Background and purpose
There have been no published studies assessing the possible association of medical comorbidities with periprosthetic fracture risk. We therefore assessed whether medical comorbidity is associated with risk of periprosthetic fractures after total hip replacement (THR).
Material and methods
We used prospectively collected data from 1989–2008 in the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for 2 cohorts: primary THR and revision THR. The main variables of interest were Deyo-Charlson comorbidities at the time of surgery. Outcome of interest was p ostoperative periprosthetic fracture at postoperative day 1 onwards. Multivariable
Cox regression models were additionally adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, and operative diagnosis.
We identified 14,065 primary THRs and 6,281 revision THRs with mean follow-up times of 6.3 and 5.6 years, respectively. There were 305 postoperative periprosthetic fractures in the primary THR cohort and 330 in the revision THR cohort. In patients who underwent primary THR, 2 comorbidities were associated with higher risk of periprosthetic fracture: peptic ulcer disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and heart disease with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.7 (CI: 1.2–2.4). In patients with revision THR, peptic ulcer disease was associated with a higher adjusted risk of periprosthetic fracture, 1.6 (CI: 1.1–2.3).
Peptic ulcer disease and heart disease in primary THR patients and peptic ulcer disease in revision THR patients were associated with higher postoperative periprosthetic fracture risk. Further studies are needed to understand whether disease severity or specific medications used for treatment, or both, are responsible for this association. This may allow identification of modifiable factors.
To study the use of pain medications for persistent index knee pain and their predictors after primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).
The Mayo Total Joint Registry collects patient-reported data including pain medication use on all patients who undergo TKA. We used data from patients who underwent primary TKA from 1993-2005. We examined whether gender, age (reference, ≤60 yrs), body mass index (BMI; reference, <25 kg/m2), comorbidities measured by Deyo-Charlson index (5-point increase), anxiety and depression predicted use of pain medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids) 2- and 5-years after primary TKA. Multivariable logistic regression additionally adjusted for operative diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, implant fixation and distance from the medical center.
7,139 of the 10,957 eligible (65%) at 2-years and 4,234 of 7,404 eligible (57%) completed questionnaires. Significant predictors of NSAIDs use were (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)): male gender at 2- and 5-years, 0.5 (0.4, 0.6) and 0.6 (0.5, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.7 (0.5, 0.9), 0.6 (0.4, 0.8); and depression, 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) and 1.7 (1.1, 2.5). BMI ≥40 was associated with NSAIDs use only at 2-years, 1.6 (1.1, 2.5). Significant predictors of opioid pain medication use at 2- and 5-years were: male gender, 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) and 0.4 (0.2, 0.8); age >70-80 years, 0.3 (0.1, 0.6), 0.3 (0.1, 0.8); and anxiety, 3.0 (1.6, 5.7) and 4.0 (1.7, 9.4).
Female gender and younger age were associated with higher risk of use of NSAIDs and opioids after primary TKA. Depression was associated with higher NSAID use and anxiety with higher opioid pain medication use after primary TKA.
To examine the rates and predictors of deep periprosthetic infections after primary total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA).
We used prospectively collected data on all primary TSA patients from 1976-2008 at Mayo Clinic Medical Center. We estimated survival free of deep periprosthetic infections after primary TSA using Kaplan-Meier survival. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association of patient-related factors (age, gender, body mass index), comorbidity (Deyo-Charlson index), American Society of Anesthesiologists class, implant fixation, and underlying diagnosis with risk of infection.
A total of 2,207 patients, with a mean age of 65 years (SD, 12 years), 53% of whom were women, underwent 2,588 primary TSAs. Mean follow-up was 7 years (SD, 6 years), and the mean body mass index was 30 kg/m2 (SD, 6 kg/m2). The American Society of Anesthesiologists class was 1 or 2 in 61% of cases. Thirty-two confirmed deep periprosthetic infections occurred during follow-up. In earlier years, Staphylococcus predominated; in recent years, Propionibacterium acnes was almost as common. The 5-, 10-, and 20-year prosthetic infection–free rates were 99.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.9-99.6), 98.5% (95% CI, 97.8-99.1), and 97.2% (95% CI, 96.0-98.4), respectively. On multivariable analysis, a male patient had a significantly higher risk of deep periprosthetic infection (hazard ratio, 2.67 [95% CI, 1.22-5.87]; P =.01) and older age was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-1.00] per year; P =.05).
