Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are polymorphic drug-metabolizing enzymes, acetylating arylamine carcinogens and drugs including hydralazine and sulphonamides. The slow NAT phenotype increases susceptibility to hydralazine and isoniazid toxicity and to occupational bladder cancer. The two polymorphic human NAT loci show linkage disequilibrium. All mammalian Nat genes have an intronless open reading frame and non-coding exons. The human gene products NAT1 and NAT2 have distinct substrate specificities: NAT2 acetylates hydralazine and human NAT1 acetylates p-aminosalicylate (p-AS) and the folate catabolite para-aminobenzoylglutamate (p-abaglu). Human NAT2 is mainly in liver and gut. Human NAT1 and its murine homologue are in many adult tissues and in early embryos. Human NAT1 is strongly expressed in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and may contribute to folate and acetyl CoA homeostasis. NAT enzymes act through a catalytic triad of Cys, His and Asp with the architecture of the active site-modulating specificity. Polymorphisms may cause unfolded protein. The C-terminus helps bind acetyl CoA and differs among NATs including prokaryotic homologues. NAT in Salmonella typhimurium supports carcinogen activation and NAT in mycobacteria metabolizes isoniazid with polymorphism a minor factor in isoniazid resistance. Importantly, nat is in a gene cluster essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival inside macrophages. NAT inhibitors are a starting point for novel anti-tuberculosis drugs. Human NAT1-specific inhibitors may act in biomarker detection in breast cancer and in cancer therapy. NAT inhibitors for co-administration with 5-aminosalicylate (5-AS) in inflammatory bowel disease has prompted ongoing investigations of azoreductases in gut bacteria which release 5-AS from prodrugs including balsalazide.
arylamine N-acetyltransferase; catalytic triad; acetyl CoA; tuberculosis; breast cancer; hydralazine; isoniazid; pharmacogenetics
N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) catalyzes N-acetylation of arylamines as well as the O-acetylation of N-hydroxylated arylamines. O-acetylation leads to the formation of electrophilic intermediates that result in DNA adducts and mutations. NAT1*10 is the most common variant haplotype and is associated with increased risk for numerous cancers. NAT1 is transcribed from a major promoter, NATb, and an alternative promoter, NATa, resulting in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with distinct 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs). To best mimic in vivo metabolism and the effect of NAT1*10 polymorphisms on polyadenylation usage, pcDNA5/Flp recombination target plasmid constructs were prepared for transfection of full-length human mRNAs including the 5′-UTR derived from NATb, the open reading frame and 888 nucleotides of the 3′-UTR. Following stable transfection of NAT1*4, NAT1*10 and an additional NAT1*10 variant (termed NAT1*10B) into nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells, N- and O-acetyltransferase activity (in vitro and in situ), mRNA and protein expression were higher in cells transfected with NAT1*10 and NAT1*10B than in cells transfected with NAT1*4 (P < 0.05). Consistent with NAT1 expression and activity, cytotoxicity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase mutants following 4-aminobiphenyl exposures were higher in NAT1*10 than in NAT1*4 transfected cells. Ribonuclease protection assays showed no difference between NAT1*4 and NAT1*10. However, protection of one probe by NAT1*10B was not observed with NAT1*4 or NAT1*10, suggesting additional mechanisms that regulate NAT1*10B. The higher mutants in cells transfected with NAT1*10 and NAT1*10B are consistent with an increased cancer risk for individuals possessing NAT1*10 haplotypes.
AIM: To identify whether the polymorphisms of the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes are susceptible to primary liver cancer (PLC) in Luoyang, a PLC low-incidence area of China.
METHODS: The NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes of 96 PLC cases and 173 controls were determined by PCR-RFLP. Both interaction between NAT1 or NAT2 and environmental risk factors were analyzed based on case control study.
RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the frequencies of alleles NAT1*3, NAT1*4, NAT1*10, NAT1*14B and alleles NAT2*4, NAT2*6, NAT2*7 in PLC group showed no statistically significant difference (χ2 = 2.61 and 4.16, respectively, both P>0.05). The frequencies of NAT1 genotypes NAT1*3/*3, NAT1*3/*4, NAT1*3/*10, NAT1*3/*14B, NAT1*4/*4, NAT1*4/*10, NAT1*4/*14B, NAT1*10/*10, NAT1*10/*14B, and NAT2 genotypes NAT2*4/*4, NAT2*4/*6, NAT2*4/*7, NAT2*6/*6, NAT2*6/*7 and NAT2*7/*7 also had no statistically significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 11.86 and 2.94 respectively both, P>0.05). Neither the frequencies of rapid and slow NAT1 acetylators nor the frequencies of rapid and slow NAT2 acetylators were significantly different between the two groups (χ2 = 0.598 and 0.44, respectively, both P>0.05). The interaction between NAT1*10 and occupational exposures was found significant with an odds ratio of 3.40 (χ2 = 8.42, P = 0.004, OR 95%CI:1.03-11.22). But no interaction was found between NAT2 and any environmental risk factors.
