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1.  Occlusal Caries Depth Measurements Obtained by Five Different Imaging Modalities 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2010;24(5):804-813.
The study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of occlusal caries depth measurements obtained from different imaging modalities. The study comprised 21 human mandibular molar teeth with occlusal caries. Teeth were imaged using film, CCD, two different cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units and a microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Thereafter, each tooth was serially sectioned, and the section with the deepest carious lesion was scanned using a high-resolution scanner. Each image set was separately viewed by three oral radiologists. Images were viewed randomly, and each set was viewed twice. Lesion depth was measured on film images using a digital caliper, on CCD and CBCT images using built-in measurement tools, on micro-CT images using the Mimics software program, and on histological images using AxioVision Rel. 4.7. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were assessed according to the Bland/Altman method by calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Mean/median values obtained with intraoral systems were lower than those obtained with 3-D and histological images for all observers and both readings. Intra-observer ICC values for all observers were highest for histology and micro-CT. In addition, intra-observer ICC values were higher for histology and CBCT than for histology and intra-oral methods. Inter-observer ICC values for first and second readings were high for all observers. No differences in repeatability were found between Accuitomo and Iluma CBCT images or between intra-oral film and CCD images. Micro-CT was found to be the best imaging method for the ex vivo measurement of occlusal caries depth. In addition, both CBCT units performed similarly and better than intra-oral modalities.
PMCID: PMC3180550  PMID: 21116675
Occlusal caries; Depth measurement; CBCT; Micro-CT; Radiography
2.  Analysis of linear measurement accuracy obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT-NewTom VG) 
Dental Research Journal  2012;9(Suppl 1):S57-S62.
One of the major uses of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is presurgical implant planning. Linear measurement is used for the determination of the quantity of alveolar bone (height and width). Linear measurements are used in orthodontic analysis and definition of jaw tumor size. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the linear measurement of CBCT (Newtom VG) in the axial and coronal planes, with two different voxel sizes.
Materials and Methods:
In this accuracy diagnostic study, 22 anatomic landmarks in four dry human skulls were marked by gutta-percha. Fifteen linear measurements were obtained using a digital caliper. These were considered to be the gold standard (real measurement). The skulls were scanned by CBCT (Newtom VG) at two settings: (a) Voxel size 0.3 mm (b) voxel size 0.15 mm High Resolution (HR). The radiographic distance measurements were made in the axial and coronal sections by three observers. The radiographic measurements were repeated two weeks later for evaluation of intraobserver reliability. SPSS software version 17 was used for data analysis. The level of significance was considered to be 5% (P ≤ 0.05).
The mean differences of real and radiographic measurements were -0.10±0.99 mm in the axial sections, -0.27±1.07 mm in the coronal sections, +0.14±1.44 mm in the axial (HR) sections, and 0.02±1.4 mm in the coronal (HR) sections. The intraclass correlation (ICC) for CBCT measurements in the axial sections was 0.9944, coronal sections 0.9941, axial (HR) sections 0.9935, and coronal (HR) sections 0.9937. The statistical analysis showed high interobserver and intraobserver reliability (P ≤ 0.05).
CBCT (Newtom VG) is highly accurate and reproducible in linear measurements in the axial and coronal image planes and in different areas of the maxillofacial region. According to the findings of the present study, a CBCT scan with a larger voxel size (0.3 mm in comparison to 0.15 mm) is recommended when the purpose of the CBCT scan is to measure linear distances. This will result in lower patient radiation dose and faster scan time.
PMCID: PMC3692201  PMID: 23814563
Cone-beam computed tomography; implant; measurement; skull
3.  Measurement accuracy and reliability of tooth length on conventional and CBCT reconstructed panoramic radiographs 
This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard).
The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard) were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient.
Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard), tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm) longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm) shorter.
In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%.
PMCID: PMC4296663
Reproducibility of results; Radiography; Tooth root
4.  Influence of cone beam CT scanning parameters on grey value measurements at an implant site 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(3):79884780.
The aim of this study was to determine the grey value variation at the implant site with different scan settings, including field of view (FOV), spatial resolution, number of projections, exposure time and dose selections in two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems and to compare the results with those obtained from a multislice CT system.