The periprosthetic infection rate was low at 20-year follow-up. Male gender and younger age were significant risk factors for deep periprosthetic infections after TSA. Future studies should investigate whether differences in bone morphology, medical comorbidity, or other factors are underlying these associations.
Total shoulder arthroplasty; periprosthetic infections
Periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are infrequent, but is a devastating complication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and outcomes of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures following TKA using nonoperative as well as open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) techniques.
Materials and Methods:
Between January 2004 and December 2010, we followed 3,920 operated patients of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and identified 23 patients with periprosthetic supracondylar fractures. A retrospective analysis of the records of these patients was conducted. Details regarding pre fracture status, treatment offered and the present status were also recorded and analyzed. Time from index arthroplasty to periprosthetic fracture ranged from five days to six years. There were 17 women and 6 men and the average age was 68.26 years (range 52-83 years). Of the 23 patients, 20 patients were treated by operative method, whereas only three patients with relatively undisplaced fractures were treated nonoperatively.
The total incidence of periprosthetic fractures in operated cases of TKA was 0.58%. Three patients had infection after surgery. As per radiological assessment, two of three conservatively treated cases had malunion, whereas among 20 cases treated operatively, 16 had primary union with one malunion. Two patients had union after bone grafting, whereas two had nonunion. The average reduction in the knee score after fracture was 20.53%. Twenty one patients were able to achieve limited but independent activity.
Desirable results for periprosthetic fractures can be obtained if proper and timely intervention is done, taking into account the other comorbid conditions. However, short duration of followup and small number of patients were major limiting factors in this study.
Distal femoral locking plate; periprosthetic fracture; supracondylar femur fracture; total knee arthroplasty
We studied the frequency and patient risk factors for postoperative periprosthetic fractures after primary total hip replacement (THR). With a mean follow-up of 6.3 years, 305 postoperative periprosthetic fractures occurred in 14,065 primary THRs. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses, female gender (Hazard ratio [HR], 1.48;95% confidence interval [CI]:1.17–1.88), Deyo-Charlson comorbidity score of 2 (HR, 1.74 for score of 2;95% CI: 1.25–2.43) or 3 or higher (HR, 1.71;95% CI: 1.26–2.32), ASA class of 2 (HR, 1.84;95% CI: 0.90–3.76), 3 (HR, 2.45;95% CI: 1.18–5.1) or 4 or higher (HR, 2.68;95% CI: 0.70–10.28) were significantly associated with higher risk/hazard and cemented implant with lower hazard (HR, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54–0.87) of postoperative periprosthetic fractures. Interventions targeted at optimizing comorbidity management may decrease postoperative fractures after THR.
The osteosynthesis of the periprosthetic fractures following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be technically difficult with the relatively small satisfactory outcomes and the high complication rates. The purpose of the study is to analyze the mid-term radiological and functional outcomes following the locked plating of the distal femur periprosthetic fractures after a TKA.
Records of 20 patients with a periprosthetic distal femur fracture following TKA treated by the locked plate osteosynthesis were retrospectively evaluated. The union rate, complications and functional outcome measures were analyzed.
Successful union was achieved in 18 of the 19 patients available for the follow-up. The mean follow-up was 39 ± 10 months. Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in the range of motion and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were evident in the follow-up. Secondary procedures were required in 5 patients to address the delay in union and the reduced knee range of motion. The osteosynthesis failed in 1 patient who underwent a revision TKA.
The satisfactory union rates can be achieved with the locked plate osteosynthesis in the periprosthetic distal femur fractures after TKA. Prolonged rehabilitation coupled with the un-modifiable risk factors can decrease the activity and satisfaction levels, which can significantly alter the functional outcome.
Total knee arthroplasty; Periprosthetic fractures; Locked plating; Distal femur fractures; Osteosynthesis
Study the frequency and predictors of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications following primary shoulder arthroplasty
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry from 1976–2008. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented.
