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1.  Targeted genomic sequencing identifies PRRT2 mutations as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2011;49(2):76-78.
Background
Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) is characterised by recurrent and brief attacks of involuntary movement, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. A PKC locus has been previously mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16 (16p11.2-q12.1), but the causative gene remains unidentified.
Methods/results
Deep sequencing of this 30 Mb region enriched with array capture in five affected individuals from four Chinese PKC families detected two heterozygous PRRT2 insertions (c.369dupG and c.649dupC), producing frameshifts and premature stop codons (p.S124VfsX10 and p.R217PfsX8, respectively) in two different families. Sanger sequencing confirmed these two mutations and revealed a missense PRRT2 mutation (c.859G→A, p.A287T) in one of the two remaining families. This study also sequenced PRRT2 in 29 sporadic cases affected with PKC and identified mutations in 10 cases, including six with the c.649dupC mutation. Most variants were truncating mutations, consistent with loss-of-function and haploinsufficiency.
Conclusion
The present study identifies PRRT2 as the gene mutated in a subset of PKC, and suggests that PKC is genetically heterogeneous.
doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100635
PMCID: PMC3261727  PMID: 22131361
Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis; targeted genomic sequencing; PRRT2 mutations; mutations; complex traits; epilepsy and seizures; clinical genetics; molecular genetics; movement disorders (other than parkinsons); neurosciences; nutrition and metabolism; genetics; oncology; liver disease; cancer: gastric; linkage
2.  Clinical Manifestations in Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia Patients with Proline-Rich Transmembrane Protein 2 Gene Mutation 
Background and Purpose
Given the diverse phenotypes including combined non-dyskinetic symptoms in patients harboring mutations of the gene encoding proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2), the clinical significance of these mutations in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is questionable. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of PKD patients with PRRT2 mutations.
Methods
Familial and sporadic PKD patients were enrolled and PRRT2 gene sequencing was performed. Demographic and clinical data were compared between PKD patients with and without a PRRT2 mutation.
Results
Among the enrolled PKD patients (8 patients from 5 PKD families and 19 sporadic patients), PRRT2 mutations were detected in 3 PKD families (60%) and 2 sporadic cases (10.5%). All familial patients with a PRRT2 gene mutation had the c.649dupC mutation, which is the most commonly reported mutation. Two uncommon mutations (c.649delC and c.629dupC) were detected only in the sporadic cases. PKD patients with PRRT2 mutation were younger at symptom onset and had more non-dyskinetic symptoms than those without PRRT2 mutation. However, the characteristics of dyskinetic movement did not differ between the two groups.
Conclusions
This is the first study of PRRT2 mutations in Korea. The presence of a PRRT2 mutation was more strongly related to familial PKD, and was clinically related with earlier age of onset and common non-dyskinetic symptoms in PKD patients.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2014.10.1.50
PMCID: PMC3896649  PMID: 24465263
paroxysmal dyskinesia; paroxysmal; dyskinesia; chorea; dystonia; PRRT2
3.  Five cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia by genetic diagnosis 
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder and PRRT2 is the causative gene of PKD. The aim of this study was to investigate PRRT2 mutations in patients who were clinically diagnosed with PKD. Nine PKD cases, including four familial cases and five sporadic cases, were selected. Peripheral blood was drawn after obtaining informed consent, and genomic DNA was extracted by a standard protocol. Sanger sequencing was performed for the screening of PRRT2 mutations. A total of five cases were detected to harbor PRRT2 mutations. Four familial cases carried a c.649dupC (p.Arg217Profs*8) mutation, while one sporadic case and his asymptomatic father carried a c.133-136delCCAG (p.Pro45Argfs*44) mutation. PRRT2 mutations were not identified in the remaining cases. The study further confirmed that PRRT2 was a causative gene of PKD and implied that PRRT2 mutation has incomplete penetrance.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2155
PMCID: PMC4316949  PMID: 25667652
paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; PRRT2; incomplete penetrance
4.  Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias 
Brain  2011;134(12):3490-3498.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias is a paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of abnormal involuntary movements induced by sudden voluntary movements. Although several loci, including the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, have been linked to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, the causative gene has not yet been identified. Here, we identified proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) as a causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias by using a combination of exome sequencing and linkage analysis. Genetic linkage mapping with 11 markers that encompassed the pericentromeric of chromosome 16 was performed in 27 members of two families with autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. Then, the whole-exome sequencing was performed in three patients from these two families. By combining the defined linkage region (16p12.1–q12.1) and the results of exome sequencing, we identified an insertion mutation c.649_650InsC (p.P217fsX7) in one family and a nonsense mutation c.487C>T (p.Q163X) in another family. To confirm our findings, we sequenced the exons and flanking introns of PRRT2 in another three families with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. The c.649_650InsC (p.P217fsX7) mutation was identified in two of these families, whereas a missense mutation, c.796C>T (R266W), was identified in another family with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. All of these mutations completely co-segregated with the phenotype in each family. None of these mutations was identified in 500 normal unaffected individuals of matched geographical ancestry. Thus, we have identified PRRT2 as the first causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, warranting further investigations to understand the pathogenesis of this disorder.
