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1.  A Quantitative Theory of Human Color Choices 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55986.
The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different cultural biases.
PMCID: PMC3569434  PMID: 23409103
2.  Color Selectivity of Neurons in the Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex of the Macaque Monkey 
Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)  2009;20(7):1630-1646.
We recorded the activities of neurons in the lateral surface of the posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT) of 3 hemispheres of 3 monkeys performing a visual fixation task. We characterized the color and shape selectivities of each neuron, mapped its receptive field (RF), and studied the distributions of these response properties. Using a set of color stimuli that were systematically distributed in Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage-xy chromaticity diagram, we found numerous color-selective neurons distributed throughout the area examined. Neurons in the ventral region tended to have sharper color tuning than those in the dorsal region. We also found a crude retinotopic organization in the ventral region. Within the ventral region of PIT, neurons in the dorsal part had RFs that overlapped the foveal center; the eccentricity of RFs increased in the more ventral part, and neurons in the anterior and posterior parts had RFs that represented the lower and upper visual fields, respectively. In all 3 hemispheres, the region where sharply tuned color-selective neurons were concentrated was confined within this retinotopic map. These findings suggest that PIT is a heterogeneous area and that there is a circumscribed region within it that has crude retinotopic organization and is involved in the processing of color.
PMCID: PMC2882824  PMID: 19880593
color; inferior temporal cortex; primate; retinotopy; TEO; visual cortex
3.  Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e62255.
The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.
PMCID: PMC3631197  PMID: 23620819
4.  Facial Skin Coloration Affects Perceived Health of Human Faces 
Numerous researchers have examined the effects of skin condition, including texture and color, on the perception of health, age, and attractiveness in human faces. They have focused on facial color distribution, homogeneity of pigmentation, or skin quality. We here investigate the role of overall skin color in determining perceptions of health from faces by allowing participants to manipulate the skin portions of color-calibrated Caucasian face photographs along CIELab color axes. To enhance healthy appearance, participants increased skin redness (a*), providing additional support for previous findings that skin blood color enhances the healthy appearance of faces. Participants also increased skin yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), suggesting a role for high carotenoid and low melanin coloration in the healthy appearance of faces. The color preferences described here resemble the red and yellow color cues to health displayed by many species of nonhuman animals.
PMCID: PMC2780675  PMID: 19946602
beauty; diet; flushing; hemoglobin; UV protection
5.  The costs of switching attentional sets 
People prioritize those aspects of the visual environment that match their attentional set. In the present study, we investigated whether switching from one attentional set to another is associated with a cost. We asked observers to sequentially saccade toward two color-defined targets, one on the left side of the display, the other on the right, each among a set of heterogeneously colored distractors. The targets were of the same color (no attentional set switch required) or of different colors (switch of attentional sets necessary), with each color consistently tied to a side, to allow observers to maximally prepare for the switch. We found that saccades were less accurate and slower in the switch condition than in the no-switch condition. Furthermore, whenever one of the distractors had the color associated with the other attentional set, a substantial proportion of saccades did not end on the target, but on this distractor. A time course analysis revealed that this distractor preference turned into a target preference after about 250–300 ms, suggesting that this is the time required to switch attentional sets.
PMCID: PMC3222812  PMID: 21879418
Attention; Eye movements: cognitive
6.  New Approaches to Display of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Data 
There is a need for improved methods for display and analysis of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data to facilitate identification of clinical problems, assist the clinician in the interpretation of daily patterns and longitudinal trends, serve as a guide to locating the most important segments of logbook data, and permit rapid analysis of the patient's pattern of glucose monitoring.
We developed prototype software to display SMBG data in a two-dimensional color-coded array: Time of day is displayed on the horizontal axis; date or sequential day is displayed on the vertical axis. Each glucose value is shown by a color-coded symbol categorizing it as “very high,” “high,” “within target range,” “low,” or “very low.” The number of categories and their ranges can be defined by the user, and different target ranges and limits for the categories can be used for different times of day. Placing the cursor over any observation activates a “pop-up box” showing the date, day of week, time of day, glucose value, and ancillary information. Several options and variations are available.
This new type of display is compact, serves as a guide to assist the physician in locating the most important segments of the logbook, and permits display of glucose data from 90 or more days in a chart as small as 4 by 4 inches. This analysis permits rapid identification of measurements that are above or below the target range and facilitates rapid evaluation of patterns observed on different days or days of the week.