CONCLUSION: The polymorphisms of NAT1 and NAT2 are not susceptible to PLC in Luoyang. Allele NAT1*10 interacts with occupational exposures.
Polymorphisms; N-acetyltransferase genes; Primary liver cancer
Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2 are highly polymorphic genes that modify individual susceptibility to cancers caused by exposure to arylamine pro-carcinogens. Strong similarities exist between rat Nats and human NATs, and rat Nat2 polymorphisms result in slow acetylator phenotype. Recently, a third rat Nat, rNat3*1, was reported. Although in vivo toxicological and carcinogenic studies are often conducted in rats, relatively little is known about Nat sequences among available inbred rat strains. We report here that rNat1 and rNat2 open reading frames (ORFs) in twelve inbred rat strains (ACI, BN, BUF, CDF, COP, DA, LEW, LOU/M, MW, PVG, SHR, WF) corresponded to reference rNat1*13 and rNat2*20. While ten of the twelve strains had reference rNat3*1 ORFs, strains ACI and COP had a variant rNat3*2 ORF characterized by a G619>T transversion (A207S). The rNat3*2 SNP reduced Nat3 protein levels and N- and O-acetyltransferase activity when recombinantly expressed in bacteria. Recombinant expression of rNat3 1 and rNat3 2 in COS-1 cells yielded equivalent protein levels but undetectable catalytic activities. Relative tissue expression of rNat1, rNat2, and rNat3 mRNAs were assessed in liver and twelve extrahepatic tissues (lung, spleen, kidney, heart, esophagus, stomach, urinary bladder, prostate, colon, duodenum, jejunum, ileum) from male F344 rats exsanguinated prior to sacrifice. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that the relative expression of the rNat transcripts in liver and twelve extrahepatic tissues was rNat1 > rNat2, while rNat3 transcripts were not detected. This study concludes that rNat1 and rNat2 are primarily responsible for acetylation phenotype in rats.
Rat; N-acetyltransferase; tissue-specific; expression; rNat3
Human N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) are important phase II enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. In toxicity and carcinogenicity studies, functional polymorphism of rat N-acetyltransferase is considered a model for similar human variability. To accurately quantitate expression of the three rat N-acetyltransferases, we developed sensitive, specific assays for Nat1, Nat2 and Nat3 mRNAs. In male F344 rats, tissue-specific expression varied over a limited range for both Nat1 (∼19-fold) and Nat2 (∼30-fold), with highest expression of both genes in colon. Nat3 mRNA was at least two to three orders of magnitude less than Nat1 or Nat2. Comparison of Nat1 and Nat2 mRNA expression in bladder, colon, liver and lung of male and female F344 rats detected no significant gender-specific difference. In Sprague Dawley and F344 rats ranging in age from neonate to mature adult, colon showed a >10-fold increase in Nat2 during the first postnatal month that did not correlate with changes in Nat1. In contrast, Nat2 showed no developmental change in Sprague Dawley or F344 liver as Nat1 increased modestly. These measures of rat Nat expression confirm that Nat3 expression is negligible and that Nat1 and Nat2 are the primary determinants of arylamine acetylation activity in all tested tissues. The findings demonstrate differential tissue-specific and developmental regulation of the rat Nat1 and Nat2 genes and contribute to more complete understanding of tissue-, gender-, and development-specific expression patterns of the cognate N-acetyltransferase genes of humans and other species.
N-acetyltransferases in humans (NAT1 and NAT2)
catalyse the acetylation of arylamines including food derived
heterocyclic arylamine carcinogens. Other substrates include the
sulphonamide 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is an NAT1 specific substrate; N-acetylation of 5-ASA is a major
route of metabolism. NAT1 and NAT2 are both polymorphic.
Aims—To investigate NAT expression in apparently
healthy human intestines in order to understand the possible role of
NAT in colorectal cancer and in the therapeutic response to 5-ASA.
Methods—The intestines of four organ donors were
divided into eight sections. DNA was prepared for genotyping
NAT1 and NAT2 and enzymic activities of NAT1
and NAT2 were determined in cytosols prepared from each
section. Tissue was fixed for immunohistochemistry with specific NAT
antibodies. Western blotting was carried out on all samples of cytosol
and on homogenates of separated muscle and villi after microdissection.
Results—NAT1 activity of all cytosols was greater
than NAT2 activity. NAT1 and NAT2 activities correlated with the
genotypes of NAT1 and NAT2 and with the levels
of NAT1 staining determined by western blotting. The ratio of NAT1:NAT2
activities showed interindividual variations from 2 to 70. NAT1
antigenic activity was greater in villi than in muscle. NAT1 was
detected along the length of the villi in the small intestine. In colon
samples there was less NAT1 at the base of the crypts with intense
staining at the tips.
