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1.  Assessment of endodontically treated teeth by using different radiographic methods: an ex vivo comparison between CBCT and other radiographic techniques 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2012;42(3):129-137.
Purpose
To compare different radiographic methods for assessing endodontically treated teeth.
Materials and Methods
Root canal treatments were applied in 120 extracted mandibular teeth, which were divided into four groups: (1) ideal root canal treatment (60 teeth), (2) insufficient lateral condensation (20 teeth), (3) root canals filled short of the apex (20 teeth), (4) overfilled root canal treatment (20 teeth). The teeth were imaged using intraoral film, panoramic film, digital intraoral systems (CCD and PSP), CCD obtained with portable X-ray source, digital panoramic, and CBCT images obtained at 0.3 mm3 and 0.2 mm3 voxel size. Images were evaluated separately by three observers, twice. Kappa coefficients were calculated. The percentage of correct readings obtained from each modality was calculated and compared using a t-test (p<0.05).
Results
The intra-observer kappa for each observer ranged between 0.327 and 0.849. The inter-observer kappa for each observer for both readings ranged between 0.312 and 0.749. For the ideal root canal treatment group, CBCT with 0.2 mm3 voxel images revealed the best results. For insufficient lateral condensation, the best readings were found with periapical film followed by CCD and PSP. The assessment of teeth with root canals filled short of the apex showed the highest percentage of correct readings by CBCT and CCD. For the overfilled canal treatment group, PSP images and conventional periapical film radiographs had the best scores.
Conclusion
CBCT was found to be successful in the assessment of teeth with ideal root canal treatment and teeth with canals filled short of the apex.
doi:10.5624/isd.2012.42.3.129
PMCID: PMC3465754  PMID: 23071962
Root Canal Therapy; Radiography, Dental; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
2.  Ex vivo comparison of Galileos cone beam CT and intraoral radiographs in detecting occlusal caries 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(6):489-493.
Objective
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) with intraoral radiographs for detection of occlusal caries.
Methods
A set of 60 extracted teeth were imaged using a Sirona Galileos CBCT system (Sirona Dental Systems, Bensheim, Germany) and an intraoral Planmeca® system (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland). Six observers looked at both modalities and used a five-point confidence scale to evaluate presence or absence of occlusal caries. Histology was used as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used for statistical analysis. Differences in the area under the curve (AUC) values between observers and modalities were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences in sensitivity and specificity were analysed using the Wilcoxon test. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was assessed by weighted kappa scores.
Results
The mean value and standard deviation of AUC was 0.719 ± 0.038 for CBCT and 0.649 ± 0.062 for the intraoral radiographs. The ANOVA results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the modalities and the observers. The interobserver kappa for pairs of observers ranged from fair to substantial for bitewings (0.244–0.543) and CBCT (0.152–0.401). Four out of six observers reported higher sensitivity but lower specificity with CBCT. The Wilcoxon exact p-value showed no difference in sensitivity (0.175) or specificity (0.573) between the two modalities.
Conclusion
Based on the results we conclude that the Sirona CBCT unit cannot be used for the sole purpose of looking at occlusal caries.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/57329547
PMCID: PMC3520394  PMID: 22184471
caries; cone beam computed; cone beam computed tomography; dental; tomography
3.  Accuracy of CBCT Measurements of a Human Skull 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2010;24(5):787-793.
The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements of a human dry skull by comparing them to direct digital caliper measurements. Heated gutta-percha was used to mark 13 specific distances on a human skull, and the distances were directly measured using a digital caliper and on CBCT images obtained with Iluma (3M Imtec, OK, USA) and 3D Accuitomo 170 (3D Accuitomo; J Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan) CBCT imaging systems. Iluma images were obtained at 120 kVp and 3.8 mA and reconstructed using voxel sizes of 0.2 and 0.3 mm3. Accuitomo images were obtained at 60 kVp and 2 mA and a voxel size of 0.250 mm3. In addition, 3-D reconstructions were produced from images obtained from both systems. All measurements were made independently by three trained observers and were repeated after an interval of 1 week. Agreement between observers and image type was assessed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients, with a level of significance set at p < 0.05. Pearson correlation coefficients between readings ranged from 0.995 to 1 for all image types. Correlations among observers were also very high, ranging from 0.992 to 1 for the first reading and from 0.992 to 1 for the second reading for the different image types. All CBCT image measurements were identical and highly correlated with digital caliper measurements. Accuracy of measurements of various distances on a human skull obtained from different CBCT units and image types is comparable to that of digital caliper measurements.
doi:10.1007/s10278-010-9339-9
PMCID: PMC3180546  PMID: 20857166
CBCT; Direct measurement; Radiography; 3-D imaging (imaging, three-dimensional); 3-D reconstruction; Automated measurement; Computed tomography
4.  Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(8):501-511.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard.