A partially edentulous human mandibular cadaver was scanned by three CT modalities: multislice CT (MSCT) (Philips, Best, the Netherlands), and two CBCT systems: (Accuitomo 170®, Morita, Japan) and (NewTom 5G®, QR, Verona, Italy). Using different scan settings 36 and 24 scans were obtained from the Accuitomo and the NewTom, respectively. The scans were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine 3 format. The analysis of the data was performed using 3Diagnosys® software (v. 3.1, 3diemme, Cantù, Italy) and Geomagic studio® 2012 (Morrisville, NC). On the MSCT scan, one probe designating the site for pre-operative implant placement was inserted. The inserted probe on MSCT was transformed to the same region on each CBCT scan using a volume-based three-dimensional registration algorithm. The mean voxel grey value of the region around the probe was derived separately for each CBCT. The influence of scanning parameters on the measured mean voxel grey values was assessed.
Grey values in both CBCT systems significantly deviated from Hounsfield unit values measured with MSCT (p = 0.0001). In both CBCT systems, scan FOV and spatial resolution selections had a statistically significant influence on grey value measurements (p = 0.0001). The number of projections selection had a statistically significant influence in the Accuitomo system (p = 0.0001) while exposure time and dose selections had no statistically significant influence on grey value measurements in the NewTom (p = 0.43 and p = 0.37, respectively).
Grey-level values from CBCT images are influenced by device and scanning settings.
PMCID: PMC3667541  PMID: 22933535
cone beam CT; registration; grey values; bone density
5.  Comparative study of mandibular linear measurements obtained by cone beam computed tomography and digital calipers 
Objectives: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an innovative dental of imaging system characterized by rapid volumetric imaging with patient exposure to a single dose of radiation. The present study was carried out to compare the linear measurements obtained with CBCT and digital caliper in 20 mandibles from human cadavers. Study design: A total of 4800 linear measurements were measured between different mandibular anatomical points with CBCT and digital caliper. The real measurements were defined as those obtained with the digital caliper. Posteriorly, the mandibles were scanned to obtain the CBCT images, with software-based measurements of the distances. Results: The measurements obtained with the digital caliper were greater. The CBCT technique underestimated distances greater than 100 mm. Conclusions: CBCT allows to obtain linear mandibular anatomical measurements equivalent to those obtained with digital caliper. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable.
Key words:Computed tomography, cone beam CT, accuracy, reliability, digital caliper.
PMCID: PMC4134857  PMID: 25136429
6.  A comparative evaluation of cone beam CT and micro-CT on trabecular bone structures in the human mandible 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(8):20130145.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) in measuring the trabecular bone microstructure, in comparison with micro-CT. The subobjective was to examine to what extent bone quality assessment is influenced by X-ray tube current and voltage settings as well as soft tissue surrounding the bone.
Eight human mandibular bone samples were scanned using three different clinical exposure protocol within water (W1–3) and without water (NW1–3) by a high-resolution (80 µm) CBCT machine (3D Accuitomo 170®; Morita, Kyoto, Japan). Subsequently, the samples underwent micro-CT scanning (SkyScan 1174®; SkyScan, Antwerp, Belgium). After image acquisition, similar volumes of interest of the trabecular structures captured with CBCT and micro-CT were aligned with each other. Segmentation was then performed, and the morphometric parameters were quantified within the volumes of interest by CTAn software (CTAnalyser®; SkyScan, Antwerp, Belgium). Descriptive statistical analyses and multiple comparisons between all protocols were applied in R software.
High positive Pearson's correlation coefficients were observed between CBCT and micro-CT protocols for all tested morphometric indices except for trabecular thickness. No significant differences were observed between all exposure protocols except for trabecular separation. When examining the soft-tissue effect on trabecular bone structures, no significant differences between NW (1–3) and W (1–3) protocols were observed for all variables.
The present study demonstrated the potential of high-resolution CBCT imaging for in vivo applications of quantitative bone morphometry and bone quality assessment. However, the overestimation of morphometric parameters and acquisition settings in CBCT must be taken into account.
PMCID: PMC3922263  PMID: 23833320
cone beam CT; micro-computed tomography; bone architecture; quantitative bone morphometry
7.  Radiographic detection of artificially created horizontal root fracture using different cone beam CT units with small fields of view 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(4):20120261.
To compare limited cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) units with different field of views (FOVs) and voxel sizes in detecting artificially created horizontal root fracture (HRF) in extracted human teeth.
Artificial HRF was created in the horizontal plane in 40 teeth. Another 40 intact teeth served as a control group. 80 teeth were placed in the respective maxillary anterior sockets of a human dry skull in groups. Six image sets were obtained: (1) Accuitomo 170, 40 × 40 mm FOV (0.080 mm3); (2) Accuitomo 170, 60 × 60 mm FOV (0.125 mm3); (3) Kodak 9000, 50 × 37 mm FOV (0.076 mm3); (4) Kodak 9000, 50 × 37 mm FOV (0.100 mm3); (5) Vatech Pax-Duo3D 50 × 50 mm FOV (0.080 mm3) and (6) Vatech Pax-Duo3D 85 × 85 mm FOV (0.120 mm3). Images were evaluated twice by five observers. Kappa values were calculated for observer agreement. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (Az values) were calculated, and the Az values for each image type were compared using t-tests (α = 0.05).