3,480 patients underwent 4,019 primary shoulder arthroplasties. 90-day cardiac and thromboembolic complication rates following primary shoulder arthroplasty were 2.6% (92/3480) and 1.2% (42/3480). After multivariable-adjustment, age >70 years (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–5.9; p-value= 0.01; relative to age <60), Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 1 or more (OR, 3.27; 95% CI:1.9–5.6; p<0.0001; relative to index of 0) and prior cardiac events (OR, 7.87; 95% CI: 4.89–12.68; p<0.0001; relative to no prior event) were associated with higher odds of 90-day cardiac complications. Due to few thromboembolic events, only univariate analyses were performed. Univariately, female gender, age >70 years, BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, Deyo Charlson index of 1 or more, underlying diagnosis of trauma, prior thromboembolic event and surgery type were each associated with significantly higher risk of 90-day thromboembolic event (p≤0.03 for all).
Cardiac and thromboembolic complications are uncommon after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Patients can be informed of their risk of cardiac complications following shoulder arthroplasty based on presence of risk factors.
Complications; shoulder arthroplasty; predictors; Cardiopulmonary; humeral head replacement
Examine 90-day postoperative mortality and its predictors following shoulder arthroplasty
We identified vital status of all adults who underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty (Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or humeral head replacement (HHR)) at the Mayo Clinic from 1976-2008, using the prospectively collected information from Total Joint Registry. We used univariate logistic regression models to assess the association of gender, age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, an underlying diagnosis and implant fixation with odds of 90-day mortality after TSA or HHR. Multivariable models additionally adjusted for the type of surgery (TSA versus HHR). Adjusted Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
Twenty-eight of the 3, 480 patient operated died within 90-days of shoulder arthroplasty (0.8%). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, the following factors were associated with significantly higher odds of 90-day mortality: higher Deyo-Charlson index (OR, 1.54; 95% CI:1.39, 1.70; p < 0.001); a diagnosis of tumor (OR, 16.2; 95%CI:7.1, 36.7); and ASA class III (OR, 3.57; 95% CI:1.29, 9.91; p = 0.01) or class IV (OR, 13.4; 95% CI:2.44, 73.86; p = 0.003). BMI ≥ 30 was associated with lower risk of 90-day mortality (OR, 0.25; 95% CI:0.08, 0.78). In univariate analyses, patients undergoing TSA had significantly lower 90-day mortality of 0.4% (8/2, 580) compared to 1% in HHR (20/1, 411) (odds ratio, 0.22 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.50); p = 0.0003).
90-day mortality following shoulder arthroplasty was low. An underlying diagnosis of tumor, higher comorbidity and higher ASA class were risk factors for higher 90-day mortality, while higher BMI was protective. Pre-operative comorbidity management may impact 90-day mortality following shoulder arthroplasty. A higher unadjusted mortality in patients undergoing TSA versus HHR may indicate the underlying differences in patients undergoing these procedures.
mortality; shoulder arthroplasty; humeral head replacement; shoulder hemiarthroplasty
We assessed important patient risk factors for postoperative periprosthetic fractures after revision total hip replacement (THR) using prospectively collected Institutional Joint Registry data. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. There were 330 postoperative periprosthetic fractures after 6,281 revision THRs. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, hazard [95% confidence interval] of periprosthetic fracture was higher for: women, 1.66 [1.32, 2.08], p<0.001; higher Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 2, 1.46 (1.03, 2.07) and index of 3+, 2.01 (1.48, 2.73), overall p<0.001; and operative diagnosis, especially previous non-union, 5.76 (2.55, 13.02), overall p<0.001. Hazard was lower in 61–70 year old, 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) and 71–80 year old 0.57 (0.43, 0.76), compared to <60 years (overall p<0.0001). Our study identified important modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors for fractures after revision THR.