Methods
Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability.
Results
Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
Conclusion
Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/28628723
PMCID: PMC3520212  PMID: 21062944
detection; cone beam computed tomography; digital radiography; film; proximal caries
5.  An in vitro comparison of diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and phosphor storage plate to detect simulated occlusal secondary caries under amalgam restoration 
Dental Research Journal  2015;12(2):161-166.
Background:
This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with phosphor storage plate (PSP) in detection of simulated occlusal secondary caries.
Materials and Methods:
In this in vitro descriptive-comparative study, a total of 80 slots of class I cavities were prepared on 80 extracted human premolars. Then, 40 teeth were randomly selected out of this sample and artificial carious lesions were created on these teeth by a round diamond bur no. 1/2. All 80 teeth were restored with amalgam fillings and radiographs were taken, both with PSP system and CBCT. All images were evaluated by three calibrated observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two systems. SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was adopted for statistical analysis. The difference between Az value of bitewing and CBCT methods were compared by pairwise comparison method. The inter- and intra-operator agreement was assessed by kappa analysis (P < 0.05).
Results:
The mean Az value for bitewings and CBCT was 0.903 and 0.994, respectively. Significant differences were found between PSP and CBCT (P = 0.010). The kappa value for inter-observer agreement was 0.68 and 0.76 for PSP and CBCT, respectively. The kappa value for intra-observer agreement was 0.698 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.766 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.716 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in PSP method, and 0.816 (observer 1, P = 0.000), 0.653 (observer 2, P = 0.000) and 0.744 (observer 3, P = 0.000) in CBCT method.
Conclusion:
This in vitro study, with a limited number of samples, showed that the New Tom VGI Flex CBCT system was more accurate than the PSP in detecting the simulated small secondary occlusal caries under amalgam restoration.
PMCID: PMC4387629  PMID: 25878682
Cone-beam computed tomography; dental caries; dental radiograph; digital radiograph
6.  The influence of amalgam fillings on the detection of approximal caries by cone beam CT: in vitro study 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2014;43(7):20130342.
Objectives:
The aim of this CBCT investigation on the detection of caries was to assess the influence of artefacts produced by the presence of amalgam fillings located in the vicinity.
Methods:
102 non-cavitated pre-molar and molar teeth were placed in blocks of silicone with approximal contacts consisting of 3 sound or carious teeth and 1 mesial–occlusal–distal amalgam-filled tooth in-between. Radiographs of all the teeth were recorded using the CBCT system (NewTom™ 3G; QR Srl, Verona, Italy; field of view, 9 inches). Data from the CBCT unit were reconstructed and sectioned in the mesiodistal tooth plane. Images were evaluated twice by two observers, using a five-step confidence scale. After the CBCT examination, the teeth were individually sectioned in the mesiodistal direction with a diamond saw. Using a light microscope at ×40 magnification, the true morphological status of all approximal surfaces was established.
Results:
Sensitivity of the CBCT for the detection of caries on surfaces located proximally and distally to an amalgam filing ranged from 0.27 to 0.30 for enamel and from 0.47 to 0.56 for dentin. Specificity values for enamel proximal and distal lesions were 0.48 and 0.53, respectively, for enamel and 0.33 to 0.38, respectively, for proximal and distal dentin cases. Intra-observer reliability was 0.84, and interobserver reliability was 0.49.
Conclusions:
Owing to its low specificity, scans from a CBCT examination should not be used to determine the presence of demineralization of the tooth surface when amalgam fillings are present in the region of interest.
doi:10.1259/dmfr.20130342
PMCID: PMC4170842  PMID: 24986630
CBCT; caries; amalgam; artefacts
7.  A comparative study of the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiographic modalities for the detection of noncavitated caries 
Clinical Oral Investigations  2014;19(3):667-672.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the detection of approximal and occlusal noncavitated carious lesions.