Intraobserver kappa coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 for the Accuitomo 170 images, from 0.80 to 0.92 for the Kodak 9000 images and from 0.76 to 0.95 for Vatech PanX-Duo3D. The Az values for different image types and observers ranged from 0.93 to 0.97 for Accuitomo 170 images, from 0.93 to 0.98 for Kodak 9000 images and from 0.93 to 0.97 for the Vatech PanX-Duo3D images. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Az values.
Limited CBCT units performed similarly in detecting simulated HRF.
PMCID: PMC3667510  PMID: 23420851
horizontal root fracture; CBCT; detection; radiography
8.  Evaluation of accuracy of 3D reconstruction images using multi-detector CT and cone-beam CT 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2012;42(1):25-33.
This study was performed to determine the accuracy of linear measurements on three-dimensional (3D) images using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Materials and Methods
MDCT and CBCT were performed using 24 dry skulls. Twenty-one measurements were taken on the dry skulls using digital caliper. Both types of CT data were imported into OnDemand software and identification of landmarks on the 3D surface rendering images and calculation of linear measurements were performed. Reproducibility of the measurements was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and ICC, and the measurements were statistically compared using a Student t-test.
All assessments under the direct measurement and image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT showed no statistically difference under the ICC examination. The measurements showed no differences between the direct measurements of dry skull and the image-based measurements on the 3D CT surface rendering images (P>.05).
Three-dimensional reconstructed surface rendering images using MDCT and CBCT would be appropriate for 3D measurements.
PMCID: PMC3314834  PMID: 22474645
Reproducibility of Results; Three-Dimensional Image; Skull
9.  Detection of cavitated approximal surfaces using cone beam CT and intraoral receptors 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(1):20120019.
The aim of this study was to compare cone beam CT (CBCT) in a small field of view (FOV) with a solid-state sensor and a photostimulable phosphor plate system for detection of cavitated approximal surfaces.
257 non-filled approximal surfaces from human permanent premolars and molars were recorded by two intraoral digital receptors, a storage phosphor plate (Digora Optime, Soredex) and a solid-state CMOS sensor (Digora Toto, Soredex), and scanned in a cone beam CT unit (3D Accuitomo FPD80, Morita) with a FOV of 4 cm and a voxel size of 0.08 mm. Image sections were carried out in the axial and mesiodistal tooth planes. Six observers recorded surface cavitation in all images. Validation of the true absence or presence of surface cavitation was performed by inspecting the surfaces under strong light with the naked eye. Differences in sensitivity, specificity and agreement were estimated by analysing the binary data in a generalized linear model using an identity link function.
: A significantly higher sensitivity was obtained by all observers with CBCT (p < 0.001), which was not compromised by a lower specificity. Therefore, a significantly higher overall agreement was obtained with CBCT (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the Digora Optime phosphor plate system and the Digora Toto CMOS sensor for any parameter.
CBCT was much more accurate in the detection of surface cavitation in approximal surfaces than intraoral receptors. The differences are interpreted as clinically significant. A CBCT examination performed for other reasons should also be assessed for approximal surface cavities in teeth without restorations.
PMCID: PMC3729187
radiography; digital; computed tomography; diagnosis; dental caries
10.  Comparison of precision and accuracy of linear measurements performed by two different imaging software programs and obtained from 3D-CBCT images for Le Fort I osteotomy 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2013;42(5):20120178.
The purpose of this study was to compare the precision and accuracy of linear measurements for Le Fort I osteotomy performed by two different imaging software programs and obtained from three-dimensional cone beam CT (3D-CBCT) images.
The study population consisted of 11 dried skulls submitted to CBCT, which generated 3D images. Linear measurements were based on craniometric anatomical landmarks pre-defined by the authors as specifically used for Le Fort I osteotomy and were identified by two radiologists twice each, independently, using Vitrea 3.8.1 (Vital Images Inc., Plymouth, MN) and open-source digital imaging communication in medicine viewer OsiriX 1.2 64-bit (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland). Subsequently, a third examiner made physical measurements using a digital caliper (167 series; Mitutoyo Sul Americana Ltd, Suzano, SP, Brazil).