Conclusions—The interindividual variation in NAT1
and NAT2 in the colon could affect how individuals respond to exposure
to specific NAT substrates including carcinogens and 5-ASA.
arylamine N-acetyltransferase; 5-aminosalicylate; colorectal cancer; drug metabolism; inflammatory
bowel disease; diet
Background & objectives:
N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) are important enzymes for metabolism of tobacco carcinogens. Due to polymorphisms, improper activities of these enzymes might lead to the formation of DNA adducts that may modulate risk of tobacco related oral precancer and cancer. Previously, it was shown that NAT2 polymorphisms did not modulate the risk of oral precancer and cancer. We undertook this study to check whether polymorphisms at NAT1 can modulate the risk of oral leukoplakia and cancer either alone or in combination with NAT2.
Genotypes at four SNPs on NAT1 were determined by TaqMan method in 389 controls, 224 leukoplakia and 310 cancer patients. Genotype data were analyzed to know haplotypes and acetylation status of individuals and, then to estimate the risk of diseases. Using our previously published NAT2 data, combination of NAT1 and NAT2 acetylation genotypes of patients and controls were also analyzed to estimate the risk of diseases.
Analysis of NAT1 genotype data revealed that 1088T and 1095C alleles exist in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.97, P<0.0001) and SNPs are in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (P=0.1). Wild type or normal acetylating and variant or rapid acetylating alleles were two major alleles (frequencies 0.62 and 0.36, respectively) present in the control population. NAT1 rapid acetylation could not modulate the risk of leukoplakia and cancer (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.6-1.3; OR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.4, respectively). Analysis of combined NAT1 and NAT2 acetylating data also showed no significant enhancement of the risk of diseases.
Interpretation & conclusions:
NAT1 rapid acetylation alone as well as combination of NAT1 rapid-NAT2 slow acetylation did not modulate the risk of oral precancer and cancer in our patient population. So, NAT1/NAT2 metabolized carcinogen products may not be involved in tobacco related oral precancer and cancer. It may be interpreted that large sample size as well as combination of polymorphisms at other candidate loci may be important to estimate the risk of a complex disease like oral cancer.
Combination of polymorphisms; leukoplakia; NAT1; NAT2; oral cancer
The mouse has three arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes, (MOUSE)Nat1, (MOUSE)Nat2 and (MOUSE)Nat3. These are believed to correspond to (HUMAN)NAT1, (HUMAN)NAT2 and NATP in humans. (MOUSE)Nat3 encodes an enzyme with poor activity and human NATP is a pseudogene. (MOUSE)Nat2 is orthologous to (HUMAN)NAT1 and their corresponding proteins are functionally similar, but the relationship between (MOUSE)Nat1 and (HUMAN)NAT2 is less clear-cut.
To determine whether the (MOUSE)NAT1 and (HUMAN)NAT2 enzymes are functionally equivalent, we expressed and purified (MOUSE)NAT1*1 and analysed its substrate specificity using a panel of arylamines and hydrazines. To understand how specific residues contribute to substrate selectivity, three site-directed mutants of (MOUSE)NAT2*1 were prepared: these were (MOUSE)NAT2_F125S, (MOUSE)NAT2_R127G and (MOUSE)NAT2_R127L. All three exhibited diminished activity towards “(MOUSE)NAT2-specific” arylamines but were more active against hydrazines than (MOUSE)NAT1*1. The inhibitory and colorimetric properties of a selective naphthoquinone inhibitor of (HUMAN)NAT1 and (MOUSE)NAT2 were investigated.
Comparing (MOUSE)NAT1*1 with other mammalian NAT enzymes demonstrated that the substrate profiles of (MOUSE)NAT1 and (HUMAN)NAT2 are less similar than previously believed. Three key residues (F125, R127 and Y129) in (HUMAN)NAT1*4 and (MOUSE)NAT2*1 were required for enzyme inhibition and the associated colour change on naphthoquinone binding. In silico modelling of selective ligands into the appropriate NAT active sites further implicated these residues in substrate and inhibitor specificity in mouse and human NAT isoenzymes.
Three non-catalytic residues within (HUMAN)NAT1*4 (F125, R127 and Y129) contribute both to substrate recognition and inhibitor binding by participating in distinctive intermolecular interactions and maintaining the steric conformation of the catalytic pocket. These active site residues contribute to the definition of substrate and inhibitor selectivity, an understanding of which is essential for facilitating the design of second generation (HUMAN)NAT1-selective inhibitors for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. In particular, since the expression of (HUMAN)NAT1 is related to the development and progression of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer, these structure-based tools will facilitate the ongoing design of candidate compounds for use in (HUMAN)NAT1-positive breast tumours.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2050-6511-15-68) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase; (MOUSE)NAT1; (MOUSE)NAT2; Substrate specificity; Inhibitor selectivity; Structural docking
The sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-trimethoprim drug combination is routinely used as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia during the first 3 to 6 months after renal transplantation. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of SMX in 118 renal transplant recipients. Starting on day 14 after renal transplantation, patients were administered 400 mg/day-80 mg/day of SMX-trimethoprim orally once daily. On day 14 after the beginning of SMX therapy, plasma SMX concentrations were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The SMX area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) for 15 recipients with the NAT2 slow acetylator genotype (NAT2*5/*6, -*6/*6, -*6/*7, and -*7/*7) was significantly greater than that for 56 recipients with the NAT2 rapid acetylator genotype (homozygous for NAT2*4) (766.4 ± 432.3 versus 537.2 ± 257.5 μg-h/ml, respectively; P = 0.0430), whereas there were no significant differences in the SMX AUC0-24 between the CYP2C9*1/*1 and -*1/*3 groups. In a multiple regression analysis, the SMX AUC0-24 was associated with NAT2 slow acetylator polymorphisms (P = 0.0095) and with creatinine clearance (P = 0.0499). Hepatic dysfunction in NAT2 slow acetylator recipient patients during the 6-month period after SMX administration was not observed. SMX plasma concentrations were affected by NAT2 polymorphisms and renal dysfunction. Although standard SMX administration to patients with NAT2 slow acetylator polymorphisms should be accompanied by monitoring for side effects and drug interaction effects from the inhibition of CYP2C9, SMX administration at a low dose (400 mg) as prophylaxis may not provide drug concentrations that reach the level necessary for the expression of side effects. Further studies with a larger sample size should be able to clarify the relationship between SMX plasma concentration and side effects.