doi:10.1093/brain/awr289
PMCID: PMC3235563  PMID: 22120146
proline-rich transmembrane protein 2; paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias; whole-exome sequencing; linkage analysis
5.  Phenotypes and PRRT2 mutations in Chinese families with benign familial infantile epilepsy and infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis 
BMC Neurology  2013;13:209.
Background
Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have been identified as the major cause of benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (ICCA). Here, we analyzed the phenotypes and PRRT2 mutations in Chinese families with BFIE and ICCA.
Methods
Clinical data were collected from 22 families with BFIE and eight families with ICCA. PRRT2 mutations were screened using PCR and direct sequencing.
Results
Ninety-five family members were clinically affected in the 22 BFIE families. During follow-up, two probands had one seizure induced by diarrhea at the age of two years. Thirty-one family members were affected in the eight ICCA families, including 11 individuals with benign infantile epilepsy, nine with PKD, and 11 with benign infantile epilepsy followed by PKD. Two individuals in one ICCA family had PKD or ICCA co-existing with migraine. One affected member in another ICCA family had experienced a fever-induced seizure at 7 years old. PRRT2 mutations were detected in 13 of the 22 BFIE families. The mutation c.649_650insC (p.R217PfsX8) was found in nine families. The mutations c.649delC (p.R217EfsX12) and c.904_905insG (p.D302GfsX39) were identified in three families and one family, respectively. PRRT2 mutations were identified in all eight ICCA families, including c.649_650insC (p.R217PfsX8), c.649delC (p.R217EfsX12), c.514_517delTCTG (p.S172RfsX3) and c.1023A > T (X341C). c.1023A > T is a novel mutation predicted to elongate the C-terminus of the protein by 28 residues.
Conclusions
Our data demonstrated that PRRT2 is the major causative gene of BFIE and ICCA in Chinese families. Site c.649 is a mutation hotspot: c.649_650insC is the most common mutation, and c.649delC is the second most common mutation in Chinese families with BFIE and ICCA. As far as we know, c.1023A > T is the first reported mutation in exon 4 of PRRT2. c.649delC was previously reported in PKD, ICCA and hemiplegic migraine families, but we further detected it in BFIE-only families. c.904_905insG was reported in an ICCA family, but we identified it in a BFIE family. c.514_517delTCTG was previously reported in a PKD family, but we identified it in an ICCA family. Migraine and febrile seizures plus could co-exist in ICCA families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-209
PMCID: PMC3897939  PMID: 24370076
Benign familial infantile epilepsy; Infantile convulsions with paroxysmal choreoathetosis; Phenotype; PRRT2; Mutation
6.  Benign infantile convulsion as a diagnostic clue of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: a case series 
Introduction
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by sudden attacks of involuntary movements. It is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness, which distresses the patients to a great extent. A correct diagnosis will improve the quality of life in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia because treatment with low doses of anticonvulsants is effective for eliminating the clinical manifestations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia can occur independently of or concurrently with benign infantile convulsion. Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia allows genetic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis.
Case presentation
We describe the clinical features of a Japanese family with either paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or benign infantile convulsion. A PRRT2 missense mutation (c.981C > G, p.Ile327Met) was identified in two patients with benign infantile convulsion and three patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as well as in two unaffected individuals. Allowing incomplete penetrance in the mutation carriers, this mutation co-segregated completely with the phenotype. The patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia had been misdiagnosed with psychogenic illness for many years. They were correctly diagnosed with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia when their children visited a pediatrician for benign infantile convulsion. Treatment with carbamazepine controlled their involuntary movements completely.