The results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between OsiriX and the gold standard, especially in the pterygoid process (TPtg L = 0.019, LLpPtg R = 0.016 and LLpPtg L = 0.012). Vitrea showed no statistical difference in comparison with the gold standard, and showed a high level of accuracy in all the measurements performed. The major difference found was 0.42 mm (LLpPtg R). Interexaminer analysis ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 using Vitrea and from 0.8 to 0.97 using OsiriX. Intraexaminer correlation coefficient ranged from 0.90 to 0.98 and from 0.84 to 0.98 for Examiners 1 and 2, respectively, using Vitrea and from 0.93 to 0.99 for Examiner 1 and from 0.64 to 0.96 for Examiner 2 using OsiriX.
Vitrea may be considered as precise and accurate, insofar as it was able to perform all the 3D linear measurements. On the other hand, linear measurements performed using OsiriX were not successful in producing accurate linear measurements for Le Fort I osteotomy.
PMCID: PMC3635772  PMID: 23520394
cone beam computed tomography; 3D imaging; X-ray computed tomography; osteotomy Le Fort
11.  Evaluation of demineralized bone and bone transplants in vitro and in vivo with cone beam computed tomography imaging 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2010;39(5):264-269.
The objective of this study was to determine the ability of two flat panel cone beam CT (CBCT) devices to identify demineralized bone and bone transplants in vivo and in vitro.
Datasets from patients with autologous bone grafts (n = 9, KaVo 3DeXam (KaVo, Biberach, Germany); n = 38, Accuitomo 40 (Morita, Osaka, Japan)) were retrospectively evaluated. Demineralized and non-demineralized porcine cancellous bone blocks were examined with the two CBCT devices. A SawBone® skull (Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon, WA) was used as a positioning tool for the bone blocks. Descriptive evaluation and image quality assessment were conducted on the KaVo 3DeXam data (voxel size 0.3 mm) using the OsiriX viewer as well as on the Morita Accuitomo data (voxel size 0.25 mm) using proprietary viewer software.
Both in vivo and in vitro, the descriptive analysis of the images of the two devices showed well-visualized bone transplants with clearly defined cancellous bones and well-defined single bone trabeculae in all cross-sections. In vitro, demineralized samples showed lower radiographic opacity but no significant loss of quality compared with fresh bone (P = 0.070). Single cancellous bone trabeculae were significantly better visualized with the Morita 3D Accuitomo device than with the KaVo 3DeXam device (P = 0.038).
Both the KaVo 3DeXam and Morita 3D Accuitomo devices produce good-quality images of cancellous bones in in vivo remodelling as well as after in vitro demineralization.
PMCID: PMC3520252  PMID: 20587649
cone beam computed tomography; bone augmentation; implantology
12.  Accuracy of linear measurement in the Galileos cone beam computed tomography under simulated clinical conditions 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(5):299-305.
The aim of this study was to determine the geometric accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT)-based linear measurements of bone height obtained with the Galileos CBCT (Sirona Dental Systems Inc., Bensheim, Hessen, Germany) in the presence of soft tissues.
Six embalmed cadaver heads were imaged with the Galileos CBCT unit subsequent to placement of radiopaque fiduciary markers over the buccal and lingual cortical plates. Electronic linear measurements of bone height were obtained using the Sirona software. Physical measurements were obtained with digital calipers at the same location. This distance was compared on all six specimens bilaterally to determine accuracy of the image measurements.
The findings showed no statistically significant difference between the imaging and physical measurements (P > 0.05) as determined by a paired sample t-test. The intraclass correlation was used to measure the intrarater reliability of repeated measures and there was no statistically significant difference between measurements performed at the same location (P > 0.05).
The Galileos CBCT image-based linear measurement between anatomical structures within the mandible in the presence of soft tissues is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.
PMCID: PMC3520257  PMID: 21697155
tomography, cone-beam computed; cadaver; head
13.  Crown and root lengths of incisors, canines, and premolars measured by cone-beam computed tomography in patients with malocclusions 
Korean Journal of Orthodontics  2013;43(6):271-278.
The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of crown and root length measurements of premolars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to generate reference CBCT-based data on incisor, canine, and premolar lengths in patients with malocclusions.
Imaging was performed using a CBCT scanner with a 0.292-mm voxel size and 12-bit grayscale. The CBCT-based length measurements were compared with direct measurements of 94 subsequently extracted premolars without metal restorations using the paired t-test. Furthermore, the crown and root lengths of incisors, canines, and premolars in 62 Korean patients with malocclusions were measured using CBCT, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between the crown and root length measurements of each tooth type.