While the occurrence of periprosthetic fractures around total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) is well know, little is known about intraoperative fractures that occur during TKA. We describe the incidence, location, and outcomes of iatrogenic intraoperative fracture during primary TKA. We reviewed 17,389 primary TKAs performed between 1985 and 2005 and identified 66 patients with 67 intraoperative fractures including 49 femur fractures, 18 tibia fractures, and no patella fractures. There were 12 men and 54 women with a mean age of 65.2 ± 16 years. Of the 49 femur fractures, locations included medial condyle (20), lateral condyle (11), supracondylar femur (eight), medial epicondyle (seven), lateral epicondyle (two), and posterior cortex (one). Tibia fractures (18) included lateral plateau (six), anterior cortex (four), medial plateau (three), lateral cortex (three), medial cortex (one), and posterior cortex (one). Twenty-six fractures occurred during exposure and preparation, 22 while trialing, 13 during cementation, and three while inserting the polyethylene spacer. The minimum followup was 0.15 years (mean, 5.1 years; range, 0.15–15.4 years). All fractures healed clinically and radiographically. Knee Society scores and function scores improved from 46.4 and 34.6 to 79.5 and 61, respectively. Fourteen of the 66 (21%) patients were revised at an average of 2.8 years. Intraoperative fracture is an uncommon complication of primary TKA with a prevalence of 0.39%. Intraoperative fracture occurred more commonly in women (80.6%) and in the femur (73.1%). The majority of fractures occurred during exposure and bone preparation and trialing of the components.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
To examine the rates and predictors of deep peri-prosthetic infections following shoulder hemi-arthroplasty.
We used prospectively collected Institutional Registry data on all primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasty patients from 1976–2008. We estimated survival-free of deep peri-prosthetic infections using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Using univariate Cox regression analyses, we examined the association of patient-related factors (age, gender, body mass index (BMI)), comorbidity (Charlson index), ASA grade, underlying diagnosis and implant fixation with the risk of infection.
1,349 patients, with mean age 63 years (standard deviation, 16) with 63% women, underwent 1,431 primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasties. Mean follow-up was 8 years (standard deviation, 7 years). Fourteen deep peri-prosthetic infections occurred during the follow-up, confirmed by medical record review. Most common organisms were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus coagulase negative and Propionobacterium acnes, each accounting for 3 cases (21% each). The 5-, 10- and 20-year prosthetic infection-free rates (95% confidence interval) were 98.9% (98.3%, 99.5%), 98.7% (98.1%, 99.4%) and 98.7% (98.1%, 99.4%) respectively. None of the factors evaluated were significantly associated with risk of prosthetic infection after primary shoulder hemi-arthroplasty, except that an underlying diagnosis of trauma was associated with significantly higher hazard ratio of 3.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–9.56) of infection compared to all other diagnoses (p=0.04). A higher body mass index showed a non-statistical trend towards association with higher hazard (p=0.13).
The periprosthetic infection rate after shoulder hemi-arthroplasty was low, estimated at 1.3% at 20-year follow-up. An underlying diagnosis of trauma was associated with a higher risk of periprosthetic infection. These patients should be observed closely for development of infection.
Shoulder hemiarthroplasty; humeral head replacement; infection; age
Poor pain and function outcomes are undesirable after an elective surgery such as total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Recent studies have indicated that the presence of contralateral joint influences outcomes of THA/TKA, however the impact of ipsilateral knee/hip involvement on THA/TKA outcomes has not been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the association of ipsilateral knee/hip joint involvement on short-term and medium-term pain and function outcomes after THA/TKA.
In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, we used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of ipsilateral knee or hip joint involvement with moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary and revision THA and TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses.
At 2 years, 3,823 primary THA, 4,701 primary TKA, 1,218 revision THA and 725 revision TKA procedures were studied. After adjusting for multiple covariates, ipsilateral knee pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary THA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, odds ratio (OR), 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 3.6); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3); at 5 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.0). Ipsilateral hip pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary TKA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.9); at 5 years, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Similar associations were noted for revision THA and TKA patients.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the presence of ipsilateral joint involvement after THA or TKA is strongly associated with poor pain and function outcomes. A potential way to improve outcomes is to address ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement.
Arthroplasty; Ipsilateral; Joint replacement; Outcomes; Risk factors; Total hip replacement; Total knee replacement
Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be an alternative method for treating distal femoral fractures in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA with the Medial Pivot prosthesis for distal femoral fractures.
Materials and Methods
Eight displaced distal femoral fractures in 8 patients were treated with TKA using the Medial Pivot prosthesis and internal fixation. The radiographic and clinical evaluations were performed using simple radiographs and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores during a mean follow-up period of 49 months.
All fractures united and the mean time to radiographic union was 15 weeks. The mean range of motion of the knee joint was 114.3° and the mean HSS knee score was 85.1 at the final follow-up.
Based on the radiographic and clinical results, TKA with internal fixation can be considered as an option for the treatment of simple distal femoral fractures in elderly patients who have advanced osteoarthritis of the knee with appropriate bone stock.