Methods
A total of 135 extracted human posterior teeth were used. They were radiographed using the following: conventional film (Kodak Insight), a digital system (PSP plates Digora Optime, Soredex), and a CBCT system (NewTom 3G, Quantitative Radiology). All the images were assessed by two independent observers twice. Receiver operating characteristic analysis (Az) was used.
Results
NewTom 3G 9″ CBCT was statistically inferior to conventional film and a digital system for the detection of approximal caries. NewTom 3G 9″ had significantly higher Az values than PSP plate (p < 0.05), but there were no statistically significant differences between the Az values for CBCT and film (p > 0.33) for occlusal surface caries.
Conclusion
The diagnostic accuracy of all three tested radiographic systems is low, and it is necessary to use other methods to improve early caries detection.
Clinical relevance
CBCT has found a wide application in different fields of dentistry. The report from a CBCT examination performed for any of these reasons should include all abnormal findings, and the detection of noncavitated caries lesions is especially important because it facilitates the use of noninvasive treatment.
doi:10.1007/s00784-014-1282-6
PMCID: PMC4372683  PMID: 25059712
Cone beam computed tomography; Radiography; Dental caries
8.  Accuracy of CBCT images in the assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects: effect of field of view 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2014;43(4):20130332.
Objectives:
To investigate the reliability and accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained at different fields of view in detecting and quantifying simulated buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects.
Methods:
Simulated buccal defects were prepared in 69 implants inserted into cadaver mandibles. CBCT images at three different fields of view were acquired: 40 × 40, 60 × 60 and 100 × 100 mm. The presence or absence of defects was assessed on three sets of images using a five-point scale by three observers. Observers also measured the depth, width and volume of defects on CBCT images, which were compared with physical measurements. The kappa value was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. Six-way repeated analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment effects on the diagnosis. Pairwise comparisons of median true-positive and true-negative rates were calculated by the χ2 test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between measurements. Significance level was set as p < 0.05.
Results:
All observers had excellent intra-observer agreement. Defect status (p < 0.001) and defect size (p < 0.001) factors were statistically significant. Pairwise interactions were found between defect status and defect size (p = 0.001). No differences between median true-positive or true-negative values were found between CBCT field of views (p > 0.05). Significant correlations were found between physical and CBCT measurements (p < 0.001).
Conclusions:
All CBCT images performed similarly for the detection of simulated buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant defects. Depth, width and volume measurements of the defects from various CBCT images correlated highly with physical measurements.
doi:10.1259/dmfr.20130332
PMCID: PMC4082260  PMID: 24645965
peri-implant defects; CBCT; radiography; FOV; voxel size
9.  Influence of cone beam CT scanning parameters on grey value measurements at an implant site 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(3):79884780.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to determine the grey value variation at the implant site with different scan settings, including field of view (FOV), spatial resolution, number of projections, exposure time and dose selections in two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems and to compare the results with those obtained from a multislice CT system.
Methods:
A partially edentulous human mandibular cadaver was scanned by three CT modalities: multislice CT (MSCT) (Philips, Best, the Netherlands), and two CBCT systems: (Accuitomo 170®, Morita, Japan) and (NewTom 5G®, QR, Verona, Italy). Using different scan settings 36 and 24 scans were obtained from the Accuitomo and the NewTom, respectively. The scans were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine 3 format. The analysis of the data was performed using 3Diagnosys® software (v. 3.1, 3diemme, Cantù, Italy) and Geomagic studio® 2012 (Morrisville, NC). On the MSCT scan, one probe designating the site for pre-operative implant placement was inserted. The inserted probe on MSCT was transformed to the same region on each CBCT scan using a volume-based three-dimensional registration algorithm. The mean voxel grey value of the region around the probe was derived separately for each CBCT. The influence of scanning parameters on the measured mean voxel grey values was assessed.
Results:
Grey values in both CBCT systems significantly deviated from Hounsfield unit values measured with MSCT (p = 0.0001). In both CBCT systems, scan FOV and spatial resolution selections had a statistically significant influence on grey value measurements (p = 0.0001). The number of projections selection had a statistically significant influence in the Accuitomo system (p = 0.0001) while exposure time and dose selections had no statistically significant influence on grey value measurements in the NewTom (p = 0.43 and p = 0.37, respectively).
