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1.  Behavioural and social characteristics of the patient with repeated venereal disease and his effect on statistics on venereal diseases. 
The current study investigated personality characteristics and social circumstances in patients repeatedly infected with venereal diseases. An effort was made to identify characteristics that would differentiate a repeat patient (RP) from a non-repeat patient (NRP). Two studies were carried out. In the first, a group of patients from a venereal disease clinic in a large general hospital was first interviewed and then the patients were asked to complete a questionnaire. In the second study, an attempt was made to validate the findings from the first study by comparing data from RP and NRP venereal disease patients drawn from medical and social case histories from a second hospital. Results of both studies support the hypothesis that repeat patients are different from non-repeat venereal disease patients in terms of social and psychological characteristics. The significance of these findings is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1045373  PMID: 576846
2.  The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916 
Social History of Medicine  2014;27(3):508-529.
Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea.
PMCID: PMC4109696  PMID: 25067890
venereal diseases; Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916; British History 1900–1920; syphilis prevalence; Wassermann Test; sensitivity and specificity; gonorrhoea
3.  Social factors in homosexually acquired venereal disease. Comparison between Sweden and Australia. 
The prevalence of venereal disease was studied in homosexuals in two countries, Sweden and Australia, which are similar apart from their different legal and social attitudes to homosexuality. Social attitudes were not generally associated with differences in the numbers of infections and reinfections in homosexual men with sexually transmitted diseases. Using a non-clinical sample there was some evidence that sexually transmitted diseases in homosexuals are grossly overestimated if cases rather than individuals are used as an index. Furthermore, the incidence of syphilis was related to the numbers of partners and the latency of symptoms in both societies.
PMCID: PMC1046063  PMID: 6896667
4.  Some aspects of venereal diseases in Greenland. 
For many years venereal diseases have been a major problem in Greenland. Since the early 1950s gonorrhoea has been widely prevalent; in the middle of the 1960s the incidence increased rapidly. Since the early 1970s syphilis has become widespread in the population, and in 1977 an epidemic of chancroid occurred. The high figures for venereal diseases are basically due to the social change towards a modern industrial society. Improvements in the health services could be made by encouraging health education on venereal diseases, training Greenlander health personnel, and appointing a venereologist.
PMCID: PMC1045733  PMID: 6893008
5.  Historical account of venereal diseases in Mexico. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1993;69(6):462-466.
This paper reviews the history of sexually acquired diseases in Mexico. It is divided into four major chronological sections which discuss social attitudes and values, the development of services and of official policy, and historical epidemiology.
PMCID: PMC1195153  PMID: 8282302
6.  Changing pattern of male homosexual registrations in a venereal disease clinic, 1964-1974. 
Registrations of heterosexual and homosexual men, with and without gonorrhoea, as recorded at Ward 34, Newcastle General Hospital, from 1964 to 1974, show substantial rises. During this time, the number of cases of gonorrhoea in men, both heterosexually and homosecually acquired, has approximately doubled. However, the incidence of individual gonococcal re-infection would not appear to have changed significantly. More men attend with non-venereal conditions and show an increasing willingness to return. A greater co-operation between homosexuals with gonorrhoea and the social unit has evolved and a greater number of sexual contacts are now traced and examined.
PMCID: PMC1045246  PMID: 1276864
7.  Venereal disease education and a selected group of American college students. 
Education is considered to be an important factor in the control and possible eradication of venereal diseases. A study was undertaken to discover what effect education had had on a selected group of university students so as to determine suitable avenues for future educational programmes. Many of the schools attended by the students had issued information on venereal diseases; most students considered that this information was useful. The study did not generally show a significant relationship between previous health education, current attitude and behaviour, and the contraction of venereal disease. However, the data did appear to reveal a correlation between the lack of education at junior high school and the acquisition of venereal disease. The university student health service, together with books and pamphlets made available outside the school of classroom, were regarded as being important in venereal disease education. These findings can help those planning venereal disease education for young adults.