Alzheimer's disease is multifactorial, having environmental, toxicological and genetic risk factors. Impaired folate and homocysteine metabolism has been hypothesised to increase risk. In addition to its xenobiotic-metabolising capacity, human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type-1 (NAT1) acetylates the folate catabolite para-aminobenzoylglutamate and is implicated in folate metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the human NAT genes influence susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.
Elderly individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease were genotyped at the polymorphic NAT1 (147 cases; 111 controls) and NAT2 (45 cases; 63 controls) loci by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and the genotype and allele frequencies were compared using the chi-squared test.
Although a trend towards fast NAT2 acetylator-associated Alzheimer's disease susceptibility was indicated and the NAT1*10/1*10 genotype was observed only in cases of Alzheimer's disease (6/147, 4.1%), no significant difference in the frequency of NAT2 (p = 0.835) or NAT1 (p = 0.371) genotypes was observed between cases and controls. In addition, a novel NAT1 variant, NAT1*11B, was identified.
These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and NAT2 do not influence susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease, although the increase in frequency of the NAT1*10 allele in Alzheimer's disease is worthy of further investigation. Due to its similarity with the NAT1*11A allele, NAT1*11B is likely to encode an enzyme with reduced NAT1 activity.
Aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) require biotransformation to exert their carcinogenic effects. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes such as N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) may modify cancer risk following exposure. Nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator), NAT2*5B (common Caucasian slow acetylator), or NAT2*7B (common Asian slow acetylator) alleles (haplotypes) were treated with ABP to test the effect of NAT2 polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. ABP N-acetyltransferase catalytic activities were detectable only in cell lines transfected with NAT2 and were highest in cells transfected with NAT2*4, lower in cells transfected with NAT2*7B, and lowest in cells transfected with NAT2*5B. Following ABP treatment, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) was the primary adduct formed. Cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*4 showed the highest concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutants, and dG-C8-ABP adducts. Cells transfected with CYP1A1 and NAT2*7B showed lower levels of cytotoxicity, hprt mutagenesis, and dG-C8-ABP adducts. Cells transfected with CYP1A1 only or cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*5B did not induce cytotoxicity, hprt mutagenesis or dG-C8-ABP adducts. ABP DNA adduct levels correlated very highly (r > 0.96) with ABP-induced hprt mutant levels following each treatment. The results of the present study suggest that investigations of NAT2 genotype or phenotype associations with disease or toxicity could be more precise and reproducible if heterogeneity within the “slow” NAT2 acetylator phenotype is considered and incorporated into the study design.
N-acetyltransferase 2; Acetylator genotype; 4-aminobiphenyl; DNA adducts
We examined the association between N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) haplotype and risk of pancreatic cancer by genotyping eight NAT1 and seven NAT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 532 patients and in 581 healthy controls (all non-Hispanic white) who were recruited at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from January 2000 to December 2006. Haplotypes were reconstructed by using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. Covariates included age (continuous variable), sex, pack-year of smoking (categorical), and history of diabetes when appropriate. NAT1 and NAT2 genotype was mutually adjusted. The prevalence of haplotype NAT1*10-NAT2*6A was 4.3% versus 2.7% (P = 0.06) and NAT1*11-NAT2*6A was 1.2% versus 0.4% (P = 0.05) in patients and controls, respectively. The diplotype NAT1*10/*10 or NAT1*10/*11 and NAT2*6A/any slow allele was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer compared with other diplotypes (multivariate odds ratio, 4.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-15.00; P = 0.03). NAT2 slow genotype were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer among heavy smokers and among individuals with a history of diabetes. We for the first time found that rare NAT1*10 or NAT1*11-NAT2*6A diplotype may be an “at-risk” genetic variant for pancreatic cancer. The NAT2*6A/any slow acetylation genotype may be a predisposing factor for pancreatic cancer among diabetics with smoking exposure. Our observations must be confirmed in larger independent studies.