Conclusions:
Grey-level values from CBCT images are influenced by device and scanning settings.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/79884780
PMCID: PMC3667541  PMID: 22933535
cone beam CT; registration; grey values; bone density
10.  Comparing the Effect of Different Voxel Resolutions for Assessment of Vertical Root Fracture of Permanent Teeth 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2015;12(3):e18290.
Background:
The teeth with undiagnosed vertical root fractures (VRFs) are likely to receive endodontic treatment or retreatment, leading to frustration and inappropriate endodontic therapies. Moreover, many cases of VRFs cannot be diagnosed definitively until the extraction of tooth.
Objectives:
This study aimed to assess the use of different voxel resolutions of two different cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units in the detection VRFs in vitro.
Materials and Methods:
The study material comprised 74 extracted human mandibular single rooted premolar teeth without root fractures that had not undergone any root-canal treatment. Images were obtained by two different CBCT units. Four image sets were obtained as follows: 1) 3D Accuitomo 170, 4 × 4 cm field of view (FOV) (0.080 mm3); 2) 3D Accuitomo 170. 6 × 6 cm FOV (0.125 mm3); 3) NewTom 3G, 6˝ (0.16 mm3) and 4) NewTom 3G, 9˝ FOV (0.25 mm3). Kappa coefficients were calculated to assess both intra- and inter-observer agreements for each image set.
Results:
No significant differences were found among observers or voxel sizes, with high average Z (Az) results being reported for all groups. Both intra- and inter-observer agreement values were relatively better for 3D Accuitomo 170 images than the images from NewTom 3G. The highest Az and kappa values were obtained with 3D Accuitomo 170, 4 × 4 cm FOV (0.080 mm3) images.
Conclusion:
No significant differences were found among observers or voxel sizes, with high Az results reported for all groups.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.18290
PMCID: PMC4632561  PMID: 26557279
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Permanent Dentition; Diagnosis
11.  Designing of a Computer Software for Detection of Approximal Caries in Posterior Teeth 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2015;12(4):e16242.
Background:
Radiographs, adjunct to clinical examination are always valuable complementary methods for dental caries detection. Recently, progressing in digital imaging system provides possibility of software designing for automatically dental caries detection.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to develop and assess the function of diagnostic computer software designed for evaluation of approximal caries in posterior teeth. This software should be able to indicate the depth and location of caries on digital radiographic images.
Materials and Methods:
Digital radiographs were obtained of 93 teeth including 183 proximal surfaces. These images were used as a database for designing the software and training the software designer. In the design phase, considering the summed density of pixels in rows and columns of the images, the teeth were separated from each other and the unnecessary regions; for example, the root area in the alveolar bone was eliminated. Therefore, based on summed intensities, each image was segmented such that each segment contained only one tooth. Subsequently, based on the fuzzy logic, a well-known data-clustering algorithm named fuzzy c-means (FCM) was applied to the images to cluster or segment each tooth. This algorithm is referred to as a soft clustering method, which assigns data elements to one or more clusters with a specific membership function. Using the extracted clusters, the tooth border was determined and assessed for cavity. The results of histological analysis were used as the gold standard for comparison with the results obtained from the software. Depth of caries was measured, and finally Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to show the agreement between the methods.
Results:
The software diagnosed 60% of enamel caries. The ICC (for detection of enamel caries) between the computer software and histological analysis results was determined as 0.609 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.159-0.849) (P = 0.006). Also, the computer program diagnosed 97% of dentin caries and the ICC between the software and histological analysis results for dentin caries was determined as 0.937 (95% CI=0.906-0.958) (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable agreement for measuring the depth of caries in enamel and dentin.
Conclusions:
The designed software was able to detect a significant number of dentin caries and acceptable measuring of the depth of carious lesions in enamel and dentin. However, the software had limited ability in detecting enamel lesions.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.12(2)2015.16242
PMCID: PMC4711028  PMID: 26793287
Computer Software; Dental Caries; Digital Radiography
12.  Validity of ridge mapping and cone beam computed tomography in dental implant therapy 
Aim:
The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of alveolar ridge measurements obtained with ridge mapping (RM) technique against cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty partially edentulous patients were recruited for implant placement in the Clinic of San Martin de Porres University. For all the measurements, a vacuum-formed stent was fabricated for each subject. A buccal and lingual point was made in the stent to provide a reference of measurement for each implant site. RM measurements with the stent were obtained before and after surgical flap reflection. Two calibrated observers made the CBCT images measurements. T-test was used for the statistical analysis. Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Also, specificity and sensibility of CBCT and RM were compared. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)_ was measure between CBCT measurements.