Conclusions
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a treatable movement disorder that is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness. It is important to note that two clinically distinct disorders, benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, are allelic conditions caused by PRRT2 mutations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia should be suspected in families with a child with benign infantile convulsion.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-174
PMCID: PMC4077686  PMID: 24886244
Benign infantile convulsion; Mutation; Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; PRRT2; Seizures
7.  PRRT2 phenotypic spectrum includes sporadic and fever-related infantile seizures 
Neurology  2012;79(21):2104-2108.
ABSTRACT
Objective:
Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE) is an autosomal dominant epilepsy syndrome characterized by afebrile seizures beginning at about 6 months of age. Mutations in PRRT2, encoding the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 gene, have recently been identified in the majority of families with BFIE and the associated syndrome of infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). We asked whether the phenotypic spectrum of PRRT2 was broader than initially recognized by studying patients with sporadic benign infantile seizures and non-BFIE familial infantile seizures for PRRT2 mutations.
Methods:
Forty-four probands with infantile-onset seizures, infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, and benign neonatal seizures underwent detailed phenotyping and PRRT2 sequencing. The familial segregation of mutations identified in probands was studied.
Results:
The PRRT2 mutation c.649-650insC (p.R217fsX224) was identified in 11 probands. Nine probands had a family history of BFIE or ICCA. Two probands had no family history of infantile seizures or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and had de novo PRRT2 mutations. Febrile seizures with or without afebrile seizures were observed in 2 families with PRRT2 mutations.
Conclusions:
PRRT2 mutations are present in >80% of BFIE and >90% ICCA families, but are not a common cause of other forms of infantile epilepsy. De novo mutations of PRRT2 can cause sporadic benign infantile seizures. Seizures with fever may occur in BFIE such that it may be difficult to distinguish BFIE from febrile seizures and febrile seizures plus in small families.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182752c6c
PMCID: PMC3511925  PMID: 23077018
8.  Novel loss-of-function PRRT2 mutation causes paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in a Han Chinese family 
BMC Neurology  2014;14:146.
Background
Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) are a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). In this study, we investigated the PRRT2 gene mutation in a Chinese Han family with PKD and study the pathogenesis of the mutation with PRRT2 gene.
Methods
Peripheral venous blood was taken from the family members. Sanger sequencing was used for novel mutation sequencing. For the pathogenesis with the novel mutation was analyzed by bioinformatics, real-time PCR, subcellular localization and Western blot.
Results
The Sanger sequencing showed a novel mutation, c.186-187delGC, a deletion mutation, in exon 2 of the PRRT2 gene, the frameshift mutation generated a truncated protein that was stably expressed in transfected Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. A subcellular localization assay in COS-7 cells with GFP-tagged protein showed nuclear localization for the mutant protein while the wild-type protein was localized in membranes. Co-transfection of HEK293 cells with wild-type and mutant expression plasmids cells did not influence mRNA or protein expression from the wild-type plasmid.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrated that the c.186-187delGC mutation resulted in a truncated protein from the PRRT2 gene to involve in PKD pathogenesis with haploinsufficiency. The results extend the mutation spectrum of the PRRT2 gene and provide a new example for studying the pathogenesis of the mutated PRRT2 gene.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-14-146
PMCID: PMC4107729  PMID: 25027704
Sanger sequencing; Novel mutation; c.186-187delGC; Protein function; PKD; PRRT2
9.  PRRT2 links infantile convulsions and paroxysmal dyskinesia with migraine 
Neurology  2012;79(21):2097-2103.
ABSTRACT
Objective:
Whole genome sequencing and the screening of 103 families recently led us to identify PRRT2 (proline-rich-transmembrane protein) as the gene causing infantile convulsions (IC) with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) (PKD/IC syndrome, formerly ICCA). There is interfamilial and intrafamilial variability and the patients may have IC or PKD. Association of IC with hemiplegic migraine (HM) has also been reported. In order to explore the mutational and clinical spectra, we analyzed 34 additional families with either typical PKD/IC or PKD/IC with migraine.