PMCID: PMC1045345  PMID: 576588
8.  Diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10(1):280.
Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. The disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. Current tests include bacterial culture and fluorescent antibody testing of preputial sheath washings and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an agglutination test on vaginal mucus, although the predictive values of these tests can be inadequate in field investigations.
Artificial insemination is often considered as a simple control method for bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, but is impractical for many beef suckler herds where breeding takes place at pasture. Commercial vaccines are unavailable in the UK, while the efficacy of autogenous vaccines using a bacterial isolate from infected animals on a specific farm is at best unproven. Hence, for some infected herds, the development of an alternative control strategy based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with culling or treatment would be desirable. This approach requires meticulous records and herd health management.
Case presentation
In this paper we highlight difficulties in diagnosing bovine venereal campylobacteriosis and demonstrate the benefits of good record keeping when investigating poor reproductive performance in a beef suckler herd and establishing a herd-specific approach to bio-containment of the infectious cause.
Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is an economically important disease that should be considered in investigations of suckler herd subfertility problems. Control of the disease based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with extensive culling can be achieved without the use of artificial insemination or vaccination, but requires meticulous records and strict adherence to herd biosecurity practices.
PMCID: PMC4255422  PMID: 25428802
Beef cattle; Campylobacteriosis; Venereal; Bull; Reproduction
9.  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) antigen in syphilis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1987;25(9):1711-1716.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM to cardiolipin, lecithin, and cholesterol (VDRL [Venereal Disease Research Laboratory] ELISA) is described. The specificity of the VDRL ELISA for IgG and IgM was 99.6 and 99.5%, respectively, with sera from 1,008 persons without syphilis. For a group of patients with false-positive results in traditional nontreponemal tests and for patients with autoimmune diseases, the VDRL ELISA for IgG had a higher specificity than the VDRL ELISA for IgM. The sensitivity for IgG and IgM with 118 sera from patients with untreated syphilis was 96.6 and 94.9%, respectively, which was equivalent to the sensitivities of the traditional nontreponemal tests. The performance of the VDRL ELISA was compared with that of an ELISA that uses cardiolipin as the antigen (cardiolipin ELISA). The VDRL ELISA was significantly more sensitive (P less than or equal to 0.01) than the cardiolipin ELISA with 25 sera from syphilis patients but was less sensitive (P less than or equal to 0.01) with 53 sera from patients with autoimmune diseases. The antibody reactivity in the VDRL ELISA could not be absorbed out by lecithin and cholesterol, and the sera from patients with syphilis did not react in an ELISA that uses cholesterol and lecithin as the antigen. This indicates that cholesterol and lecithin, although not antigenic by themselves, may change the structural form of the epitope on cardiolipin so that it becomes more recognizable for antibodies in syphilis and less recognizable for antibodies in autoimmune diseases. The results of the VDRL ELISA were expressed in percentages of the absorbance value of a positive control. The VDRL ELISA gave, without titration of sera, quantitative results that correlated with the quantitative results of the traditional nontreponemal tests obtained by titration. The VDRL ELISA will be well suited for large-scale testing for syphilis and may replace other nontreponemal tests.
PMCID: PMC269313  PMID: 3308951
10.  Survey of venereal disease treated by Manitoba physicians in 1972 
A personally conducted survey of 829 Manitoba physicians has been carried out in order to obtain data of practical value to future medical planning for the management of venereal disease. Two thirds of the physicians interviewed see and treat venereal disease in office practice, although only a limited number of cases are fully investigated. The annual number of cases of confirmed and unconfirmed disease in the province is estimated to be approximately 16,000. Notification of disease to the public health authorities is extremely limited and therefore epidemiological measures necessary for proper control are rarely activated. Organized medicine should develop an awareness of the responsibility which must be assumed in this situation by its individual members, responsibility which can rarely be handled alone.
PMCID: PMC1947127  PMID: 4405815
11.  A comparison of three educational techniques used in a venereal disease clinic. 
Public Health Reports  1975;90(2):159-164.