Results:
A total of 62 implants sites were evaluated. No statistical significant differences were obtained with CBCT and RM measurements (P = 0,207). Detecting proper buccal-lingual ridge, the sensitivity and specificity were 59% and 91% for RM while CBCT obtained 92% of sensitivity and 94% of specificity. Concordance was found “good” (ICC 0.82).
Conclusion:
Both methods provide valid measurements. Even though, we found diagnostic limitations in the RM, it demonstrated to be a useful method for its exactitude, low cost, the immediate result and no need of radiation. CBCT was recommended when the bone ridge width and height were in the less than ideal for conventional dental implant placement.
doi:10.4103/0972-124X.154189
PMCID: PMC4520113  PMID: 26229269
Cone beam; dental implants; ridge mapping
13.  Accuracy of peri-implant bone evaluation using cone beam CT, digital intra-oral radiographs and histology 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2014;43(6):20130088.
Objectives:
The present study assesses the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CT (CBCT) and intra-oral radiography (CR) in visualizing peri-implant bone compared with histology.
Methods:
26 titanium dental implants were placed in dog jaws with chronic type vestibular defects. After a healing period of 2 and 8 weeks (n = 12 dogs) the animals were sacrificed. CBCT scans and CR of the specimen were recorded. Dissected blocks were prepared, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. Both modalities were measured twice by two observers and compared with histomorphometry regarding bone levels and thickness around implants as well as length and diameter of implants.
Results:
Measurements of CBCT correlated well with histomorphometry of the vestibular bone level, oral bone thickness and implant length (all p-values <0.05). Compared with histomorphometry, the mean differences between CBCT and histomorphometry were between 0.06 and 2.61 mm. Mesial bone level (MBL) and distal bone level (DBL) were underestimated by both CR and CBCT. CR and histology measurements were only significantly correlated for implant length measurements. All intraclass correlations were highly significant.
Conclusions:
3D CBCT provides usable information about bone in all dimensions around implants with varying accuracy. CR and CBCT perform similar in assessing MBL and DBL, but, within its limits, the CBCT can assess oral and buccal bone. Metallic artefacts limit the visualization quality of bone around implants and further research could elucidate the value of post-processing algorithms. When information about osseous perforation of implants is needed, CBCT may still provide clinically valuable information.
doi:10.1259/dmfr.20130088
PMCID: PMC4141670  PMID: 24786136
cone beam computed tomography; dental implants; digital intra-oral radiographs; osseo-integration
14.  Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection 
Background and aims
With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs.
Materials and methods
This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent). The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating charac-teristics (ROC) curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test.
Results
The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively.
Conclusion
The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images.
doi:10.5681/joddd.2012.001
PMCID: PMC3442440  PMID: 22991626
Cone Beam CT; periapical imaging; proximal caries
15.  Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2012;9(1):17-21.
Background
Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.
Objectives
The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD), Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP) and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.
Patients and Methods
Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland),and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.
Results
Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin.
The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively.
The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.
Conclusions
The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.6747
PMCID: PMC3522338  PMID: 23329955
Radiography, Dental, Digital; Dental Caries; Diagnosis
16.  Semi-automatic volumetric tumor segmentation for hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparison between C-arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography and MRI 
Academic radiology  2013;20(4):446-452.
Rationale and Objectives
To evaluate the precision and reproducibility of a semi-automatic tumor segmentation software in measuring tumor volume of hepatocellular-carcinoma–(HCC) before the first trans-arterial chemo-embolization–(TACE) on contrast-enhancement magnetic-resonance-imaging–(CE-MRI) and intra-procedural dual-phase C-arm cone-beam computed-tomography–(DP-CBCT) images.
Materials and Methods
19HCCs were targeted in 19patients(one per patient) who underwent baseline diagnostic CE-MRI and an intra-procedural DP-CBCT. The images were obtained from CE-MRI–(arterial-phase of an intra-venous contrast medium injection) and DP-CBCT–(delayed-phase of an intra-arterial contrast medium injection) before the actual embolization. Three readers measured tumor volumes using a semi-automatic 3D-volumetric segmentation software which used a region-growing method employing non-Euclidean radial basis functions. Segmentation time and spatial position were recorded. The tumor volume measurements between images sets were compared using linear-regression and Student t-test, and evaluated with Intraclass-Correlation analysis–(ICC). The inter-rater Dice Similarity Coefficient–(DSC) accessed the segmentation spatial localization.