The functional effects of N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) polymorphisms and haplotypes are poorly understood, compromising the validity of associations reported with diseases including birth defects and numerous cancers.
We investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms within the NAT1 coding region and the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) and their associated haplotypes on N- and O-acetyltransferase catalytic activities, and NAT1 mRNA and protein levels following recombinant expression in COS-1 cells.
1088T>A (rs1057126; 3′-UTR) and 1095C>A (rs15561; 3′-UTR) each slightly reduced NAT1 catalytic activity and NAT1 mRNA and protein levels. A 9-base pair (TAATAATAA) deletion between nucleotides 1065-1090 (3′-UTR) reduced NAT1 catalytic activity and NAT1 mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, a 445G>A (rs4987076; V149I), 459G>A (rs4986990; T153T), 640T>G (rs4986783; S214A) coding region haplotype present in NAT1*11 increased NAT1 catalytic activity and NAT1 protein, but not NAT1 mRNA levels. A combination of the 9-base pair (TAATAATAA) deletion and the 445G>A, 459G>A, 640T>G coding region haplotypes, both present in NAT1*11, appeared to neutralize the opposing effects on NAT1 protein and catalytic activity, resulting in levels of NAT1 protein and catalytic activity that did not differ significantly from the NAT1*4 reference.
Since 1095C>A (3′-UTR) is the sole polymorphism present in NAT1*3, our data suggests that NAT1*3 is not functionally equivalent to the NAT1*4 reference. Furthermore, our findings provide biological support for reported associations of 1088T>A and 1095C>A polymorphisms with birth defects.
N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphisms; haplotypes; acetylator genotype; acetylator phenotype; arylamines
N-terminal acetylation (N-Ac) is a highly abundant eukaryotic protein modification. Proteomics revealed a significant increase in the occurrence of N-Ac from lower to higher eukaryotes, but evidence explaining the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is currently lacking. We first analysed protein N-termini and their acetylation degrees, suggesting that evolution of substrates is not a major cause for the evolutionary shift in N-Ac. Further, we investigated the presence of putative N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) in higher eukaryotes. The purified recombinant human and Drosophila homologues of a novel NAT candidate was subjected to in vitro peptide library acetylation assays. This provided evidence for its NAT activity targeting Met-Lys- and other Met-starting protein N-termini, and the enzyme was termed Naa60p and its activity NatF. Its in vivo activity was investigated by ectopically expressing human Naa60p in yeast followed by N-terminal COFRADIC analyses. hNaa60p acetylated distinct Met-starting yeast protein N-termini and increased general acetylation levels, thereby altering yeast in vivo acetylation patterns towards those of higher eukaryotes. Further, its activity in human cells was verified by overexpression and knockdown of hNAA60 followed by N-terminal COFRADIC. NatF's cellular impact was demonstrated in Drosophila cells where NAA60 knockdown induced chromosomal segregation defects. In summary, our study revealed a novel major protein modifier contributing to the evolution of N-Ac, redundancy among NATs, and an essential regulator of normal chromosome segregation. With the characterization of NatF, the co-translational N-Ac machinery appears complete since all the major substrate groups in eukaryotes are accounted for.
Small chemical groups are commonly attached to proteins in order to control their activity, localization, and stability. An abundant protein modification is N-terminal acetylation, in which an N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group to the very N-terminal amino acid of the protein. When going from lower to higher eukaryotes there is a significant increase in the occurrence of N-terminal acetylation. We demonstrate here that this is partly because higher eukaryotes uniquely express NatF, an enzyme capable of acetylating a large group of protein N-termini including those previously found to display an increased N-acetylation potential in higher eukaryotes. Thus, the current study has possibly identified the last major component of the eukaryotic machinery responsible for co-translational N-acetylation of proteins. All eukaryotic proteins start with methionine, which is co-translationally cleaved when the second amino acid is small. Thereafter, NatA may acetylate these newly exposed N-termini. Interestingly, NatF also has the potential to act on these types of N-termini where the methionine was not cleaved. At the cellular level, we further found that NatF is essential for normal chromosome segregation during cell division.
Increased cancer risk has been associated with functional polymorphisms that occur within the genes coding for the N-acetyltransferase enzymes NAT1 and NAT2. We detected two NAT1 polymorphisms in colorectal cancer patients by heteroduplex analysis. DNA sequencing revealed the wild-type sequence (NAT1*4) and two single base substitutions at adjacent positions 999 bp (C to T, NAT1*14) and 1000 bp (G to A, NAT1*15) of the gene, changing Arg187 to a stop codon and Arg187 to Gln respectively. NAT1 alleles NAT1*4 (0.98) and NAT1*15 (0.02) were present at a similar frequency in patients with colorectal cancer (n=260) and in a Scottish control group (n=323). The third allele, NAT1*14, was present only in the colorectal cancer group at a frequency of 0.006. NAT1 genotype NAT1*4/ NAT1*15 was significantly less frequent in individuals that had a slow NAT2 genotype. This was observed in both cancer and control groups and suggests that this association was unrelated to cancer risk. We conclude that polymorphisms within the coding region of the NAT1 gene are infrequent and do not appear to have an independent association with colorectal cancer risk. However, the relationship between NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms appears non-random, suggesting a linkage between these enzymes.