The communications methods that could be used in educational programs for venereal disease patients were examined as to their relative effectiveness: a programed learning guide, an audiovisual (cinematographic) technique, and an interview method. An experimental design was used to study three groups of patients at a venereal disease clinic; (a) persons who were pretested, exposed to an educational method, and tested again, (b) a control group whose members were pretested and post-tested but not exposed to an educational method, and (c) another control group whose members were exposed to an educational method and then took a post-test. Each of those groups exposed to the educational techniques was further subdivided according to the technique applied. Analysis of the data collected from 443 subjects led to the following tentative conclusions: 1. Representation in the nine groups was demographically uniform as measured by age, sex, marital status, and ethnic origin. 2. All three educational techniques significantly raised the subjects' level of knowledge about venereal disease, as measured by their test scores. 3. All three techniques were favorably received by the subjects. The majority reported that the techniques were the right length (10 to 15 minutes), interesting, informative, useful, and anxiety-reducing. The three techniques apparently accounted for an increase of more than 20 percent in subjects' scores on tests about venereal disease, and the subjects perceived all three techniques as interesting and beneficial. The interview method proved significantly more effective than the other two techniques in raising the knowledge level. It was also the technique most favorably received by the subjects. As expected, those persons who entered the clinic with a low level of knowledge learned much more when exposed to an educational techniques than persons entering the clinic with a high level of knowledge. Reaction to the three methods did not differ significantly by the subjects' age or sex.
PMCID: PMC1435396  PMID: 48267
12.  The changing global distribution and prevalence of canine transmissible venereal tumour 
BMC Veterinary Research  2014;10:168.
The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious cancer that is naturally transmitted between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and has been reported in dog populations worldwide; however, its precise distribution patterns and prevalence remain unclear.
We analysed historical literature and obtained CTVT prevalence information from 645 veterinarians and animal health workers in 109 countries in order to estimate CTVT’s former and current global distribution and prevalence. This analysis confirmed that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide across all inhabited continents. CTVT is estimated to be present at a prevalence of one percent or more in dogs in at least 13 countries in South and Central America as well as in at least 11 countries in Africa and 8 countries in Asia. In the United States and Australia, CTVT was reported to be endemic only in remote indigenous communities. Comparison of current and historical reports of CTVT indicated that its prevalence has declined in Northern Europe, possibly due to changes in dog control laws during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of factors influencing CTVT prevalence showed that presence of free-roaming dogs was associated with increased CTVT prevalence, while dog spaying and neutering were associated with reduced CTVT prevalence. Our analysis indicated no gender bias for CTVT and we found no evidence that animals with CTVT frequently harbour concurrent infectious diseases. Vincristine was widely reported to be the most effective therapy for CTVT.
Our results provide a survey of the current global distribution of CTVT, confirming that CTVT is endemic in at least 90 countries worldwide. Additionally, our analysis highlights factors that continue to modify CTVT’s prevalence around the world and implicates free-roaming dogs as a reservoir for the disease. Our analysis also documents the disappearance of the disease from the United Kingdom during the twentieth century, which appears to have been an unintentional result of the introduction of dog control policies.
PMCID: PMC4152766  PMID: 25186078
Canine transmissible venereal tumour; Transmissible cancer; Epidemiology; Oncology
13.  Health education policy 1916-1926: venereal disease and the prophylaxis dilemma 
Medical History  1980;24(1):70-87.
This paper seeks to account for the development of a public health education policy with respect to venereal disease during the period 1916-1926. Two competing pressure groups, the National Council for Combatting Venereal Disease and the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease, defended opposing programmes; the one based on moral education (NCCVD) and the other (SPVD) on medical prophylaxis. Many of the interests represented by the groups and the political dimensions that they took, were influenced by factors only very tangentially connected to health education.
Any account of the development of policy in this field needs placing in the context of the early history of nineteenth-century anti-vice crusades; the role of the Army Medical Corps during the 1914-18 war; and the bureaucratic protectionism of the Ministry of Health personnel.