These new approaches complement other popular graphical displays by conveying information efficiently and effectively to the physician, other health care providers, the patient, and family caregivers in a new and novel, concise, standardized yet flexible format.
PMCID: PMC2769916  PMID: 20144425
circadian patterns; computer analysis; day of week; diabetes mellitus; longitudinal analysis; self-monitoring of blood glucose; graphical display; time of day
7.  Dissociation of Color and Figure-Ground Effects in the Watercolor Illusion 
Spatial vision  2006;19(2-4):323-340.
Two phenomena can be observed in the watercolor illusion: illusory color spreading and figure-ground organization. We performed experiments to determine whether the figure-ground effect is a consequence of the color illusion or due to an independent mechanism. Subjects were tested with displays consisting of six adjacent compartments, three that generated the illusion alternating with three that served for comparison. In a first set of experiments, the illusory color was measured by finding the matching physical color in the alternate compartments. Figureness (probability of ‘figure’ responses, 2AFC) of the watercolor compartments was then determined with and without the matching color in the alternate compartments. The color match reduced figureness, but did not abolish it. There was a range of colors in which the watercolor compartments dominated as figures over the alternate compartments although the latter appeared more saturated in color. In another experiment, the effect of tinting alternate compartments was measured in displays without watercolor illusion. Figureness increased with color contrast, but its value at the equivalent contrast fell short of the figureness value obtained for the watercolor pattern. Thus, in both experiments figureness produced by the watercolor pattern was stronger than expected from the color effect, suggesting independent mechanisms. Considering the neurophysiology, we propose that the color illusion follows from the principles of representation of surface color in the visual cortex, while the figure-ground effect results from two mechanisms of border ownership assignment, one that is sensitive to asymmetric shape of edge profile, the other to consistency of color borders.
PMCID: PMC1551905  PMID: 16862843
Watercolor illusion; figure-ground segregation; border ownership; surface color; neural coding of contour
8.  Color standardization and optimization in Whole Slide Imaging 
Diagnostic Pathology  2011;6(Suppl 1):S15.
Standardization and validation of the color displayed by digital slides is an important aspect of digital pathology implementation. While the most common reason for color variation is the variance in the protocols and practices in the histology lab, the color displayed can also be affected by variation in capture parameters (for example, illumination and filters), image processing and display factors in the digital systems themselves.
We have been developing techniques for color validation and optimization along two paths. The first was based on two standard slides that are scanned and displayed by the imaging system in question. In this approach, one slide is embedded with nine filters with colors selected especially for H&E stained slides (looking like tiny Macbeth color chart); the specific color of the nine filters were determined in our previous study and modified for whole slide imaging (WSI). The other slide is an H&E stained mouse embryo. Both of these slides were scanned and the displayed images were compared to a standard. The second approach was based on our previous multispectral imaging research.
As a first step, the two slide method (above) was used to identify inaccurate display of color and its cause, and to understand the importance of accurate color in digital pathology. We have also improved the multispectral-based algorithm for more consistent results in stain standardization. In near future, the results of the two slide and multispectral techniques can be combined and will be widely available.
We have been conducting a series of researches and developing projects to improve image quality to establish Image Quality Standardization. This paper discusses one of most important aspects of image quality – color.
PMCID: PMC3073208  PMID: 21489185
9.  Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: Evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm 
Journal of Vision  2013;13(13):4.
In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience.
PMCID: PMC3817959  PMID: 24190909
saccadic eye movements; visual working memory; visual short-term memory
10.  Standardization of In vitro Macrophotography for Assessment of Cutaneous Responses 
Photochemistry and photobiology  2009;85(4):1032-1037.
The increased popularity of commercially available 3-dimensional human skin equivalents in recent years has allowed for assessment of melanogenesis modulated by compounds topically applied to the skin or directly incorporated from the medium. These skin equivalents provide a suitable model for elucidating the mechanisms of action of various factors that modulate skin pigmentation or other properties of the skin. As such, researchers need to objectively quantify cutaneous responses at the macroscopic level. A simple method to standardize macrophotography images is reported that can quantify cutaneous responses in human skin equivalents of Asian, Black or African American, and Caucasian or White racial/ethnic origin. Macrophotographs are analyzed using the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system in combination with a personal computer and image editing software. Pigmentation changes monitored over a 9 day period showed a high correlation with melanin content evaluated in Fontana-Masson stained sections. These results indicate the feasibility of using a macrophotography setup in a sterile tissue culture environment to objectively assess in vitro cutaneous responses in human skin equivalents. This serves as an adjunct tool to biochemical and morphological methods to effectively quantify changes in pigmentation over time.