N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is an important enzyme catalyzing N-acetylation of sulfasalazine (SASP). The aim of the present study was to investigate associations of the genotypes of NAT2 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and with adverse effects of SASP, which is used as the first-line treatment of IBD.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
The wildtype allele (NAT2*4) and three variant alleles (NAT2*5B, NAT2*6A and NAT*7B) of the NAT2 gene were determined in 101 patients with IBD (84 patients with ulcerative colitis and 17 patients with Crohn’s disease) and 109 healthy controls by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Sixty-eight patients with IBD treated with SASP were followed, and their adverse reactions were recorded.
Eleven patients (16%) experienced adverse effects from SASP, including nine cases of sulfapyridine (SP) dose-related adverse effects and two cases of hypersensitivity (skin rash). Patients with the slow acetylator genotypes without the NAT2*4 allele experienced adverse effects more frequently (36%) than those with the fast acetylator genotypes with at least one NAT2*4 allele (11%), but the results were not significantly different (OR of 0.26, 95% CI 0.065 to 1.004; P=0.051). However, those with the slow acetylator genotypes experienced more SP dose-related adverse effects than those with the fast acetylator genotypes (36% versus 8%, OR of 0.17, 95% CI 0.039 to 0.749; P=0.019).
The NAT2 gene polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to IBD in Chinese populations, but the NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes were significantly associated with SP dose-related adverse effects of SASP in the treatment of IBD.
Adverse effects; Genetic polymorphism; Inflammatory bowel disease; N-acetyltransferase 2; Sulfasalazine
Rat lines congenic for the rat N-acetyltransferase 2 [(RAT)Nat2] gene were constructed and characterized. F344 (homozygous Nat2 rapid) males were mated to WKY (homozygous Nat2 slow) females to produce heterozygous F1. F1 females were then backcrossed to F344 males. Heterozygous acetylator female progeny from this and each successive backcross were identified by rat Nat2 genotyping and mated with F344 rapid acetylator males. Following ten generations of backcross mating, heterozygous acetylator brother/sister progeny were mated to produce the homozgygous rapid and slow acetylator Nat2 congenic rat lines. p-Aminobenzoic acid (selective for rat NAT2) and 4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase activities were expressed in all tissues examined (liver, lung, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, kidney, skin, leukocytes, and urinary bladder in male and female rats and in breast of female and prostate of male rats). NAT2 expression in rat extrahepatic tissues was much higher than in liver. In each tissue, activities were Nat2-genotype dependent, with highest levels in homozygous rapid acetylators, intermediate levels in heterozygous acetylators, and lowest in homozygous slow acetylators. Sulfamethazine (selective for rat NAT1) N-acetyltransferase activities were observed in all tissues examined in both male and female rats except for breast (females), bladder and leukocytes. In each tissue, the activity was Nat2-genotype independent, with similar levels in homozygous rapid, heterozygous, and homozygous slow acetylators. These congenic rat lines are useful to investigate the role of NAT2 genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to cancers related to arylamine carcinogen exposures.
Polymorphic Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) inactivates the anti-tubercular drug isoniazid by acetyltransfer from acetylCoA. There are active NAT proteins encoded by homologous genes in mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, M. smegmatis and M. marinum. Crystallographic structures of NATs from M. smegmatis and M. marinum, as native enzymes and with isoniazid bound share a similar fold with the first NAT structure, Salmonella typhimurium NAT. There are three approximately equal domains and an active site essential catalytic triad of cysteine, histidine and aspartate in the first two domains. An acetyl group from acetylCoA is transferred to cysteine and then to the acetyl acceptor e.g. isoniazid. M. marinum NAT binds CoA in a more open mode compared with CoA binding to human NAT2. The structure of mycobacterial NAT may promote its role in synthesis of cell wall lipids, identified through gene deletion studies. NAT protein is essential for survival of M. bovis BCG in macrophage as are the proteins encoded by other genes in the same gene cluster (hsaA-D). HsaA-D degrade cholesterol, essential for mycobacterial survival inside macrophage. Nat expression remains to be fully understood but is co-ordinated with hsaA-D and other stress response genes in mycobacteria.
Amide synthase genes in the streptomyces are also nat homologues. The amide synthases are predicted to catalyse intramolecular amide bond formation and creation of cyclic molecules, e.g. geldanamycin. Lack of conservation of the CoA binding cleft residues of M. marinum NAT suggests the amide synthase reaction mechanism does not involve a soluble CoA intermediate during amide formation and ring closure.
Isoniazid; tuberculosis; M. smegmatis; M. marinum; arylamine.