Methods:
We performed Sanger sequencing of all PRRT2 coding exons and of exon-intron boundaries in the probands and in their relatives whenever appropriate.
Results:
Two known and 2 novel PRRT2 mutations were detected in 18 families. The p.R217Pfs*8 recurrent mutation was found in ≈50% of typical PKD/IC, and the unreported p.R145Gfs*31 in one more typical family. PRRT2 mutations were also found in PKD/IC with migraine: p.R217Pfs*8 cosegregated with PKD associated with HM in one family, and was also detected in one IC patient having migraine with aura, in related PKD/IC familial patients having migraine without aura, and in one sporadic migraineur with abnormal MRI. Previously reported p.R240X was found in one patient with PKD with migraine without aura. The novel frameshift p.S248Afs*65 was identified in a PKD/IC family member with IC and migraine with aura.
Conclusions:
We extend the spectrum of PRRT2 mutations and phenotypes to HM and to other types of migraine in the context of PKD/IC, and emphasize the phenotypic pleiotropy seen in patients with PRRT2 mutations.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182752c46
PMCID: PMC3511924  PMID: 23077017
10.  PRRT2 mutations in familial infantile seizures, paroxysmal dyskinesia, and hemiplegic migraine 
Neurology  2012;79(21):2109-2114.
ABSTRACT
Objective:
To perform a clinical and genetic study of a family with benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) and, upon finding a PRRT2 gene mutation, to study a cohort of probands with a similar phenotype. We extended the study to all available family members to find out whether PRRT2 mutations cosegregated with additional symptoms.
Methods:
We carried out a clinical and genealogic study of a 3-generation family and of 32 additional probands with BFIS (11 families), infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA) (9 families), BFIS/generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (5 families), and sporadic benign neonatal or infantile seizures (7 probands/families). We performed a genetic study consisting of linkage analysis and PRRT2 screening of the 33 probands/families.
Results:
We obtained a positive linkage in the 16p11.3-q23.1 chromosomal region in the large BFIS family. Mutation analysis of PRRT2 gene revealed a c.649dupC (p.Arg217Profs*8) in all affected individuals. PRRT2 analysis of the 32 additional probands showed mutations in 10, 8 familial and 2 sporadic, probands. Overall we found PRRT2 mutations in 11 probands with a mutation rate of 11 out of 33 (33%). BFIS co-occurred with migraine and febrile seizures in 2 families, with childhood absence epilepsy in one family and with hemiplegic migraine in one family.
Conclusion:
Our results confirm the predominant role of PRRT2 mutations in BFIS and expand the spectrum of PRRT2-associated phenotypes to include febrile seizures, childhood absence seizures, migraine, and hemiplegic migraine.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182752ca2
PMCID: PMC3511926  PMID: 23077026
11.  PRRT2 Mutations Are Related to Febrile Seizures in Epileptic Patients 
Previous studies reported that the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene was identified to be related to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions with PKD, PKD with migraine and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). The present study explores whether the PRRT2 mutation is a potential cause of febrile seizures, including febrile seizures plus (FS+), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS); thus, it may provide a new drug target for personalized medicine for febrile seizure patients. We screened PRRT2 exons in a cohort of 136 epileptic patients with febrile seizures, including FS+, GEFS+ and DS. PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 25 out of 136 (18.4%) febrile seizures in epileptic patients. Five loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified: c.649delC (p.R217Efs*12), c.649_650insC (p.R217Pfs*8), c.412C>G (p.Pro138Ala), c.439G>C (p.Asp147His) and c.623C>A (p.Ser208Tyr). PRRT2 variants were probably involved in the etiology of febrile seizures in epileptic patients.
doi:10.3390/ijms151223408
PMCID: PMC4284774  PMID: 25522171
proline-rich transmembrane protein 2; febrile seizures; mutation; epilepsy
12.  PRRT2 gene mutations 
Neurology  2012;79(21):2115-2121.
ABSTRACT
Objective:
The proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT2) gene was recently identified using exome sequencing as the cause of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with or without infantile convulsions (IC) (PKD/IC syndrome). Episodic neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy, migraine, and paroxysmal movement disorders, often coexist and are thought to have a shared channel-related etiology. To investigate further the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype of PRRT2 mutations, we analyzed this gene in 3 large series of episodic neurologic disorders with PKD/IC, episodic ataxia (EA), and hemiplegic migraine (HM).