Results
All 19 HCCs were analyzed. On CE-MRI and DP-CBCT examinations respectively, A) the mean segmented tumor volumes was 87±8cm3[2–873] and 92±10cm3[1–954], with no statistical difference of segmented volumes by readers of each tumor between the two imaging modalities and the mean time required for segmentation was 66±45seconds [21–173] and 85±34seconds[17–214] (p=0.19), B),the ICCs were 0.99 and 0.974, showing a strong correlation among readers, and C) the inter-rater DSCs showed a good to excellent inter-user agreement on the spatial localization of the tumor segmentation–(0.70±0.07 and 0.74±0.05,p=0.07).
Conclusion
This study shows a strong correlation, precision and reproducibility of semi-automatic tumor segmentation software in measuring tumor volume on CE-MRI and DP-CBCT images. The use of the segmentation software on DP-CBCT and CE-MRI can be a valuable and highly accurate tool to measure the volume of hepatic tumors.
doi:10.1016/j.acra.2012.11.009
PMCID: PMC3602801  PMID: 23498985
Tumor segmentation software; Dice Similarity Coefficient; C-arm cone-beam CT; MRI; Hepatocellular carcinoma; TACE
17.  A comparative study of accuracy of linear measurements using cone beam and multi-slice computed tomographies for evaluation of mandibular canal location in dry mandibles 
Dental Research Journal  2013;10(1):15-19.
Background:
Cross- sectional tomograms have been used for optimal pre-operative planning of dental implant placement. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) measurements of specific distances around the mandibular canal by comparing them to those obtained from Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) images.
Materials and Methods:
Ten hemi-mandible specimens were examined using CBCT and MSCT. Before imaging, wires were placed at 7 locations between the anterior margin of the third molar and the anterior margin of the second premolar as reference points. Following distances were measured by two observers on each cross-sectional CBCT and MSCT image: Mandibular Width (W), Length (L), Upper Distance (UD), Lower Distance (LD), Buccal Distance (BD), and Lingual Distance (LID). The obtained data were evaluated using SPSS software, applying paired t-test and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results:
There was a significant difference between the values obtained by MSCT and CBCT measurement for all areas such as H, W, UD, LD, BD, and LID, (P < 0.001), with a difference less than 1 mm. The ICC for all distances by both techniques, measured by a single observer with a one week interval and between 2 observers was 99% and 98%, respectively. Comparing the obtained data of both techniques indicates that the difference between two techniques is 2.17% relative to MSCT.
Conclusion:
The results of this study showed that there is significant difference between measurements obtained by CBCT and MSCT. However, the difference is not clinically significant.
doi:10.4103/1735-3327.111759
PMCID: PMC3714818  PMID: 23878558
Cone beam computed tomography linear measurements; multi-slice computed tomography
18.  Assessment of vertical root fractures using three imaging modalities: cone beam CT, intraoral digital radiography and film 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(2):91-95.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) in detecting vertical root fractures and to compare the accuracy with images from an intraoral sensor and from conventional intraoral film.
Methods
60 extracted, single-rooted human teeth were divided equally into two groups: a control group of 30 teeth and an induced fracture group of 30 teeth. All teeth were randomly placed into sockets in six dry mandibles. Each tooth was imaged by three modalities: CBCT, intraoral digital radiography and intraoral F-speed film. Three beam angulations (an orthogonal projection and additional projections with ±20° horizontal shifts of the central ray) were used when radiographs were made using film and a digital sensor. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists evaluated the presence of root fractures twice in each image modality using a five-point confidence rating scale. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (Az) were computed for each observer and modality and were tested for statistical differences using the Kruskal–Wallis test.
Results
There was no statistical difference in the performance of the three modalities (mean of Az values: CBCT = 0.811, film = 0.797 and sensor = 0.775; p = 0.771).
Conclusions
There was no significant difference between intraoral film, a high-resolution complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital imaging system and CBCT in detecting vertical root fractures in mandibular single-rooted teeth.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/49798768
PMCID: PMC3520378  PMID: 22301636
cone beam computed tomography; vertical root fracture
19.  Radiographic detection of artificially created horizontal root fracture using different cone beam CT units with small fields of view 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(4):20120261.