PMCID: PMC2705686  PMID: 19320841
11.  Active Suppression after Involuntary Capture of Attention 
Psychonomic bulletin & review  2013;20(2):10.3758/s13423-012-0353-4.
After attention has been involuntarily captured by a distractor, how is it reoriented toward a target? One possibility is that attention to the distractor passively fades over time, allowing the target to become attended. Another possibility is that the captured location is actively suppressed so that attention can be directed toward the target location. The present study investigated this issue with event-related potentials (ERPs), focusing on the N2pc component (a neural measure of attentional deployment) and the Pd component (a neural measure of attentional suppression). Observers identified a color-defined target in a search array, which was preceded by a task-irrelevant cue array. When the cue array contained an item that matched the target color, this item captured attention (as measured both behaviorally and with the N2pc component). This capture of attention was followed by active suppression (indexed by the Pd component), and this was then followed by a reorienting of attention toward the target in the search array (indexed by the N2pc component). These findings indicate that the involuntary capture of attention by a distractor is followed by an active suppression process that presumably facilitates the subsequent voluntary orienting of attention to the target.
PMCID: PMC3845459  PMID: 23254574
12.  Beyond Correlation: Do Color Features Influence Attention in Rainforest? 
Recent research indicates a direct relationship between low-level color features and visual attention under natural conditions. However, the design of these studies allows only correlational observations and no inference about mechanisms. Here we go a step further to examine the nature of the influence of color features on overt attention in an environment in which trichromatic color vision is advantageous. We recorded eye-movements of color-normal and deuteranope human participants freely viewing original and modified rainforest images. Eliminating red–green color information dramatically alters fixation behavior in color-normal participants. Changes in feature correlations and variability over subjects and conditions provide evidence for a causal effect of red–green color-contrast. The effects of blue–yellow contrast are much smaller. However, globally rotating hue in color space in these images reveals a mechanism analyzing color-contrast invariant of a specific axis in color space. Surprisingly, in deuteranope participants we find significantly elevated red–green contrast at fixation points, comparable to color-normal participants. Temporal analysis indicates that this is due to compensatory mechanisms acting on a slower time scale. Taken together, our results suggest that under natural conditions red–green color information contributes to overt attention at a low-level (bottom-up). Nevertheless, the results of the image modifications and deuteranope participants indicate that evaluation of color information is done in a hue-invariant fashion.
PMCID: PMC3079176  PMID: 21519395
attention; eye-movements; color
13.  Visualization and Analysis of Microtubule Dynamics Using Dual Color-Coded Display of Plus-End Labels 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50421.
Investigating spatial and temporal control of microtubule dynamics in live cells is critical to understanding cell morphogenesis in development and disease. Tracking fluorescently labeled plus-end-tracking proteins over time has become a widely used method to study microtubule assembly. Here, we report a complementary approach that uses only two images of these labels to visualize and analyze microtubule dynamics at any given time. Using a simple color-coding scheme, labeled plus-ends from two sequential images are pseudocolored with different colors and then merged to display color-coded ends. Based on object recognition algorithms, these colored ends can be identified and segregated into dynamic groups corresponding to four events, including growth, rescue, catastrophe, and pause. Further analysis yields not only their spatial distribution throughout the cell but also provides measurements such as growth rate and direction for each labeled end. We have validated the method by comparing our results with ground-truth data derived from manual analysis as well as with data obtained using the tracking method. In addition, we have confirmed color-coded representation of different dynamic events by analyzing their history and fate. Finally, we have demonstrated the use of the method to investigate microtubule assembly in cells and provided guidance in selecting optimal image acquisition conditions. Thus, this simple computer vision method offers a unique and quantitative approach to study spatial regulation of microtubule dynamics in cells.
PMCID: PMC3511552  PMID: 23226282
14.  Comparison of Color LCD and Medical-grade Monochrome LCD Displays in Diagnostic Radiology 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2007;20(2):114-121.