Methods:
The PRRT2 gene was sequenced in 58 family probands/sporadic individuals with PKD/IC, 182 with EA, 128 with HM, and 475 UK and 96 Asian controls.
Results:
PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 28 out of 58 individuals with PKD/IC (48%), 1/182 individuals with EA, and 1/128 individuals with HM. A number of loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified; the most common mutation found was the p.R217Pfs*8 insertion. Males were more frequently affected than females (ratio 52:32). There was a high proportion of PRRT2 mutations found in families and sporadic cases with PKD associated with migraine or HM (10 out of 28). One family had EA with HM and another large family had typical HM alone.
Conclusions:
This work expands the phenotype of mutations in the PRRT2 gene to include the frequent occurrence of migraine and HM with PKD/IC, and the association of mutations with EA and HM and with familial HM alone. We have also extended the PRRT2 mutation type and frequency in PKD and other episodic neurologic disorders.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182752c5a
PMCID: PMC3511930  PMID: 23077024
13.  PRRT2 Mutations in Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions in a Taiwanese Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e38543.
Background
Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have recently been identified in patients with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) and patients with sporadic PKD/IC from several ethnic groups. To extend these recent genetic reports, we investigated the frequency and identities of PRRT2 mutations in a cohort of Taiwanese patients with PKD/IC.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We screened all 3 coding exons of PRRT2 for mutations in 28 Taiwanese patients with PKD/IC. Among them, 13 had familial PKD/IC and 15 were apparently sporadic cases. In total, 7 disparate mutations were identified in 13 patients, including 8 familial cases and 5 apparently sporadic cases. The mutations were not present in 500 healthy controls. Four mutations were novel. One patient had a missense mutation and all other patients carried PRRT2 mutations putatively resulting in a protein truncation. Haplotype analysis revealed that 5 of the 7 patients with the PRRT2 p.R217Pfs*8 mutation shared the same haplotype linked to the mutation.
Conclusions and Significance
PRRT2 mutations account for 61.5% (8 out of 13) of familial PKD/IC and 33.3% (5 out of 15) of apparently sporadic PKD/IC in the Taiwanese cohort. Most patients with the PRRT2 p.R217Pfs*8 mutation in Taiwan likely descend from a single common ancestor. This study expands the spectrum of PKD/IC-associated PRRT2 mutations, highlights the pathogenic role of PRRT2 mutations in PKD/IC, and suggests genetic heterogeneity within idiopathic PKD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038543
PMCID: PMC3409860  PMID: 22870186
14.  Heterogeneous Pattern of Selective Pressure for PRRT2 in Human Populations, but No Association with Autism Spectrum Disorders 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e88600.
Inherited and de novo genomic imbalances at chromosome 16p11.2 are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the causative genes remain unknown. Among the genes located in this region, PRRT2 codes for a member of the synaptic SNARE complex that allows the release of synaptic vesicles. PRRT2 is a candidate gene for ASD since homozygote mutations are associated with intellectual disability and heterozygote mutations cause benign infantile seizures, paroxysmal dyskinesia, or hemiplegic migraine. Here, we explored the contribution of PRRT2 mutations in ASD by screening its coding part in a large sample of 1578 individuals including 431 individuals with ASD, 186 controls and 961 individuals from the human genome Diversity Panel. We detected 24 nonsynonymous variants, 1 frameshift (A217PfsX8) and 1 in-frame deletion of 6 bp (p.A361_P362del). The frameshift mutation was observed in a control with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. The p.A361_P362del was observed in two individuals with autism from sub-Saharan African origin. Overall, the frequency of PRRT2 deleterious variants was not different between individuals with ASD and controls. Remarkably, PRRT2 displays a highly significant excess of nonsynonymous (pN) vs synonymous (pS) mutations in Asia (pN/pS = 4.85) and Europe (pN/pS = 1.62) compared with Africa (pN/pS = 0.26; Asia vs Africa: P = 0.000087; Europe vs Africa P = 0.00035; Europe vs Asia P = P = 0.084). We also showed that whole genome amplification performed through rolling cycle amplification could artificially introduce the A217PfsX8 mutation indicating that this technology should not be performed prior to PRRT2 mutation screening. In summary, our results do not support a role for PRRT2 coding sequence variants in ASD, but provide an ascertainment of its genetic variability in worldwide populations that should help researchers and clinicians to better investigate the role of PRRT2 in human diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088600
PMCID: PMC3940422  PMID: 24594579
15.  Successful control with carbamazepine of family with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia of PRRT2 mutation 
Biomedicine  2014;4:15.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), a rare paroxysmal movement disorder often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, is characterized by recurrent, brief dyskinesia attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movement. Pathophysiological mechanism of PKD remains not well understood. Ion channelopathy has been suggested, since the disease responds well to ion channel blockers. Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) were recently identified in patients with familial PKD. To extend these genetic reports, we studied a family with clinical manifestations of familial PKD responding well to low dose carbamazepine. Therapeutic dose ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 mg/ kg/day, below that in seizure control. One insertion mutation c.649_650insC (p.P217fsX7) was identified in three patients of the family. This study avers PRRT2’s high sensitivity for PKD phenotype. Identification of genes underlying pathogenesis will enhance diagnosis and treatment. Function of PRRT2 and its role in PKD warrant further investigation.