Knee; Distal femoral fracture; Osteoarthritis; Arthroplasty; Medial Pivot
In patients who underwent revision TKA from 1993–2005 and responded to follow-up questionnaires 2- or 5-years post-revision TKA, we studied whether body mass index (BMI), comorbidity (measured by validated Deyo-Charlson index), gender and age predict activity limitation 2- and 5-years after Revision TKA. Overall moderate-severe activity limitation was defined as ≥2 activities (walking, stairs, rising chair) with moderate-severe limitation. Multivariable logistic regressions also adjusted for income, diagnosis, distance from medical center and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA) score. The prevalence of overall moderate-severe activity limitation was high: 46.5% (677/1,456) at 2-years and 50.5% (420/832) at 5-years post-revision TKA. At both 2- and 5-year follow-up, BMI≥40, higher Deyo-Charlson score, female gender and age>80, each significantly predicted higher odds of moderate-severe overall activity limitation.
Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty; Activity Limitation; Functional limitation; predictors; body mass index; age; gender; comorbidity
To assess the association of diabetes with postoperative limitation of activities of daily living (ADLs) after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
We used the prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of diabetes and diabetes with complications with moderate-severe ADL limitation 2- and 5-years after primary TKA. Multivariable logistic regression with general estimating equations adjusted for preoperative ADL limitation, comorbidity and demographic and clinical covariates. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) are presented. 7,139 primary TKAs at 2-years and 4,234 at 5-years constituted the cohorts. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, diabetes was associated with higher odds of moderate-severe limitation at 2- and 5-years, 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.32; P = 0.001) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.46; P = 0.01). Respective ORs for patients with diabetes with complications were 2.73 (95% CI: 1.47, 5.07; P = 0.001) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.21, 6.15; P = 0.016). Sensitivity analyses that adjusted for anxiety and depression or anxiety, depression and ipsilateral hip involvement showed minimal attenuation of magnitude of the association.
In this large study of patients who underwent primary TKA, diabetes as well as its severity were independently associated with poorer functional outcome. Given the increasing rates of both diabetes as well as arthroplasty, more insight is needed into disease-related and treatment-related factors that underlie this higher risk of ADL limitation in patients with diabetes. Poor functional outcomes may be preventable by modifying the control of diabetes and associated comorbidity in pre- and post-arthroplasty periods.
One of the most catastrophic outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a chronic periprosthetic infection with concomitant failure of the knee extensor mechanism. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 7 patients who were treated with a 6 axis circular external fixation frame (Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF)) for this condition. Fusion was achieved in 5 of 7 patients (71%) at an average of 8.4 months after surgery. Complications occurred in the treatment of 5 of 7 patients (71%). Infection was controlled in all cases. The TSF presents another valuable tool, which the orthopaedic surgeon should consider when treating these difficult cases.
To evaluate the use of the Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) to achieve knee arthrodesis in patients with chronically infected total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) with concomitant failure of the knee extensor mechanism.
We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of 7 patients who were referred to our tertiary care orthopaedic medical center with multiple failed knee arthroplasties, chronic draining infection and complete loss of the extensor mechanism. All patients were treated with a similar protocol including, debridement and bony stabilization with an adjustable, 6 axis circular external fixation frame (TSF). Hospital charts were reviewed for sociodemographic information, surgical details, hospital course and complications. Radiographs were reviewed for healing and alignment. Follow up included clinical examination and radiographs.
The mean age of the patients was 70.9 years (range, 59 – 83 years) at the time of application of the TSF. There were 3 men and 4 women. The average time between TKA and diagnosis of infection was 30.7 months (range, 2.6 – 67.0 months). The 7 patients had undergone an average of 3.3 prior surgical procedures (range, 2-4 procedures) on the ipsilateral extremity. Fusion was achieved in 5 of 7 patients (71%) at an average of 8.4 months after surgery (range, 6 – 10.5 months). Complications occurred in the treatment of 5 of 7 patients (71%) and included infection at the site of the pin tracks (5 patients), antibiotic- induced acute renal failure (1 patient), wound breakdown requiring flap closure (1 patient), and femur fracture secondary to a fall after placement of the antibiotic spacer but before application of the TSF (1 patient). The 2 patients in whom failure of fusion occurred returned to ambulation with an assistive device. Infection was controlled in all cases.