Objectives:
To compare limited cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units with different field of views (FOVs) and voxel sizes in detecting artificially created horizontal root fracture (HRF) in extracted human teeth.
Methods:
Artificial HRF was created in the horizontal plane in 40 teeth. Another 40 intact teeth served as a control group. 80 teeth were placed in the respective maxillary anterior sockets of a human dry skull in groups. Six image sets were obtained: (1) Accuitomo 170, 40 × 40 mm FOV (0.080 mm3); (2) Accuitomo 170, 60 × 60 mm FOV (0.125 mm3); (3) Kodak 9000, 50 × 37 mm FOV (0.076 mm3); (4) Kodak 9000, 50 × 37 mm FOV (0.100 mm3); (5) Vatech Pax-Duo3D 50 × 50 mm FOV (0.080 mm3) and (6) Vatech Pax-Duo3D 85 × 85 mm FOV (0.120 mm3). Images were evaluated twice by five observers. Kappa values were calculated for observer agreement. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az values) were calculated, and the Az values for each image type were compared using t-tests (α = 0.05).
Results:
Intraobserver kappa coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 for the Accuitomo 170 images, from 0.80 to 0.92 for the Kodak 9000 images and from 0.76 to 0.95 for Vatech PanX-Duo3D. The Az values for different image types and observers ranged from 0.93 to 0.97 for Accuitomo 170 images, from 0.93 to 0.98 for Kodak 9000 images and from 0.93 to 0.97 for the Vatech PanX-Duo3D images. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Az values.
Conclusions:
Limited CBCT units performed similarly in detecting simulated HRF.
doi:10.1259/dmfr.20120261
PMCID: PMC3667510  PMID: 23420851
horizontal root fracture; CBCT; detection; radiography
20.  Diagnostic performance of cone-beam computed tomography on detection of mechanically-created artificial secondary caries 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2011;41(4):143-150.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bitewing images in detection of secondary caries.
Materials and Methods
One hundred and twenty proximal slots of Class II cavities were randomly prepared on human premolar and molar teeth, and restored with amalgam (n=60) and composite resin (n=60). Then, artificial secondary caries lesions were randomly created using round steel No. 4 bur. The teeth were radiographed with a conventional bitewing technique and two CBCT systems; Pax-500ECT and Promax 3D. All images were evaluated by five observers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Significant difference was tested using the Friedman test (p value<0.05).
Results
The mean Az values for bitewing, Pax-500ECT, and Promax 3D imaging systems were 0.882, 0.995, and 0.978, respectively. Significant differences were found between the two CBCT systems and film (p=0.007). For CBCT systems, the axial plane showed the greatest Az value.
Conclusion
Based on the design of this study, CBCT images were better than bitewing radiographs in detection of secondary caries.
doi:10.5624/isd.2011.41.4.143
PMCID: PMC3251786  PMID: 22232722
Dental Caries; Cone Beam CT; Radiography, Bitewing; Diagnosis
21.  In Vitro Detection of Dental Root Fractures with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2014;11(1):e11485.
Background:
Since the diagnosis of non-displaced longitudinal fractures present difficulties for the dentist, three-dimensional evaluation is necessary.
Objectives:
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting dental root fractures in vitro.
Materials and Methods:
An in vitro model consisting of 210 recently extracted human mandibular teeth was used. Root fractures were created by mechanical force. The teeth were placed randomly in the empty dental alveoli of a dry human mandible and 15 different dental arcs were created. Images were taken with a unit Iluma ultra cone-beam CT scanner (Imtec Corporation, Germany). Three dental radiologists separately evaluated the images.
Results:
According to the fracture types and fracture presence, there was an overall statistically significant agreement between the key and readings. Kappa values for intra observer agreement ranged between 0.705 and 0.804 indicating that each observer gave acceptable ratings for the type and presence of fractures.
Conclusions:
Detailed information about root fractures may be obtained using CBCT.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.11485
PMCID: PMC3955851  PMID: 24693295
Tooth Fractures; In Vitro; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
22.  Comparison of digital systems and conventional dental film for the detection of approximal enamel caries 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(7):431-436.
Objectives
The aims of this study were (1) to compare the accuracy of the detection of approximal enamel caries lesions using three intraoral storage phosphor plate digital systems and one conventional film-based radiographic system; and (2) to determine whether there is a correlation between the histological and radiographic measurements of enamel caries.