doi:10.7603/s40681-014-0015-0
PMCID: PMC4265013  PMID: 25520928
Carbamazepin; Paroxysmal dyskinesia; PRRT2; Mutation
16.  Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in sporadic and familial forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia 
Journal of Neurology  2012;260(1):93-99.
Paroxysmal dyskinesia (PxD) is a group of movement disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary movements. Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is caused by PRRT2 mutations, but a distinct etiology has been suggested for sporadic PKD. Here we describe a cohort of patients collected from our movement disorders outpatient clinic in the period 1996–2011. Fifteen patients with sporadic PxD and 23 subjects from three pedigrees with familial PKD were screened for mutations in candidate genes. PRRT2 mutations co-segregated with PKD in two families and occurred in two sporadic cases of PKD. No mutations were detected in patients with non-kinesigenic or exertion-induced dyskinesia, and none in other candidate genes including PNKD1 (MR-1) and SLC2A1 (GLUT1). Thus, PRRT2 mutations also cause sporadic PKD as might be expected given the variable expressivity and reduced penetrance observed in familial PKD. Further genetic heterogeneity is suggested by the absence of candidate gene mutations in both sporadic and familial PKD suggesting a contribution of other genes or non-coding regions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-012-6592-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00415-012-6592-5
PMCID: PMC3535363  PMID: 22752065
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis; Benign familial neonatal convulsions; Migraine
17.  Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia Caused by 16p11.2 Microdeletion 
Background
Four cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) have been reported in individuals with proximal 16p11.2 microdeletions that include PRRT2.
Case Report
We describe a fifth patient with PKD, features of Asperger’s syndrome, and mild language delays. Sanger sequencing of the PRRT2 gene did not identify any mutations implicated in PKD. However, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) detected a 533.9-kb deletion on chromosome 16, encompassing over 20 genes and transcripts.
Discussion
This case underscores the importance of aCGH testing for individuals with PKD who do not have PRRT2 mutations, particularly when developmental delays, speech problems, intellectual disability, and/or autism spectrum disorder are present.
doi:10.7916/D8N58K0Q
PMCID: PMC4303604  PMID: 25667815
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; 16p11.2 microdeletion; movement disorders
18.  Mutations in the novel protein PRRT2 cause paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions 
Cell reports  2011;1(1):2-12.
Summary
Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative gene is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the PRRT2 gene in the vast majority (24/25) of well characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. The PRRT2 gene encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 protein levels leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2011.11.001
PMCID: PMC3334308  PMID: 22832103
19.  Molecular analysis of PRRT2 gene in a case of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia patient 
Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is an abnormal involuntary movement that is episodic or intermittent, with sudden onset, and the attacks are induced by sudden movement. Mutations in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene have been implicated in the cause of this disorder. This study presents a case of PKD on the basis of clinical findings supported and evidences obtained through a mutational analysis. Sequencing of all the exons of PRRT2 gene revealed a frameshift mutation (p.R217Pfs*8) in exon 2 and a novel transition mutation (c.244C > T) in 5′-untranslated region (UTR). Though mutations in PRRT2 gene are well-established in PKD, this study for the first time presents a novel transition mutation in the exon 2 region.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.144039
PMCID: PMC4251026  PMID: 25506174
Mutation analysis; paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; proline-rich transmembrane protein
20.  Non-Parkinson movement disorders 
Neurology. Clinical Practice  2013;3(1):22-29.
