Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before.
The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection.
Nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains.
The present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges, conferring different degree of protection and using distinct immune mechanisms. We also demonstrated in this work that it is possible to beneficially modulate the respiratory defenses against RSV by using heat-killed immunobiotics.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus; Nasal treatment; Poly(I:C); Sntiviral immunity; Respiratory tract; Respiratory syncytial virus
Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr) administered during the repletion of immunocompromised-malnourished mice improves the resistance against intestinal and respiratory infections. This effect is associated with an increase in the number and functionality of immune cells, indicating that Lr could have some influence on myeloid and lymphoid cell production and maturation.
This study analyzed the extent of the damage caused by malnutrition on myeloid and lymphoid cell development in the spleen and bone marrow (BM). We also evaluated the impact of immunobiotics on the recovery of hematopoiesis affected in malnourished mice.
Protein malnourished mice were fed on a balanced conventional diet for 7 or 14 consecutive d with or without supplemental Lr or fermented goat's milk (FGM). Malnourished mice and well-nourished mice were used as controls. Histological and flow cytometry studies were carried out in BM and spleen to study myeloid and lymphoid cells.
Malnutrition induced quantitative alterations in spleen B and T cells; however, no alteration was observed in the ability of splenic B cells to produce immunoglobulins after challenge with LPS or CpG. The analysis of BM B cell subsets based on B220, CD24, IgM and IgD expression showed that malnutrition affected B cell development. In addition, BM myeloid cells decreased in malnourished mice. On the contrary, protein deprivation increased BM T cell number. These alterations were reverted with Lr or FGM repletion treatments since normal numbers of BM myeloid, T and B cells were observed in these groups.
Protein malnutrition significantly alters B cell development in BM. The treatment of malnourished mice with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 was able to induce a recovery of B cells that would explain its ability to increase immunity against infections. This work highlights the possibility of using immunobiotics to accelerate the recovery of lymphopoyesis in immunocompromised-malnourished hosts.
We report the draft genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CRL1505. This new probiotic strain has been included into official Nutritional Programs in Argentina. The draft genome sequence is composed of 3,417,633 bp with 3,327 coding sequences.
Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35.
To define the term probiotics, to indicate how to identify products that have
been proven beneficial, and to assess the quality of evidence regarding
QUALITY OF EVIDENCE
A few level I studies support the effectiveness of specific probiotics for
certain diagnoses. For most so-called probiotics, however, weak or no
evidence supports their effectiveness.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate
amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Level I evidence supports use
of VSL#3 for maintaining remission of inflammatory colitis. Probiotics for
treating vaginal infections, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1
and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, have level I evidence of
effectiveness, but are not available in Canada. Specific probiotics taken
for certain indications improve health and have few side effects.
Limited but good evidence supports the role of certain probiotics in medical
practice. Because consumer pressure will undoubtedly stimulate further
interest in probiotics, family doctors need to be informed about them so
they can advise their patients appropriately.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) has been studied extensively as a probiotic in humans. However, the ability of an organism to survive passage through the intestinal tract and exert beneficial effects cannot be directly extrapolated between species. This study evaluated the ability of LGG to survive gastrointestinal transit in dogs and assessed whether oral administration of LGG is safe, in order to determine whether studies evaluating the efficacy of LGG in the treatment of canine disease are indicated. Dogs were divided into 5 groups receiving doses of 0 (control group, n = 4), 1 × 109 (group 1, n = 8), 1 × 1010 (group 2, n = 8), 5 × 1010 (group 3, n = 8) and 5 × 1011 (group 4, n = 4) colony forming units per day, orally, for 5 days. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was detected in the feces of 4/8 dogs in groups 1 and 2, 5/8 dogs in group 3, 4/4 dogs in group 4, and 0/4 dogs in the control group. Fecal colonization was significantly greater in group 4 than in any other group (P < 0.001). Differences between groups 1, 2, and 3 were not significant. No adverse effects were noted. Fecal colonization of LGG in dogs is somewhat variable; however, clinical studies are indicated to evaluate this organism in the treatment and prevention of canine disease.