Methods
160 approximal surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using three storage phosphor stimulable systems (DenOptix and Digora FMX with white and blue plates), and one film system (Insight film). 17 observers scored the images for the presence and depth of caries using a 4-point scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically (gold standard). Two-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences in sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy (TP + TN). The data from the radiographic and histological measurements were statistically analysed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
Results
Two-way analysis of variance and the post hoc t-test demonstrated that Digora (white plate) had higher specificity and overall accuracy values than DenOptix (P = 0.021); there was no statistically significant difference among the other imaging modalities (P > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the histological depth measurements and the radiographic measurements from Digora (blue plate) (P = 0.43), Digora (white plate) (P = 0.15), DenOptix (P = 0.17) and Insight film (P = 0.06).
Conclusions
The results suggest that (1) the performance of the three storage phosphor image plate systems was similar to that of the Insight film for detection of approximal enamel caries, and (2) the increase in histological depth of enamel caries was not significantly correlated with radiographic measurements.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/94985823
PMCID: PMC3520190  PMID: 20841461
radiography, dental; digital radiography, dental; dental caries
23.  Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(6):450-459.
Objective
To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.
Methods
80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05.
Results
Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/30526171
PMCID: PMC3520392  PMID: 22868296
dental caries; radiography; panoramic radiography; bitewing radiography
24.  A comparative study of the accuracy and reliability of multidetector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of dental implant site dimensions 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(2):67-75.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of linear measurements of edentulous ridges recorded from 16-row multidetector CT (MDCT) images and cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired using a flat panel detector (FPD) with a large field of view (FOV), both independently and in comparison with each other.
Methods
Edentulous areas of human dry skulls were marked with gutta-percha markers to standardize the plane of the transverse cross-sections and path of measurements. The skulls were imaged using a 16-row MDCT scanner and a CBCT device with a large FOV and a FPD. Ridge dimensions were recorded from reformatted sections by two observers and compared with measurements recorded directly from the bone. The measurement errors and intra and interexaminer reliability were calculated for each modality and compared with each other.
Results
The overall mean of the absolute errors was 0.75 mm for MDCT and 0.49 mm for CBCT. The mean of the CBCT absolute errors was smaller than that of the MDCT absolute errors for the overall data, as well as for the site-specific data. The intraexaminer reliability score was 0.994 for MDCT and 0.995 for CBCT. The interexaminer reliability was 0.985 for MDCT and 0.958 for CBCT.
Conclusions
Both MDCT and CBCT were associated with a clinically and statistically significant measurement error. CBCT measurements were significantly more accurate than those of MDCT. The measurements recorded from both modalities had a high inter and intraexaminer reliability. Accuracy of measurements was found to be more operator dependent with CBCT than with MDCT.
doi:10.1259/dmfr/27546065
PMCID: PMC3520306  PMID: 21239568
cone beam CT; spiral CT; dental implants; reproducibility of results
25.  CBCT-based bone quality assessment: are Hounsfield units applicable? 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2014;44(1):20140238.
CBCT is a widely applied imaging modality in dentistry. It enables the visualization of high-contrast structures of the oral region (bone, teeth, air cavities) at a high resolution. CBCT is now commonly used for the assessment of bone quality, primarily for pre-operative implant planning. Traditionally, bone quality parameters and classifications were primarily based on bone density, which could be estimated through the use of Hounsfield units derived from multidetector CT (MDCT) data sets. However, there are crucial differences between MDCT and CBCT, which complicates the use of quantitative gray values (GVs) for the latter. From experimental as well as clinical research, it can be seen that great variability of GVs can exist on CBCT images owing to various reasons that are inherently associated with this technique (i.e. the limited field size, relatively high amount of scattered radiation and limitations of currently applied reconstruction algorithms). Although attempts have been made to correct for GV variability, it can be postulated that the quantitative use of GVs in CBCT should be generally avoided at this time. In addition, recent research and clinical findings have shifted the paradigm of bone quality from a density-based analysis to a structural evaluation of the bone. The ever-improving image quality of CBCT allows it to display trabecular bone patterns, indicating that it may be possible to apply structural analysis methods that are commonly used in micro-CT and histology.
doi:10.1259/dmfr.20140238
PMCID: PMC4277442  PMID: 25315442
cone-beam computed tomography; Hounsfield units; bone quality; dental implants

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