PMCID: PMC1082620  PMID: 6990122
14.  Venereal disease education in West Virginia, USA. 
A venereal disease educational programme entitled Venereal Disease Education in West Virginia was constructed. It consisted of a preliminary test to assess the level of general knowledge of venereal diseases, a value survey list, a lecture illustrated by colour slides, and a final test. The programme was presented to 3210 students in Northcentral West Virginia who ranged in age from 12 to 20 years (7th to 12th grade). The mean score in the preliminary test was 7.97 (53%) correct answers out of 15, and the mean score for the final test was 11.55 (77%) correct answers out of 15. The ability of students to retain the information given to them was measured by testing the same class of 53 students one year later. These students obtained a mean score of 11.41 (76%) correct answers out of 15 in the later test which demonstrates that the students had retained much of the information.
PMCID: PMC1045517  PMID: 581067
15.  Epidemiologic Treatment in Venereal Disease—A Method to Aid in VD Control 
California Medicine  1972;117(6):35-36.
Epidemiologic therapy refers to the treatment of infectious syphilis or gonorrhea contacts without proof of laboratory diagnosis. This method of treatment is considered essential by public health authorities in the management of venereal disease, but has long been neglected in the private sector of medicine. The majority of venereal disease patients are treated by private practitioners, but apathetic attitudes, insufficient training, lack of case reporting, differing and often inadequate treatment schedules, poor follow-up and ignorance about or reluctance to use epi-treatment are all factors in our losing struggle against the current venereal disease epidemic.
PMCID: PMC1518744  PMID: 4635397
16.  Reactivity of microhemagglutination, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, and rapid plasma reagin tests in primary syphilis. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1983;17(3):405-409.
Seroreactivity of sera from 109 patients with first-infection primary syphilis was 98.2% in the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, 92.7% in the rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test, 72.5% in the microhemagglutination test (MHA-TP), and 72.5% in the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test. Seroreactivity of sera from 18 patients with primary syphilis with documented previous infection(s) was 100% in the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, the rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test, and the MHA-TP test and 88.9% in the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test. The MHA-TP test failed to confirm reactivity in 13 of 79 sera which were reactive in the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and in 24 of 101 sera which were reactive in the rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test. Testing another production lot of MHA-TP reagents resulted in even poorer correlation. The reactivity of the MHA-TP test in primary syphilis appeared to vary with the sensitivity of the production lot of reagents.
PMCID: PMC272655  PMID: 6341398
17.  Evaluation of the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of syphilis in weak reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory sera 
Background and Objectives:
Biological false positive (BFP) reactivity by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test used for diagnosis of syphilis is a cause for concern. The use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged by some studies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BFP reactions in different subject groups and to assess the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test in low titre VDRL reactive sera.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 5785 sera from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attendees, antenatal clinic attendees, husbands of antenatal cases, peripheral health centres attendees (representing community population) and from patients referred from different OPDs/wards were screened for BFP reactions by the VDRL test. Sera reactive in the VDRL test were confirmed by the TPHA test.
Out of 80 qualitative VDRL reactive sera, 68 had <1:8 titre on quantitation and TPHA was positive in 59 samples, indicating BFP reactivity in 0.2% in all the subject groups. BFP was nil in the community population. The male-to-female ratio of BFP reactions was 2:1. VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (76%) in the age group of 20-29 years. The seroprevalence of syphilis varied from 0.4% to 3.5% in different patient groups.
The results of this study highlight that the TPHA positivity was high (86.8%) in sera with VDRL titre less than 1:8. Therefore, for the diagnosis of syphilis, it is recommended that a confirmatory test such as TPHA should be performed on all sera with a reactive VDRL regardless of its titre.
PMCID: PMC3505284  PMID: 23188934
Biological false positive; Syphilis; Treponema pallidum hemagglutination; Venereal disease research laboratory
18.  Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2014;52(3):736-740.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ = 0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ = 0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available.
PMCID: PMC3957747  PMID: 24335955
19.  Lack of serological evidence for venereal spirochaetosis in wild Victorian rabbits and the susceptibility of laboratory rabbits to Treponema paraluis-cuniculi. 
