kinemax PS; Howmedica, Rutherford, NJ, USA). Examining those with a preoperative FFD of greater than ten degrees with complete ten year follow-up data revealed 77 individuals. Seventy seven age, sex and body mass index matched patients were identified and the effect of TKA on indices of knee function (fixed flexion, maximum flexion, total ROM and Knee Society score (KSS) in both groups were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA. A significant difference between the groups with respect to fixed flexion (p < 0.001), total ROM (p = 0.001) and KSS (p < 0.001) was observed between baseline and year one suggesting that those with a preoperative FFD improved more than those without. A significant difference with regard to fixed flexion was also observed between years one to five (p = 0.001) and just failed to reach statistical significance between five to ten years (p = 0.052) between the groups. This study demonstrates that patients with a preoperative fixed flexion deformity show continued improvement in their fixed flexion up to ten years post arthroplasty and have similar outcomes to those with no preoperative fixed flexion.