In diagnostic radiology, medical-grade monochrome displays are usually recommended because of their higher luminance. Standard color displays can be used as a less expensive alternative, but have a lower luminance. The aim of the present study was to compare image quality for these two types of displays. Images of a CDRAD contrast-detail phantom were read by four radiologists using a 2-megapixel (MP) color display (143 cd/m2 maximum luminance) as well as 2-MP (295 cd/m2) and 3-MP monochrome displays. Thirty lumbar spine radiographs were also read by four radiologists using the color and the 2-MP monochrome display in a visual grading analysis (VGA). Very small differences were found between the displays when reading the CDRAD images. The VGA scores were −0.28 for the color and −0.25 for the monochrome display (p = 0.24; NS). It thus seems possible to use color displays in diagnostic radiology provided that grayscale adjustment is used.
PMCID: PMC3043910  PMID: 17340227
PACS; displays; digital imaging; luminance; image quality; monitor; medical imaging; liquid crystal display
15.  Bare-Part Color in Female Budgerigars Changes from Brown to Structural Blue following Testosterone Treatment but Is Not Strongly Masculinized 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86849.
Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color.
PMCID: PMC3901734  PMID: 24475184
16.  The Flavonoid Pathway Regulates the Petal Colors of Cotton Flower 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72364.
Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development.
PMCID: PMC3741151  PMID: 23951318
17.  Behavioral research in pigeons with ARENA: An automated remote environmental navigation apparatus 
Behavioural processes  2009;81(1):105-113.
Three experiments established the effectiveness of an Automated Remote Environmental Navigation Apparatus (ARENA) developed in our lab to study behavioral processes in pigeons. The technology utilizes one or more wireless modules, each capable of presenting colored lights as visual stimuli to signal reward and of detecting subject peck responses. In Experiment 1, subjects were instrumentally shaped to peck at a single ARENA module following an unsuccessful autoshaping procedure. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained with a simultaneous discrimination procedure during which two modules were illuminated different colors; pecks to one color (S+) were reinforced while pecks to the other color (S−) were not. Pigeons learned to preferentially peck the module displaying the S+. In Experiment 3, two modules were lit the same color concurrently from a set of six colors in a conditional discrimination task. For three of the colors pecks to the module in one location (e.g., upper quadrant) were reinforced while for the remaining colors pecks at the other module (e.g., lower quadrant) were reinforced. After learning this discrimination, the color-reinforced location assignments were reversed. Pigeons successfully acquired the reversal. ARENA is an automated system for open-field studies and a more ecologically valid alternative to the touchscreen.
PMCID: PMC2680771  PMID: 19429204
pigeon; autoshaping; conditional discrimination; open field; touchscreen; simultaneous discrimination
18.  System of Color Wheels for Streptomycete Taxonomy 
Applied Microbiology  1963;11(4):335-338.
In the sundry systems of streptomycete taxonomy, color of the sporulating aerial mycelium is frequently employed as a systematic criterion. Color series, each containing species of similar spore colors, are generally erected; however, the range of colors encompassed within a series is often not clearly delineated by the usual word description. Therefore, a system is proposed in which the color content of each series is more accurately defined by means of color tabs. Seven spore-color series are recognized (i.e., red, gray, yellow, blue, green, violet, and white), each of which is represented by a color wheel that displays the range of colors included therein. By comparing spore colors with the color wheels, unclassified isolates can readily be assigned to appropriate color groups.
PMCID: PMC1057998  PMID: 13994094
19.  Reaction time distributions constrain models of visual search 
Vision research  2009;50(14):1304-1311.
Many experiments have investigated visual search for simple stimuli like colored bars or alphanumeric characters. When eye movements are not a limiting factor, these tasks tend to produce roughly linear functions relating reaction time (RT) to the number of items in the display (set size). The slopes of the RT × set size functions for different searches fall on a continuum from highly efficient (slopes near zero) to inefficient (slopes > 25-30 msec/item). Many theories of search can produce the correct pattern of mean RTs. Producing the correct RT distributions is more difficult. In order to guide future modeling, we have collected a very large data set (about 112,000 trials) on three tasks: an efficient color feature search, an inefficient search for a 2 among 5s, and an intermediate color × orientation conjunction search. The RT distributions have interesting properties. For example, target absent distributions overlap target present more than would be expected if the decision to end search were based on a simple elapsed time threshold. Other qualitative properties of the RT distributions falsify some classes of model. For example, normalized RT distributions do not change shape as set size changes as a standard self-terminating model predicts that they should.
PMCID: PMC2891283  PMID: 19895828
20.  Effect of LCD monitor type and observer experience on diagnostic performance in soft-copy interpretations of the maxillary sinus on panoramic radiographs 
Imaging Science in Dentistry  2011;41(1):11-16.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor type and observer experience on the diagnostic performance in soft-copy interpretations of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions on panoramic radiographs.