The differences between the CBCT-based and direct measurements of the extracted premolars were not significant, with 95% limits of agreement of -0.90 to 0.90 mm for crown length and -1.23 to 1.18 mm for root length. Weak positive correlations between the crown and root length measurements were observed for the mandibular canine and premolars.
The CBCT-based measurements showed a wider range of limits of agreements for root length than for crown length. The CBCT-based data can be used as a reference for evaluating root length and resorption of teeth without metal restorations in patients with malocclusions.
PMCID: PMC3879283  PMID: 24396736
Computed tomography; Anatomy; Root resorption
14.  In Vitro Detection of Dental Root Fractures with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2014;11(1):e11485.
Since the diagnosis of non-displaced longitudinal fractures present difficulties for the dentist, three-dimensional evaluation is necessary.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting dental root fractures in vitro.
Materials and Methods:
An in vitro model consisting of 210 recently extracted human mandibular teeth was used. Root fractures were created by mechanical force. The teeth were placed randomly in the empty dental alveoli of a dry human mandible and 15 different dental arcs were created. Images were taken with a unit Iluma ultra cone-beam CT scanner (Imtec Corporation, Germany). Three dental radiologists separately evaluated the images.
According to the fracture types and fracture presence, there was an overall statistically significant agreement between the key and readings. Kappa values for intra observer agreement ranged between 0.705 and 0.804 indicating that each observer gave acceptable ratings for the type and presence of fractures.
Detailed information about root fractures may be obtained using CBCT.
PMCID: PMC3955851  PMID: 24693295
Tooth Fractures; In Vitro; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
15.  Effect of voxel size on the accuracy of 3D reconstructions with cone beam CT 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(8):649-655.
The various types of cone beam CT (CBCT) differ in several technical characteristics, notably their spatial resolution, which is defined by the acquisition voxel size. However, data are still lacking on the effects of voxel size on the metric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. This study was designed to assess the effect of isotropic voxel size on the 3D reconstruction accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT data.
The study sample comprised 70 teeth (from the Institut d’Anatomie Normale, Strasbourg, France). The teeth were scanned with a KODAK 9500 3D® CBCT (Carestream Health, Inc., Marne-la-Vallée, France), which has two voxel sizes: 200 µm (CBCT 200 µm group) and 300 µm (CBCT 300 µm group). These teeth had also been scanned with the KODAK 9000 3D® CBCT (Carestream Health, Inc.) (CBCT 76 µm group) and the SCANCO Medical micro-CT XtremeCT (SCANCO Medical, Brüttisellen, Switzerland) (micro-CT 41 µm group) considered as references. After semi-automatic segmentation with AMIRA® software (Visualization Sciences Group, Burlington, MA), tooth volumetric measurements were obtained.
The Bland–Altman method showed no difference in tooth volumes despite a slight underestimation for the CBCT 200 µm and 300 µm groups compared with the two reference groups. The underestimation was statistically significant for the volumetric measurements of the CBCT 300 µm group relative to the two reference groups (Passing–Bablok method).
CBCT is not only a tool that helps in diagnosis and detection but it has the complementary advantage of being a measuring instrument, the accuracy of which appears connected to the size of the voxels. Future applications of such measurements with CBCT are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3528196  PMID: 23166362
cone-beam computed tomography; X-ray microtomography; three-dimensional imaging
16.  Accuracy of linear measurement using cone-beam computed tomography at different reconstruction angles 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2014;44(4):257-262.
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of changing the orientation of a reconstructed image on the accuracy of linear measurements using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Materials and Methods
Forty-two titanium pins were inserted in seven dry sheep mandibles. The length of these pins was measured using a digital caliper with readability of 0.01 mm. Mandibles were radiographed using a CBCT device. When the CBCT images were reconstructed, the orientation of slices was adjusted to parallel (i.e., 0°), +10°, +12°, -12°, and -10° with respect to the occlusal plane. The length of the pins was measured by three radiologists, and the accuracy of these measurements was reported using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The differences in radiographic measurements ranged from -0.64 to +0.06 at the orientation of -12°, -0.66 to -0.11 at -10°, -0.51 to +0.19 at 0°, -0.64 to +0.08 at +10°, and -0.64 to +0.1 at +12°. The mean absolute values of the errors were greater at negative orientations than at the parallel position or at positive orientations. The observers underestimated most of the variables by 0.5-0.1 mm (83.6%). In the second set of observations, the reproducibility at all orientations was greater than 0.9.
Changing the slice orientation in the range of -12° to +12° reduced the accuracy of linear measurements obtained using CBCT. However, the error value was smaller than 0.5 mm and was, therefore, clinically acceptable.