Summary
Solutions to the major riddles in movement disorders are appearing at a breathtaking pace: 1) loss-of-function mutations in PRRT2, which encodes a cell surface protein expressed in neurons, have been found in many patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias; 2) mutations in CIZ1, which encodes a protein involved in cell-cycle control at the G1-S checkpoint, have been identified in a small percentage of patients with cervical dystonia; and 3) finally, after many years of genetics and identification of more than 25 disease-associated genes, cellular studies related to the pathobiology of hereditary spastic paraplegia are converging on defects in modeling the endoplasmic reticulum and membrane trafficking. On the treatment front, the distinctive syndromes of faciobrachial dystonic seizures with anti-LRI1 antibodies and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid encephalitis with orobuccolingual dyskinesias are becoming increasingly recognized by clinicians as imminently treatable conditions. Also on the treatment front, the first phase I trial of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound for essential tremor has been completed and intraoperative MRI is currently being used to place electrodes in the brains of patients with medically intractable dystonia. Definitive etiologies and efficacious treatments for non–Parkinson disease movement disorders are no longer wishful thinking.
doi:10.1212/CPJ.0b013e318283ff2d
PMCID: PMC3613216  PMID: 23634381
21.  Mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in southern Indian patients with sporadic and familial aniridia 
Molecular Vision  2015;21:88-97.
Purpose
Aniridia is a rare panocular disorder characterized by iris hypoplasia and other associated eye anomalies. Heterozygous null mutations in paired box gene 6 (PAX6) are the major cause of the classic aniridia phenotype. This study aims to detect the mutational spectrum of PAX6 and associated phenotypes in southern Indian patients with sporadic and familial aniridia.
Methods
Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood from all participants. The coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of PAX6 were screened with Sanger sequencing in 30 probands with aniridia. The identified variations were further evaluated in available family members and 150 healthy controls. The pathogenic potential of the mutations were assessed using bioinformatics tools.
Results
Thirteen different mutations were detected in eight sporadic and five familial cases. Eleven novel mutations, including five insertions (c.7_10dupAACA, c.567dupC, c.704dupC, c.868dupA and c.753_754insTA), two deletions (c.242delC and c.249delT), and four splicing variants (c.10+1G>A, c.141G>A, c.141+4A>G and c.764A>G) were identified in this study. Clinical findings of the patients revealed phenotypic heterogeneity with the same or different mutations.
Conclusions
This study reported 11 novel mutations and thus expanded the spectrum of PAX6 mutations. Interestingly, all mutations reported in this study were truncations, which confirms the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of PAX6 causes the aniridia phenotype. Our observations revealed inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability with PAX6 mutations. The common ocular findings associated with PAX6 mutations were iris hypoplasia, nystagmus, and foveal hypoplasia reported in almost all cases, with cataract, glaucoma, and keratopathy reported in approximately 50% of the patients.
PMCID: PMC4309133
22.  Mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in southern Indian patients with sporadic and familial aniridia 
Molecular Vision  2015;21:88-97.
Purpose
Aniridia is a rare panocular disorder characterized by iris hypoplasia and other associated eye anomalies. Heterozygous null mutations in paired box gene 6 (PAX6) are the major cause of the classic aniridia phenotype. This study aims to detect the mutational spectrum of PAX6 and associated phenotypes in southern Indian patients with sporadic and familial aniridia.
Methods
Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood from all participants. The coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of PAX6 were screened with Sanger sequencing in 30 probands with aniridia. The identified variations were further evaluated in available family members and 150 healthy controls. The pathogenic potential of the mutations were assessed using bioinformatics tools.
Results
Thirteen different mutations were detected in eight sporadic and five familial cases. Eleven novel mutations, including five insertions (c.7_10dupAACA, c.567dupC, c.704dupC, c.868dupA and c.753_754insTA), two deletions (c.242delC and c.249delT), and four splicing variants (c.10+1G>A, c.141G>A, c.141+4A>G and c.764A>G) were identified in this study. Clinical findings of the patients revealed phenotypic heterogeneity with the same or different mutations.