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) modifies drug efficacy/toxicity and cancer risk due to its role in bioactivation and detoxification of arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens. Human NAT2 alleles possess a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with slow acetylation phenotypes. Clinical and molecular epidemiology studies investigating associations of NAT2 genotype with drug efficacy/toxicity and/or cancer risk are compromised by incomplete and sometimes conflicting information regarding genotype/phenotype relationships. Studies in our laboratory and others have characterized the functional effects of SNPs alone, and in combinations present in alleles or haplotypes. We extrapolate this data generated following recombinant expression in yeast and COS-1 cells to assist in the interpretation of NAT2 structure. Whereas previous structural studies used homology models based on templates of N-acetyltransferase enzyme crystal structures from various prokaryotic species, alignment scores between bacterial and mammalian N-acetyltransferase protein sequences are low (~ 30%) with important differences between the bacterial and mammalian protein structures. Recently, the crystal structure of human NAT2 was released from the Protein Data Bank under accession number 2PFR. We utilized the NAT2 crystal structure to evaluate the functional effects of SNPs resulting in the protein substitutions R64Q (G191A), R64W (C190T), I114T (T341C), D122N (G364A), L137F (A411T), Q145P (A434C), E167K (G499A), R197Q (C590A), K268R (A803G), K282T (A845C), and G286E (G857A) of NAT2. This analysis advances understanding of NAT2 structure-function relationships, important for interpreting the role of NAT2 genetic polymorphisms in bioactivation and detoxification of arylamine and hydrazine drugs and carcinogens.
Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2); single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); arylamine carcinogens; pharmacogenetics; cancer risk; structure/function
N -acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II metabolic enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP). NAT1 catalyzes N-acetylation of arylamines as well as the O-acetylation of N-hydroxylated arylamines. O-acetylation leads to the formation of electrophilic intermediates that result in DNA adducts and mutations. NAT1 is transcribed from a major promoter, NATb, and an alternative promoter, NATa, resulting in mRNAs with distinct 5′-untranslated regions (UTR). NATa mRNA is expressed primarily in the kidney, liver, trachea and lung while NATb mRNA has been detected in all tissues studied. To determine if differences in 5′-UTR have functional effect upon NAT1 activity and DNA adducts or mutations following exposure to ABP, pcDNA5/FRT plasmid constructs were prepared for transfection of full length human mRNAs including the 5′-UTR derived from NATa or NATb, the open reading frame, and 888 nucleotides of the 3′-UTR. Following stable transfection of NATb/NAT1*4 or NATa/NAT1*4 into nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells, N-acetyltransferase activity (in vitro and in situ), mRNA, and protein expression were higher in NATb/NAT1*4 than NATa/NAT1*4 transfected cells (p<0.05). Consistent with NAT1 expression and activity, ABP-induced DNA adducts and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase mutants were significantly higher (p<0.05) in NATb/NAT1*4 than in NATa/NAT1*4 transfected cells following exposure to ABP. These differences observed between NATa and NATb suggest that the 5′-UTRs are differentially regulated.
4-aminobiphenyl; N-acetyltransferase 1; alternative mRNA isoforms; arylamine DNA adducts; hprt mutants
Animal studies suggest that lymphomagenesis can be induced by exposure to carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines found in diet, cigarette smoke, and the environment, but human epidemiologic investigations of these exogenous exposures have yielded conflicting results. As part of our evaluation of the role of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, which are metabolized by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes, in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined NHL risk in relation to genetic variation in NAT1 and NAT2 and exposure to cigarette smoke and dietary heterocyclic amines and mutagens.
We genotyped ten common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NAT1 and NAT2 among 1136 cases and 922 controls from a population-based case–control study in four geographic areas of the US. Relative risk of NHL for NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes, NAT2 acetylation phenotype, and exposure to cigarette smoke and dietary heterocyclic amines and mutagens was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from unconditional logistic regression models.
We observed increased risk of NHL among individuals with the NAT1*10/*10 genotype compared with individuals with other NAT1 genotypes (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46, p=0.03). We also observed increased NHL risk in a dose-dependent model among NAT2 intermediate- and rapid-acetylators in comparison with slow-acetylators, although only the trend was statistically significant (intermediate: OR=1.18, 95% CI 0.97–1.44, p=0.1; rapid: OR=1.43, 95% CI 0.97–2.14, p=0.07; p for linear trend=0.03). Compared with nonsmokers, NHL risk estimates for current cigarette smoking were increased only among NAT2 intermediate/rapid-acetylators (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.15–5.20, p=0.02).
Our data provide evidence that NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes are associated with NHL risk and support a contributory role for carcinogenic aromatic and/or heterocyclic amines in the multi-factorial etiology of NHL.
lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; N-acetyltransferase 1; N-acetyltransferase 2; genetic variation; polymorphism, single nucleotide
Aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens present in the diet and in cigarette smoke induce breast tumors in rats. N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzymes have important roles in their metabolic activation and deactivation. Human epidemiological studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and/or NAT2 modify breast cancer risk in women exposed to these carcinogens. p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA; selective for rat NAT2) and sulfamethazine (SMZ; selective for rat NAT1) N-acetyltransferase catalytic activities were both expressed in primary cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells. PABA, 2-aminofluorene (AF) and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (N-OH-PhIP) and N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline] (N-OH-MeIQx) O-acetyltransferase activities were two to three-fold higher in mammary epithelial cell cultures from rapid than slow acetylator rats. In contrast, SMZ (a rat NAT1-selective substrate) N-acetyltransferase activity did not differ between rapid and slow acetylators. Rat mammary cells cultured in the medium supplemented 24 hr with 10 μM ABP showed down regulation in the N-and O-acetylation of all substrates tested except for the NAT1 selective substrate SMZ. This down regulation was comparable in rapid and slow NAT2 acetylators. These studies clearly show NAT2 acetylator genotype dependent N- and O- acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens in rat mammary epithelial cell cultures to be subject to down regulation by the arylamine carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl.