PMCID: PMC4245466  PMID: 25473632
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Dental Implants; Dimensional Measurement Accuracy
17.  Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor 
The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4265561  PMID: 25471836
Cone-beam computed tomography; Alveolar bone contour; Maxillary central incisor
18.  A feasibility study of applying cone-beam computed tomography to observe dimensional changes in human alveolar bone*  
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of applying cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe dimensional changes in human alveolar bone continuously after tooth extraction. Sixty patients were selected from a CBCT database. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken after implant surgery. A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the horizontal slice of the two scans. The alveolar ridge width was measured on the horizontal slice. In each series of CBCT I sagittal slices, the number of slices from the start point to the pulp center of the test tooth was recorded. The tooth length was measured on the sagittal slice. In each series of CBCT II slices, tooth length was measured on a sagittal slice selected based on the number of slices from the start point to the pulp center recorded in CBCT I. Intraobserver reliability, assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was high. Paired sample t-tests of repeated measurements of both tooth length and alveolar bone width showed no statistically significant differences (P<0.05). This study has proved that projection differences among CBCT scans taken at different time points from one patient can be neglected without affecting the accuracy of millimeter scale measurements. CBCT is a reliable imaging tool for continuously observing dimensional changes in human alveolar bone.
PMCID: PMC3989158  PMID: 24711360
Cone-beam computed tomography; Alveolar ridge remodeling; Extraction site
19.  Effect of root canal filling materials on dimensions of cone-beam computed tomography images 
Journal of Applied Oral Science  2012;20(2):260-267.
To evaluate the discrepancy of root canal filling (RCF) measurements obtained from original root specimens and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.
Material and Methods
Seventy-two human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared up to an ISO #50 K-File 1 mm short of the apical foramen. Thus, the teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups, according to the root canal filling material: Sealapex®, Sealapex®+gutta-percha points, Sealer 26®, Sealer 26®+gutta-percha points, AH PlusTM, AH PlusTM+gutta-percha points, Grossman Sealer, and Grossman Sealer+gutta-percha points. After root canal preparation and RCF, CBCT scans were acquired and the specimens were sectioned in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The RCF measurements were obtained in different planes and thicknesses to determine the discrepancy between the original root specimens (using a digital caliper) and the CBCT images (using the scanner's proprietary software). One-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used for statistical analyses. The significance level was set at α=5%.
Measurements of the different endodontic filling materials were 9% to 100% greater on the CBCT images than on the original root specimens. Greater RCF dimensions were found when only sealers were used, with statistically significant difference among the groups.
RCF dimensions were greater on CBCT images than on the original root specimens, especially when only sealer was used.
PMCID: PMC3894773  PMID: 22666847
Cone-beam computed tomography; Diagnostic imaging; Artifacts; Root canal filling materials
20.  A comparative study of the accuracy and reliability of multidetector computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of dental implant site dimensions 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(2):67-75.
The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of linear measurements of edentulous ridges recorded from 16-row multidetector CT (MDCT) images and cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired using a flat panel detector (FPD) with a large field of view (FOV), both independently and in comparison with each other.
Edentulous areas of human dry skulls were marked with gutta-percha markers to standardize the plane of the transverse cross-sections and path of measurements. The skulls were imaged using a 16-row MDCT scanner and a CBCT device with a large FOV and a FPD. Ridge dimensions were recorded from reformatted sections by two observers and compared with measurements recorded directly from the bone. The measurement errors and intra and interexaminer reliability were calculated for each modality and compared with each other.
The overall mean of the absolute errors was 0.75 mm for MDCT and 0.49 mm for CBCT. The mean of the CBCT absolute errors was smaller than that of the MDCT absolute errors for the overall data, as well as for the site-specific data. The intraexaminer reliability score was 0.994 for MDCT and 0.995 for CBCT. The interexaminer reliability was 0.985 for MDCT and 0.958 for CBCT.
Both MDCT and CBCT were associated with a clinically and statistically significant measurement error. CBCT measurements were significantly more accurate than those of MDCT. The measurements recorded from both modalities had a high inter and intraexaminer reliability. Accuracy of measurements was found to be more operator dependent with CBCT than with MDCT.
PMCID: PMC3520306  PMID: 21239568
cone beam CT; spiral CT; dental implants; reproducibility of results
21.  A comparative study of accuracy of linear measurements using cone beam and multi-slice computed tomographies for evaluation of mandibular canal location in dry mandibles 
Dental Research Journal  2013;10(1):15-19.
Cross- sectional tomograms have been used for optimal pre-operative planning of dental implant placement. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) measurements of specific distances around the mandibular canal by comparing them to those obtained from Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) images.