Conclusions
This study reported 11 novel mutations and thus expanded the spectrum of PAX6 mutations. Interestingly, all mutations reported in this study were truncations, which confirms the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of PAX6 causes the aniridia phenotype. Our observations revealed inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability with PAX6 mutations. The common ocular findings associated with PAX6 mutations were iris hypoplasia, nystagmus, and foveal hypoplasia reported in almost all cases, with cataract, glaucoma, and keratopathy reported in approximately 50% of the patients.
PMCID: PMC4316699
23.  Pathological laughter associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: A rare presentation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis☆ 
A 13-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of sudden brief posturing of the right upper and lower limbs accompanied by transient inability to speak and a tendency to smile which would sometimes break into laughter. Awareness was retained during the attack, and there was no associated emotional abnormality. The events were precipitated by walking and occurred several times in a day. The laughter was pathological in nature, and the abnormal posturing was akin to ‘paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia’ (PKD). ‘Pathological laughter or crying’ is defined as an involuntary, inappropriate, unmotivated laughter, crying or both, without any associated mood change. It can occur as a result of cerebral lesions like tumors, trauma, vascular insults, multiple sclerosis and/or degenerative disorders. It can also be a component of gelastic epilepsy which is characterized by stereotyped recurrences, presence of interictal and ictal epileptiform discharges and absence of external precipitants. In our patient, however, there was no ictal or interictal EEG correlate. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by intermittent, involuntary movements triggered by kinesigenic stimuli and is usually familial but can also be secondary to metabolic and structural brain disorders. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in our case, revealed multiple T2 and FLAIR hyperintense, non-enhancing lesions in the periaqueductal gray matter, pontine and midbrain tegmentum, bilateral thalami and left lentiform nucleus suggesting a diagnosis of ‘acute disseminated encephalomyelitis’, in which this unique combination of pathological laughter and PKD has not been described so far. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) confirmed a demyelinating pathology, and the patient responded well to steroids.
doi:10.1016/j.ebcr.2012.11.001
PMCID: PMC4150596
Pathological laughter; Gelastic epilepsy; Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
24.  A new family with paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia and migraine: a clinical and genetic study 
OBJECTIVE—To characterise the phenotype of a family with paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia (PED) and migraine and establish whether it is linked to the paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) locus on chromosome 2q33-35, the familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) locus on chromosome 19p, or the familial infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA syndrome) locus on chromosome 16.
METHODS—A family, comprising 30 members, was investigated. Fourteen family members in two generations including three spouses were examined. Haplotypes were reconstructed for all the available family members by typing several microsatellite markers spanning the PNKD, FHM, and ICCA loci. Additionally, the four exons containing the known FHM mutations were sequenced.
RESULTS—Of 14 members examined four were definitely affected and one member was affected by history. The transmission pattern in this family was autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance. Mean age of onset in affected members was 12 (range 9-15 years). Male to female ratio was 3:1. Attacks of PED in affected members were predominantly dystonic and lasted between 15 and 30 minutes. They were consistently precipitated by walking but could also occur after other exercise. Generalisation did not occur. Three of the affected members in the family also had migraine without aura. Linkage of the disease to the PNKD, FHM, or ICCA loci was excluded as no common haplotype was shared by all the affected members for each locus. In addition, direct DNA sequential analysis of the FHM gene (CACNL1A4) ruled out all known FHM point mutations.
CONCLUSIONS—This family presented with the classic phenotype of PED and is not linked to the PNKD, FHM, or ICCA loci. A new gene, possibly coding for an ion channel, is likely to be the underlying cause of the disease.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.5.609
PMCID: PMC1736900  PMID: 10766892
25.  Increased ictal perfusion of the thalamus in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia 
The ictal and interictal cerebral blood flow (CBF) were evaluated in a patient with right unilateral short lasting paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, by means of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The patient was a 6 year old boy with no family history. During an attack, increased CBF was seen in the left thalamus. Subtraction of interictal CBF from ictal CBF disclosed a prominent increase in CBF in the left posterolateral part of the thalamus. This finding suggests that abnormal hyperactivity of thalamic neurons could be responsible for the pathophysiology of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in this patient.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.3.408
PMCID: PMC1737540  PMID: 11511723

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