DNA regulatory motifs reflect the direct transcriptional interactions between regulators and their target genes and contain important information regarding transcriptional networks. In silico motif detection strategies search for DNA patterns that are present more frequently in a set of related sequences than in a set of unrelated sequences. Related sequences could be genes that are coexpressed and are therefore expected to share similar conserved regulatory motifs. We identified coexpressed genes by carrying out microarray-based transcript profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in response to the spent culture supernatant of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. They are known to antagonize intestinal pathogens in vivo, including salmonellae. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium causes human gastroenteritis. Infection is initiated by entry of salmonellae into intestinal epithelial cells. The expression of invasion genes is tightly regulated by environmental conditions, as well as by many bacterial factors including the key regulator HilA. One mechanism by which probiotics may antagonize intestinal pathogens is by influencing invasion gene expression. Our microarray experiment yielded a cluster of coexpressed Salmonella genes that are predicted to be down-regulated by spent culture supernatant. This cluster was enriched for genes known to be HilA dependent. In silico motif detection revealed a motif that overlaps the previously described HilA box in the promoter region of three of these genes, spi4_H, sicA, and hilA. Site-directed mutagenesis, β-galactosidase reporter assays, and gel mobility shift experiments indicated that sicA expression requires HilA and that hilA is negatively autoregulated.
Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C. difficile, but did not have significant effects on the major microbial groups or the fecal immune markers.
Probiotics; Elderly; Gut microbiota; Cheese; Clostridium difficile
Oral administration of probiotics is known to modulate cytokines profile not only locally, but also systemically. Four strains of Lactobacillus salivarius, LDR0723, BNL1059, RGS1746 and CRL1528, were evaluated for their ability to modulate release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
Strains were assessed for effects on production of Interleukin-12 (IL-12), Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-5 (IL-5) by incubating bacterial suspensions with THP-1 macrophage like cells. Cytokines were determined by means of specific quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
LDR0723 and CRL1528 led to a sustained increment in production of IL-12 and IFN-γ and to a decrease in release of IL-4 and IL-5, while BNL1059 and RGS1746 favoured Th2 response, leading to a decrease in Th1/Th2 ratio with respect to unstimulated cells.
In conclusion, capability of L. salivarius to modulate immune response was strictly strain dependent and strains of the same species might have opposite effects. Therefore, a careful evaluation of anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli should be performed on single strain, before any consideration on potential probiotic use.
Human rotavirus (HRV) is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) reduces rotavirus infection and diarrhea. However, the molecular mechanisms of LGG-mediated protection from rotavirus infection are poorly understood. Autophagy plays an essential role in responses to microbial pathogens. However, the role of autophagy in HRV infection and LGG treatment is unknown. We hypothesize that rotavirus gastroenteritis activates autophagy and that LGG suppresses virus-induced autophagy and prevents intestinal damage in infected piglets.
We used LGG feeding to combat viral gastroenteritis in the gnotobiotic pig model of virulent HRV infection.
We found that LGG feeding did not increase autophagy, whereas virus infection induced autophagy in the piglet intestine. Virus infection increased the protein levels of the autophagy markers ATG16L1 and Beclin-1 and the autophagy regulator mTOR. LGG treatment during viral gastroenteritis reduced autophagy marker expression to normal levels, induced apoptosis and partially prevented virus-induced tissue damage.
Our study provides new insights into virus-induced autophagy and LGG suppression of uncontrolled autophagy and intestinal injury. A better understanding of the antiviral activity of LGG will lead to novel therapeutic strategies for infant infectious diseases.
Autophagy; Apoptosis; Diarrhea; Gnotobiotic pig; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; Infectious disease; Intestinal inflammation; Intestinal injury; Probiotics; Rotavirus
Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (1010 CFU/d or 1012 CFU/d) for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL)-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2) mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative effects, thus decreasing the prophylactic benefits against potential enteric pathogens. Our data suggest a safe threshold for preventative use of probiotics in clinical practice.
The use of probiotics as a food supplement has gained tremendous interest in the last few years as beneficial effects were reported in gut homeostasis and nutrient absorption but also in immunocompromised patients, supporting protection from colonization or infection with pathogenic bacteria or fungi. As a treatment approach for inflammatory bowel diseases, a suitable probiotic strain would ideally be one with a low immunogenic potential. Insight into the immunogenicities and types of T-cell responses induced by potentially probiotic strains allows a more rational selection of a particular strain. In the present study, the bacterial strains Bifidobacterium breve (NumRes 204), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (NumRes1), and Lactobacillus casei (DN-114 001) were compared concerning their capacity to induce inflammatory responses in terms of cytokine production by human and mouse primary immune cells. It was demonstrated that the B. breve strain induced lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than the tested L. rhamnosus and L. casei strains. Both B. breve and lactobacilli induced cytokines in a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-dependent manner, while the lower inflammatory profile of B. breve was due to inhibitory effects of TLR2. No role for TLR4, NOD2, and C-type lectin receptors was apparent. In conclusion, TLR signaling is involved in the differentiation of inflammatory responses between probiotic strains used as food supplements.