N-acetyltransferase 1; N-acetyltransferase 2; 4-aminobiphenyl; mammary epithelial cells; down regulation; heterocyclic amines
Aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens present in the diet and in cigarette smoke induce breast tumors in rats. N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzymes have important roles in their metabolic activation and deactivation. Human epidemiological studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and/or NAT2 modify breast cancer risk in women exposed to these carcinogens. p-Aminobenzoic acid (selective for rat NAT2) and sulfamethazine (SMZ; selective for rat NAT1) N-acetyltransferase catalytic activities were both expressed in primary cultures of rat mammary epithelial cells. PABA, 2-aminofluorene, and 4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine and N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline O-acetyltransferase activities were two- to threefold higher in mammary epithelial cell cultures from rapid than slow acetylator rats. In contrast, SMZ (a rat NAT1-selective substrate) N-acetyltransferase activity did not differ between rapid and slow acetylators. Rat mammary cells cultured in the medium supplemented 24 h with 10μM ABP showed downregulation in the N-and O-acetylation of all substrates tested except for the NAT1-selective substrate SMZ. This downregulation was comparable in rapid and slow NAT2 acetylators. These studies clearly show NAT2 acetylator genotype–dependent N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens in rat mammary epithelial cell cultures to be subject to downregulation by the arylamine carcinogen ABP.
N-acetyltransferase 1; N-acetyltransferase 2; 4-aminobiphenyl; mammary epithelial cells; downregulation; heterocyclic amines
To determine whether polymorphisms in the sulfonamide detoxification genes, CYB5A (encoding cytochrome b5), CYB5R3 (encoding cytochrome b5 reductase), or NAT2 (encoding N-acetyltransferase 2) were over-represented in patients with delayed sulfonamide drug hypersensitivity, compared to control patients that tolerated a therapeutic course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole without adverse event.
DNA from 99 non-immunocompromised patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity that were identified from the Personalized Medicine Research Project at the Marshfield Clinic, and from 99 age-, race-, and gender-matched drug-tolerant controls, were genotyped for four CYB5A and five CYB5R3 polymorphisms, and for all coding NAT2 SNPs.
CYB5A and CYB5R3 SNPs were found at low allele frequencies (less than 3–4%), which did not differ between hypersensitive and tolerant patients. NAT2 allele and haplotype frequencies, as well as inferred NAT2 phenotypes, also did not differ between groups (60% vs. 59% slow acetylators). Finally, no difference in NAT2 status was found in a subset of patients with more severe hypersensitivity signs (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms; DRESS) compared to tolerant patients.
We found no evidence for a substantial involvement of these 9 CYB5A or CYB5R3 polymorphisms in sulfonamide HS risk, although minor effects cannot be completely ruled out. Despite careful medical record review and full re-sequencing of the NAT2 coding region, we found no association of NAT2 coding alleles with sulfonamide hypersensitivity (predominantly cutaneous eruptions) in this adult Caucasian population.
sulfamethoxazole; potentiated sulfonamides; drug hypersensitivity; N-acetyltransferase; cytochrome b5; hydroxylamine
Background and Purpose
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), which are complex genetic disorders resulting from the interplay between several genetic and environmental risk factors. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme detoxifies a wide spectrum of naturally occurring xenobiotics including carcinogens and drugs. Acetylation catalyzed by NAT2 is an important process in metabolic activation of arylamines to electrophilic intermediates that initiate carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is any association between the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease among the variations of NAT2 genotypes.
This study was carried out in 80 patients with IBD. The control group consisted of 100 healthy volunteers. The most common mutations found in the Caucasian population are at the positions 481T, 803G, 590A and 857A on the NAT2 gene. This was determined using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method with DNA extracted from peripheral blood.
Risk of IBD development was 3.86 for the carriers of the NAT2*5/NAT2*7 genotype and 2.53 for the carriers with NAT2*6/NAT2*7, but it was not statistically significant. A statistically significant correlation between the NAT2*7 allele prevalence and the risk for developing IBD was found (OR = 5.8; P = 0.005).
Higher prevalence of the NAT2*7 allele in patients with IBD and the obtained OR values could suggest that this mutation has the effect of increasing IBD development. Future studies are needed to confirm our assumptions on larger group of patients.
Inflammatory bowel disease; NAT2; Genetic polymorphism