Fusion and complication rates in this cohort are comparable to those reported in previous studies using other techniques to achieve external fixation. The TSF is a versatile external fixator that offers another tool, which the orthopaedic surgeon should consider when treating these difficult cases.
total knee arthroplasty; peri-prosthetic infection; Taylor Spatial Frame; knee arthrodesis
This is a study of the impact of specific and overall comorbidity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in men with primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In a population-based sample of male veterans who responded to a cross-sectional survey using the validated short-form 36 for veterans (SF-36 V) and had undergone primary TKA prior to survey, eight SF-36 V domain and two summary scores (physical and mental component (PCS and MCS) summary) were compared using multivariable-adjusted multiple linear regressions between patients with and without five comorbidities—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma, diabetes, depression, hypertension, and heart disease. Analyses were adjusted for age, five comorbidities, and time since TKA. Two hundred ninety-three male patients constituted the analytic set with mean (SD) age of 70.3 (8.8) years; 97% were Caucasian and mean (SD) duration since TKA was 2.1 (0.7) years. COPD/asthma was associated with significantly lower adjusted MCS (mean±standard error of mean, 47.1±0.7 vs. 43.1±1.2; p≤0.001) and PCS (30.1±0.6 vs. 27.7±1.0; p<0.05), depression with significantly lower MCS (48.9±0.7 vs. 37.6±1.2; p≤0.001) but not PCS, hypertension with significantly lower MCS (47.0±0.7 vs. 44.3±1.0; p<0.05) but not PCS, and heart disease with significantly lower MCS (47.4±0.8 vs. 44.2±0.9; p≤0.001) and PCS (30.5±0.7 vs. 28.1±0.8; p<0.05). Diabetes was not associated with lower MCS or PCS. The overall number of comorbidities was associated with lower MCS and PCS (p≤0.001 for both). Medical and psychiatric comorbidity impacts physical and mental/emotional HRQoL in patients with primary TKA. The impact differs by comorbidity. Higher comorbidity load negatively impacts both physical and mental/emotional HRQoL.
Comorbidity; Health-related quality of life; HRQoL; Knee arthroplasty; Quality of life; Total knee arthroplasty
Using an institutional Joint Registry, we studied frequency, trends and predictors of mortality following elective total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Of the 12,727 and 12,484 patients who underwent THA and TKA respectively, all-cause mortality rates at 7-, 30- and 90-days were as follows: THA, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5%; TKA 0.1%. 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Statistically significant downward time-trend in 90-day mortality was noted after TKA (p=0.02), but not after THA (p=0.41). In multivariable-adjusted analyses of THA patients, older age, higher comorbidity index, and prior cardiac disease were significantly associated with higher 90-day mortality. In TKA patients, older age, male gender, ASA class of 3-4, and higher comorbidity index were associated with higher 90-day all-cause mortality. Optimization of disease management may reduce postoperative mortality after THA/TKA.
Surgery is indicated for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) when conservative measures are unsuccessful. High tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are surgical options intended to relieve knee OA pain and dysfunction. The choice of surgical intervention is dependent on several factors such as disease location, patient age, comorbidities, and activity levels. Regardless of surgical treatment, complications such as infection, loosening or lysis, periprosthetic fracture, and postoperative pain are known risks and are indications for revision surgery. The clinical and economic implications for revision surgery are underappreciated. Over 55,000 revision surgeries were performed in 2010 in the US, with 48% of these revisions in patients under 65 years. Total costs associated with each revision TKA surgery have been estimated to be in excess of $49,000. The current annual economic burden of revision knee OA surgery is $2.7 billion for hospital charges alone. By 2030, assuming a 5-fold increase in the number of revision procedures, this economic burden will exceed $13 billion annually. It is appealing to envision a therapy that could delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty. From an actuarial standpoint, this would have the theoretical downstream effect of substantially reducing the number of revision procedures. Although no known therapies currently meet these criteria, such a breakthrough would have a tremendous impact in lessening the clinical and economic burden of knee OA revision surgery.
arthroplasty; knee; osteoarthritis; revision
Hip fractures in the elderly are associated with high 1-year mortality rates, but whether patients with other lower extremity fractures are exposed to a similar mortality risk is not clear.