Sera from 608 wild rabbits were examined using serological tests for syphilis as an indicator of infection with Treponema paraluis-cuniculi. Only eight sera gave positive or weakly positive results in the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, and none of these eight sera gave positive results in the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). Thus, it appears that wild rabbit populations in Victoria, Australia, are not naturally infected with T paraluis-cuniculi. Normal Australian laboratory rabbits however were readily infected with T paraluis-cuniculi, either by intradermal or intratesticular inoculation or by the venereal route. In the latter case, treponeme-containing lesions developed after about five months' cohabitation with infected mates. The disease was successfully transmitted from male to female and from female to male rabbits by the venereal route. In most cases infected rabbits became RPR-positive (17/19 rabbits) and in all cases TPHA-positive (19/19), indicating that serological tests for syphilis can be used to screen rabbits for this disease.
PMCID: PMC1045836  PMID: 6893808
20.  Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific. 
Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue.
PMCID: PMC1045762  PMID: 6893564
21.  Homosexuality and venereal disease in the United Kingdom. A second study. British Co-operative Clinical Group. 
The proportion of homosexually acquired cases of primary and secondary syphilis in patients attending venereal disease clinics in the United Kingdom has risen from 42.4% to 54% over a six-year period. Similarly, over the same period, the proportion of homosexually acquired cases of gonorrhoea has risen from 9.8% to 10.9%. The increase in incidence of homosexually acquired infections in both diseases occurred in all areas but particularly in London. Thus the very considerable epidemiological importance of male homosexuals as a high-risk group should receive more, not less, emphasis.
PMCID: PMC1045717  PMID: 7370722
22.  The value of a psychiatric service within the venereal disease clinic. 
A significant proportion of attenders at venereal diseases clinics can be regarded as potential psychiatric patients. However, there have been few reports on the value of readily available psychiatric advice at such clinics. The findings during a three-month period when a psychiatrist attended a venereal disease clinic are described. Twenty-two patients were referred for psychiatric assessment. Of the 20 who kept their appointment, 18 were diagnosed as mentally ill or as having a personality disorder. Of these two were already under psychiatric care, but 11 had never previously sought psychiatric assistance. The major sources of common venereological and psychiatric concern appeared to be among the promiscuous and the hypochondriacal patients. The former consisted of persons with personality disorders who were thought unlikely to respond to psychiatric treatment; but some of the latter improved after treatment with pimozide. Some patients defaulted and not all who persevered were helped. Nevertheless the results of a questionnnaire showed that the staff considered there was an important place for a psychiatrist within their clinic.
PMCID: PMC1045516  PMID: 581066
23.  Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody in Black and White patients with venereal diseases. 
The prevalence of both the hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its specific antibody (anti-HBs) was significantly greater in the sera of White patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases than that in White blood donors. However, Black patients with venereal diseases did not show an increased prevalence of either HBsAg or anti-HBs. These findings support the view that heterosexual transmission of the hepatitis-B virus is less likely to occur in populations in whom this infection is largely acquired before the age of sexual maturity.
PMCID: PMC1045446  PMID: 580069
24.  Teenage girls and venereal disease prophylaxis. 
One of the main aims of venereal disease education is to encourage the use of prophylactic techniques by sexually-active persons. To do this educators must convey information about prophylaxis that is relevant. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behaviour regarding prophylaxis of a group of 200 American adolescent girls. The findings suggest areas of prophylaxis that should be emphasised and ways that might encourage the acceptance and use of prophylactic measures. The study showed there were some misunderstandings and that it was important, for example to clarify the relationship of the oral contraceptive to possible venereal disease infection. Education involving both the cognitive and affective domains was indicated by the partial acceptance of the use of the condom, particularly by persons who had more than one partner.
PMCID: PMC1045372  PMID: 576845
25.  Increased serum immunoglobulin E concentrations in venereal diseases. 
Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations were determined by a competitive solid phase radioimmunoassay technique in serum samples from patients with a variety of venereal diseases. The mean IgE concentrations for groups of normal persons without venereal diseases was significantly lower then the means for groups of appropriately matched patients with primary syphilis and gonorrhoea. There were also relatively higher IgE values in patients with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that patients with urogenital infections have higher concentrations of IgE in the serum than matched control patients without such infections.
PMCID: PMC1045276  PMID: 989469

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