Materials and Methods
Ninety maxillary sinuses on panoramic images were grouped into negative and positive groups according to the presence of inflammatory lesions, using CT for confirmation. Monochrome and color LCDs were used. Six observers participated and ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The reading time, fatigue score, and inter-/intra-observer agreements were assessed.
The interpretation of maxillary sinus inflammatory lesions was affected by the LCD monitor type used and by the experience of the observer. The reading time was not significantly different, however the fatigue score was significantly different between two LCD monitors. Inter-observer agreement was relatively good in experienced observers, while the intra-observer agreement for all observers was good with monochrome LCD but not with color LCD.
The less experienced observers showed lowered diagnostic ability with a general color LCD.
PMCID: PMC3174453  PMID: 21977468
Maxillary Sinus; Task Performance; ROC curve
A multispectral camera is capable of imaging a histologic slide at narrow bandwidths over the range of the visible spectrum. While several uses for multispectral imaging (MSI) have been demonstrated in pathology [1, 2], there is no unified consensus over when and how MSI might benefit automated analysis [3, 4]. In this work, we use a linear-algebra framework to investigate the relationship between the spectral image and its standard-image counterpart. The multispectral “cube” is treated as an extension of a traditional image in a high-dimensional color space. The concept of metamers is introduced and used to derive regions of the visible spectrum where MSI may provide an advantage. Furthermore, histological stains which are amenable to analysis by MSI are reported. We show the Commission internationale de l’éclairage (CIE) 1931 transformation from spectrum to color is non-neighborhood preserving. Empirical results are demonstrated on multispectral images of peripheral blood smears.
PMCID: PMC2789468  PMID: 19997528
multispectral; pathology; metamer; color
22.  Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37769.
Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265) and OT (p = 0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.
PMCID: PMC3365102  PMID: 22701534
23.  Processing bimodal stimuli: integrality/separability of color and orientation 
We examined how two distinct stimulus features, orientation and color, interact as contributions to global stimulus dissimilarity. Five subjects rated dissimilarity between pairs of bars (N = 30) varying in color (four cardinal hues, plus white) and orientation (six angles at 30° intervals). An exploratory analysis with individual-differences multidimensional scaling (MDS) resulted in a 5D solution, with two dimensions required to accommodate the circular sequence of the angular attribute, and red-green, blue-yellow and achromatic axes for the color attribute. Weights of the orientation subspace relative to the color subspace varied among the subjects, from a 0.32:0.61 ratio to 0.53:0.44, emphasis shifting between color and orientation. In addition to Euclidean metric, we modeled the interaction of color and orientation using Minkowski power metrics across a range of Minkowski exponents p, including the city-block (p = 1), Euclidean (p = 2) and Dominance metric (p → ∞) as special cases. For averaged data, p ~ 1.3 provided the best fit, i.e., intermediate between separable and integral features. For individual subjects, however, the metric exponent varied significantly from p = 0.7 to p = 3.1, indicating a subject-specific rule for combining color and orientation, as in Tversky and Gati's variable-weights model. No relationship was apparent between dimensional weights and individual p exponents. Factors affecting dimensional integrality are discussed, including possible underlying neural mechanisms where the interaction of the low-level vision attributes orientation and color might shift between uncorrelated (p = 1) or correlated (p ≥ 2) forms.
PMCID: PMC3798012  PMID: 24151481
color; orientation; bimodal stimuli; feature integration; multidimensional scaling; Minkowski metric; integral dimensions; separable dimensions
24.  The Time Course of Color- and Luminance-Based Salience Effects 
Salient objects in the visual field attract our attention. Recent work in the orientation domain has shown that the effects of the relative salience of two singleton elements on covert visual attention disappear over time. The present study aims to investigate how salience derived from color and luminance differences affects covert selection. In two experiments, observers indicated the location of a probe which was presented at different stimulus-onset-asynchronies after the presentation of a singleton display containing a homogenous array of oriented lines and two distinct color singletons (Experiment 1) or luminance singletons (Experiment 2). The results show that relative singleton salience from luminance and color differences, just as from orientation differences, affects covert visual attention in a brief time span after stimulus onset. The mere presence of an object, however, can affect covert attention for a longer time span regardless of salience.
PMCID: PMC3153798  PMID: 21833249
attention; vision; time course; salience
25.  Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis) 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e19576.
Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.
PMCID: PMC3102057  PMID: 21647429

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