We evaluated the mortality of elderly patients after distal femur fractures; determined predictors for mortality; analyzed the effect of surgical delay; and compared survivorship of elderly patients with distal femur fractures with subjects in a matched hip fracture group.
Patients and Methods
We included 92 consecutive patients older than 60 years with low-energy supracondylar femur fractures treated between 1999 and 2009. Patient, fracture, and treatment characteristics were extracted from operative records, charts, and radiographs. Data regarding mortality were obtained from the Social Security Death Index.
Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index and a previous TKA were independent predictors for decreased survival. Congestive heart failure, dementia, renal disease, and history of malignant tumor led to shorter survival times. Patients who underwent surgery more than 4 days versus 48 hours after admission had greater 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. No differences in mortality were found comparing patients with native distal femur fractures with patients in a hip fracture control group.
Periprosthetic fractures and fractures in patients with dementia, heart failure, advanced renal disease, and metastasis lead to reduced survival. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index may serve as a useful tool to predict survival after distal femur fractures. Surgical delay greater than 4 days increases the 6-month and 1-year mortality risks. Mortality after native fractures of the distal femur in the geriatric population is high and similar to mortality after hip fractures.
Level of Evidence
Level II, prognostic study. See the guidelines online for a complete description of evidence.
Assess long-term risk of revision surgery and its predictors after undergoing humeral head replacement (HHR).
We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry and other institutional electronic databases. Revision-free survival for HHR at 5-, 10- and 20-years was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of revision surgery. Hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented.
1,359 patients underwent 1,431 shoulder HHRs during the study period, 1976–2008. The average age was 63 years, 63% were female, mean BMI was 28 kg/m2 and 60% implants were cemented. 114 HHRs were revised during the follow-up. At 5-, 10- and 20-years, the shoulder implant survival was 93.6% (95% CI, 92.1%–95%), 90% (95% CI, 88%–92%) and 85% (95% CI, 81.8%–88.4%) respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, older age was associated with lower hazard of revision, hazard ratio, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.99; p-value<0.001) and higher BMI with higher hazard ratio of 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p-value=0.02).
Long-term survival of HHR at 20-years was excellent. Obesity and younger age are risk factors for higher revision rate after HHR. Further studies should investigate the biologic rationale for these important associations. Surgeons can discuss these differences in revision risk with patients, especially in young obese patients.
Shoulder hemiarthroplasty; humeral head replacement; revision; obesity; age
To compare periprosthetic tissue reactions observed after total disc replacement (TDR), total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgery.
Summary of background data
Prosthetic wear debris leading to particle disease, followed by osteolysis, is often observed after THA and TKA. Although the presence of polyethylene (PE) particles and periprosthetic inflammation after TDR has been proven recently, osteolysis is rarely observed. The clinical relevance of PE wear debris in the spine remains poorly understood.
Number, size and shape of PE particles, as well as quantity and type of inflammatory cells in periprosthetic tissue retrieved during Charité TDR (n=22), THA (n=10) and TKA (n=4) revision surgery were compared. Tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and examined by using light microscopy with bright field and polarized light.
After THA, large numbers of PE particles <6 µm were observed, which were mainly phagocytosed by macrophages. The TKA group had a broad size range with many larger PE particles and more giant cells. In TDR, the size range was similar to that observed in TKA. However, the smallest particles were the most prevalent with 75% of the particles being <6 µm, as seen in revision THA. In TDR, both macrophages and giant cells were present with a higher number of macrophages.
Both small and large PE particles are present after TDR revision surgery compatible with both THA and TKA wear patterns. The similarities between periprosthetic tissue reactions in the different groups may give more insight in the clinical relevance of PE particles and inflammatory cells in the lumbar spine. The current findings may help to improve TDR design as applied from technologies previously developed in THA and TKA with the goal of a longer survival of TDR.
The purpose of this study was to examine how complications in older adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery vary as a function of age, comorbidity, and type of surgical procedure.
We abstracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database for all patients aged ≥ 50 who had undergone cervical laminoplasty, lumbar decompression, lumbar arthrodesis, or primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between July 1 and December 31 in the years 2007 to 2010. Outcome measures included all-cause in-hospital mortality and incidence of major complications. We analyzed the effects of age, sex, comorbidities, and type of surgical procedure on outcomes. Charlson comorbidity index was used to identify and summarize patients’ comorbid burden.