Materials and Methods:
Ten hemi-mandible specimens were examined using CBCT and MSCT. Before imaging, wires were placed at 7 locations between the anterior margin of the third molar and the anterior margin of the second premolar as reference points. Following distances were measured by two observers on each cross-sectional CBCT and MSCT image: Mandibular Width (W), Length (L), Upper Distance (UD), Lower Distance (LD), Buccal Distance (BD), and Lingual Distance (LID). The obtained data were evaluated using SPSS software, applying paired t-test and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).
There was a significant difference between the values obtained by MSCT and CBCT measurement for all areas such as H, W, UD, LD, BD, and LID, (P < 0.001), with a difference less than 1 mm. The ICC for all distances by both techniques, measured by a single observer with a one week interval and between 2 observers was 99% and 98%, respectively. Comparing the obtained data of both techniques indicates that the difference between two techniques is 2.17% relative to MSCT.
The results of this study showed that there is significant difference between measurements obtained by CBCT and MSCT. However, the difference is not clinically significant.
PMCID: PMC3714818  PMID: 23878558
Cone beam computed tomography linear measurements; multi-slice computed tomography
22.  Quantitative analysis of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced, cone-beam CT for the detection of intracranial in-stent hyperplasia 
Intracranial in-stent hyperplasia is a stroke-associated complication that requires routine surveillance.
To compare the results of in vivo experiments to determine the accuracy and precision of in-stent hyperplasia measurements obtained with modified C-arm contrast-enhanced, cone-beam CT (CE-CBCT) imaging with those obtained by ‘gold standard’ histomorphometry. Additionally, to carry out clinical analyses comparing this CE-CBCT protocol with digital subtraction angiography (DSA).
A non-binned CE-CBCT protocol (VasoCT) was used that acquires x-ray images with a small field-of-view and applies a full-scale reconstruction algorithm providing high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging with 100 µm isotropic voxels. In an vivo porcine model, VasoCT cross-sectional area measurements were compared with gold standard vessel histology. VasoCT and DSA were used to calculate in-stent stenosis in 23 imaging studies.
Porcine VasoCT cross-sectional stent, lumen, and in-stent hyperplasia areas strongly correlated with histological measurements (r2=0.97, 0.93, 0.90; slope=1.14, 1.07, and 0.76, respectively; p<0.0001). Clinical VasoCT percentage stenosis correlated well with DSA percentage stenosis (r2=0.84; slope=0.76), and the two techniques were free of consistent bias (Bland–Altman, bias=3.29%; 95% CI −14.75% to 21.33%). An illustrative clinical case demonstrated the advantages of VasoCT, including 3D capability and non-invasive IV contrast administration, for detection of in-stent hyperplasia.
C-arm VasoCT is a high-resolution 3D capable imaging technique that has been validated in an animal model for measurement of in-stent tissue growth. Successful clinical implementation of the protocol was performed in a small case series.
PMCID: PMC4316917  PMID: 24480728
Technology; Stent; Intervention; CT Angiography; CT
23.  Digital Tomosynthesis for Respiratory Gated Liver Treatment: Clinical Feasibility For Daily Image Guidance 
Breath-hold (BH) treatment minimizes internal target volumes (ITV) when treating sites prone to motion. Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging has advantages over cone-beam CT (CBCT) for BH imaging: BH DTS scan can be completed during a single breath-hold, while BH CBCT is usually acquired by parsing the gantry rotation into multiple BH segments. This study evaluates the localization accuracy of DTS for BH treatment of liver tumors.
Both planning CT and on-board DTS/CBCT images were acquired under BH, using the planning CT BH window as reference. On-board imaging datasets included two independent DTS orientations (coronal and sagittal), and CBCT images. Soft tissue target positioning was measured by each imaging modality and translated into couch shifts. Performance of the two DTS orientations was evaluated by comparing target positioning with the CBCT benchmark, determined by two observers.
Image datasets were collected from thirty-eight treatment fractions (fourteen patients). Mean differences between the two DTS methods and the CBCT method were <1 mm in all directions (except the lateral direction with sagittal-DTS: 1.2 mm); the standard deviation was in the range of 2.1 to 3.5 mm for all techniques. The Pearson correlation showed good inter-observer agreement for the coronal-DTS (0.72–0.78). The inter-observer agreement for the sagittal-DTS was good for the in-plane directions (0.70–0.82), but poor in the out-of-plane direction (lateral, 0.26).
Breath-hold DTS may be a simpler alternative to breath-hold CBCT for onboard soft tissue localization of the liver, though the precision of DTS localization appears to be somewhat lower due to the presence of subtle out-of-plane blur.
PMCID: PMC4175442  PMID: 20646848
digital tomosynthesis; image guidance; respiratory motion; breath hold; liver
24.  Visibility of microcalcification in cone beam breast CT − Effects of x-ray tube voltage and radiation dose 
Medical physics  2007;34(7):2995-3004.
Mammography is the only technique currently used for detecting microcalcification (MC) clusters, an early indicator of breast cancer. However, mammographic images superimpose a three-dimensional compressed breast image onto two-dimensional projection views, resulting in overlapped anatomical breast structures that may obscure the detection and visualization of MCs. One possible solution to this problem is the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with a flat-panel (FP) digital detector. Although feasibility studies of CBCT techniques for breast imaging have yielded promising results, they have not shown how radiation dose and x-ray tube voltage affect the accuracy with which MCs are detected by CBCT experimentally. We therefore conducted a phantom study using FP-based CBCT system with various mean glandular doses and kVp values. An experimental CBCT scanner was constructed with a data-acquisition rate of 7.5 frames/s. 10.5- and 14.5cm-diameter breast phantoms made of gelatin were used to simulate uncompressed breasts consisting of 100% glandular tissue. Eight different MC sizes of calcium carbonate grains, ranging from 180–200 µm to 355–425 µm, were used to simulate MCs. MCs of the same size were arranged to form a 5×5 MC cluster and embedded in the breast phantoms. These MC clusters were positioned at 2.8 cm away from the center of the breast phantoms. The phantoms were imaged at 60, 80, and 100 kVp. With a single scan (360 degrees), 300 projection images were acquired with 0.5×, 1×, and 2× mean glandular dose limit for 10.5-cm phantom and with 1×, 2×, and 4× for 14.5-cm phantom. Feldkamp algorithm with a pure ramp filter was used for image reconstruction. The normalized noise level was calculated for each x-ray tube voltage and dose level. The image quality of CBCT images was evaluated by counting the number of visible MCs for each MC cluster for various conditions. The average percentage of the visible MCs were computed and plotted as a function of the MGD, the kVp, and the average MC size. The results show that the MC visibility increased with the MGD significantly but decreased with the breast size. The results also show the x-ray tube voltage affects the detection of MCs under different circumstances. With a 50% threshold, the minimum detectable MC sizes for the 10.5-cm phantom were 348 (±2), 288 (±7), 257 (±2) µm at 3, 6, and 12 mGy respectively. Those for the 14.5-cm phantom were 355 (±1), 307 (±7), 275 (±5) µm at 6, 12, and 24 mGy, respectively. With a 75% threshold, the minimum detectable MC sizes for the 10.5-cm phantom were 367 (±1), 316 (±7), 265 (±3) µm at 3, 6, and 12 mGy, respectively. Those for the 14.5-cm phantom were 377 (±3), 334 (±5), 300 (±2) µm at 6, 12, and 24 mGy, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2867610  PMID: 17822008
cone-beam computed tomography; breast imaging; flat-panel detector; microcalcifications; mean glandular dose
25.  Reliability and reproducibility of linear mandible measurements with the use of a cone-beam computed tomography and two object inclinations 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(4):244-250.
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of inclination of the object on the reliability and reproducibility of linear measurements of anatomic structures of the mandible on images obtained using cone-beam CT (CBCT).
Ten linear dimensions between anatomical landmarks were measured in a dry mandible. The measurements were performed with a manual calliper three times by three observers. The mandible was scanned with Planmeca Promax 3D cone-beam CT (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland) with the base of the mandible parallel as well as tilted 45° to the horizontal plane. Computer measurements of the linear dimension were performed by three observers. The radiographic measurements were performed four times for each experimental setting. A total of 240 measurements were performed. Reproducibility was evaluated through comparison of standard deviation (SD) and estimation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The error was estimated as the absolute difference between the radiographic measurements and the mean manual calliper measurements.
The mean SD for the radiographic measurements was 0.36 mm for the horizontally positioned mandible and 0.48 mm for the inclined mandible. The ICC between examiners was 0.996 mm, between sessions was 0.990 mm and between CBCT measurements and calliper was 0.992 mm. The overall absolute mean measurement error was 0.40 mm (SD 0.39 mm). The percentage of errors that exceeded 1 mm was 6.7%.
The results revealed high reliability of measurements performed on CBCT images independently from object position, examiner's experience and high reproducibility in repeated measurements settings.
PMCID: PMC3520315  PMID: 21493881
cone beam computed tomography; image reconstruction; reliability of results

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