A total of 107,104 patients were identified who underwent cervical laminoplasty (16,020 patients), lumbar decompression (31,605), lumbar arthrodesis (18,419), or TKA (41,060). Of these, 17,339 (16.2%) were aged 80 years or older. Overall, in-hospital death occurred in 121 patients (0.11%) and 4,448 patients (4.2%) had at least one major complication. In-hospital mortality and complication rates increased with increasing age and comorbidity. A multivariate analysis showed mortality and major complications following surgery were associated with advanced age (aged ≥ 80 years; odds ratios 5.88 and 1.51), male gender, and a higher comorbidity burden (Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 3; odds ratio, 16.5 and 5.06). After adjustment for confounding factors, patients undergoing lumbar arthrodesis or cervical laminoplasty were at twice the risk of in-hospital mortality compared with patients undergoing TKA.
Our data demonstrated that an increased comorbid burden as measured by Charlson comorbidity index has a greater impact on postoperative mortality and major complications than age in older adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery. After adjustment, mortality following lumbar arthrodesis or cervical laminoplasty was twice as high as that in TKA. Our findings suggest that an assessment of perioperative risks in elderly patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery should be stratified according to comorbidity burden and type of procedures, as well as by patient’s age.
Orhopaedic surgery; Spine surgery; Arthroplasty; Complication; Mortality; Database; Charlson comorbidity index; Elderly patients
Study pain and use of pain medications and their predictors after primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA).
We examined whether gender, age (reference, < = 60 yrs), body mass index (BMI; reference, <25 kg/m2)), comorbidity measured by Deyo-Charlson index (5-point increase), anxiety and depression predict moderate-severe hip pain and use of pain medications 2- and 5-years after primary THA. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for these predictors and distance from medical center, operative diagnosis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and implant type.
Moderate-severe pain was reported by 8.1% at 2-years and 10.8% at 5-years. Significant predictors of moderate-severe pain at 2-year follow-up were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: BMI 35-39.9, 1.8 (1.2,2.8); BMI > = 40, 1.7 (1.0,2.9); depression, 2.1 (1.4,3.0). Moderate-severe pain at 5-years was more common in patients with higher BMI: 25-29.9, 1.5 (1.1,2.1); 30-34.9, 1.8 (1.2,2.6); 35-39.9, 1.9 (1.2,3.1); and > = 40, 3.1 (1.7,5.7).
Significant predictors of NSAID use were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: female gender at 2- and 5-years, 1.4 (1.1,1.7) and 1.4 (1.1,1.8); BMI 35-39.9 at 2-years, 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) and 30-34.9 at 2-years, 1.7 (1.2,2.4); and depression at 5-years, 1.8 (1.2,2.8).
Significant predictors of opioid medication use were [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: female gender at 2- and 5-years, 2.0 (1.1,3.0) and 2.4 (1.4,4.0); BMI 30-34.9 at 2-years, 2.0 (1.0,3.9); and depression at 2-years, 2.0 (1.1,3.7).
Higher BMI and depression impacted moderate-severe pain; and female gender, higher BMI and depression predicted use of pain medications at 2- and 5-years post-primary THA.
When unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) failure occurs, a revision procedure to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often necessary. We compared the long-term results of this procedure to primary TKA and evaluated whether they are clinically comparable. Twenty-one patients underwent UKA conversion to TKA between 1991 and 2000. The results of these patients were compared to the group of 28 primary TKA patients with the same age, sex and operation time point. The long-term outcomes were evaluated using clinical and radiological analysis. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 10.5 years. The UKA revision patients were more dissatisfied, as measured by the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) scale (0–100 mm) compared to the primary TKA patients (pain 18.1/7.8; p = 0.014; stiffness 25.7/14.4, p = 0.024; physical function 19.0/14.8, p = 0.62). Two patients were revised twice in the UKA revision group. There was one revision in the primary TKA group (p = 0.39). Improvement in range of motion (ROM) was better in the TKA patients compared to the UKA revision patients (8.2°/–2.6°, p = 0.0001). We suggest that UKA conversion to TKA is associated with poorer clinical outcome as compared to primary TKA.