Epithelial cells of the urinary tract recognize pathogenic bacteria through pattern recognition receptors on their surface, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), and mount an immune response through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Some uropathogenic bacteria can subvert these cellular responses, creating problems with how the host eliminates pathogens. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that are part of the microbiota and consist of many probiotic strains, some specifically for urogenital infections. Immunomodulation has emerged as an important mode of action of probiotic and commensal lactobacilli and given the importance of epithelial cells, we evaluated the effect of the urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on epithelial immune activation.
Immune activation through the NF-kappaB pathway was initiated by stimulation of T24 urothelial cells with heat-killed Escherichia coli and this was further potentiated when cells were co-cultured with live L. rhamnosus GR-1. Heat-killed lactobacilli were poor activators of NF-kappaB. Concomitant stimulation of bladder cells with E. coli and L. rhamnosus GR-1 increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whereas IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were reduced. Another probiotic, L. rhamnosus GG, was also able to potentiate NF-kappaB in these cells although at a significantly reduced level compared to the GR-1 strain. The transcript numbers and protein levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4 were significantly increased after co-stimulation with E. coli and lactobacilli compared to controls. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4 activation by polymixin B completely blocked the lactobacilli potentiation of NF-kappaB.
The immunological outcome of E. coli challenge of bladder cells was influenced by probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1, by enhancing the activation of NF-kappaB and TNF release. Thus the urogenital probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 modulated the activation of the NF-kappaB through increased levels of TLR4 on the bladder cells and altered subsequent release of cytokines from urothelial cells. By influencing immunological factors such as TLR4, important in the process of fighting pathogens, lactobacilli could facilitate pathogen recognition and infection clearance.
There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown that the microbial status of an animal influences the intestinal cell kinetics and morphology. The present study was undertaken to study whether establishment of L. rhamnosus GG as a mono-associate in germfree rats influences intestinal cell kinetics and morphology. L. rhamnosus GG was easily established in germfree rats. After 3 days of mono-association, the rate of mitoses in the upper part of the small intestine (jejunum 1) increased as much as 14 and 22% compared to the rates in germfree and conventional counterparts, respectively. The most striking alteration in morphology was an increase in the number of cells in the villi. We hypothesis that the compartmentalized effects of L. rhamnosus GG may represent a reparative event for the mucosa.
Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonization at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognized as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib, and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N = 31) compared to placebo treatment (N = 30) but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific T regulatory in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.
vaccine; LGG; probiotic; pneumococcal; Treg; immune modulation
Lactobacillus plantarum DK119 (DK119) isolated from the fermented Korean cabbage food was used as a probiotic to determine its antiviral effects on influenza virus. DK119 intranasal or oral administration conferred 100% protection against subsequent lethal infection with influenza A viruses, prevented significant weight loss, and lowered lung viral loads in a mouse model. The antiviral protective efficacy was observed in a dose and route dependent manner of DK119 administration. Mice that were treated with DK119 showed high levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and a low degree of inflammation upon infection with influenza virus. Depletion of alveolar macrophage cells in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages completely abrogated the DK119-mediated protection. Modulating host innate immunity of dendritic and macrophage cells, and cytokine production pattern appeared to be possible mechanisms by which DK119 exhibited antiviral effects on influenza virus infection. These results indicate that DK119 can be developed as a beneficial antiviral probiotic microorganism.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic persistence at this site. Ten healthy women inserted vaginally a capsule containing either a combination of strains GR-1 and RC-14 or the GG strain for 3 consecutive nights. Vaginal swabs taken before and at various time points after probiotic insertion were analyzed, and the Lactobacillus flora was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This method generated discrete DNA fingerprints for GR-1, RC-14, and GG and enabled successful detection of these strains in the vagina. Strain GR-1 and/or strain RC-14 was found to persist in the vaginal tract for up to 19 days after vaginal instillation, while L. rhamnosus GG was detectable for up to 5 days postadministration. In conclusion, the fates of probiotic L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum strains were successfully monitored in the human vagina by RAPD analysis. This technique provides molecular biology-based evidence that RC-14 and GR-1, strains selected as urogenital probiotics, persist in the human vagina and may be more suited to vaginal colonization than L. rhamnosus GG. This highlights the importance of proper selection of strains for urogenital probiotic applications.
Seven Lactobacillus strains belonging to four species were evaluated for pathogenicity as well as for in vitro sensitivity to the bactericidal mechanisms of macrophages in a rabbit infective endocarditis (IE) model. Two bacteremia-associated strains, L. rhamnosus PHLS A103/70 and L. casei PHLS A357/84, as well as the L. rhamnosus type strain and the probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103, showed moderate infectivity, and the virulence of the probiotic L. casei strain Shirota and type strains such as L. acidophilus ATCC 4356T and L. gasseri DSM 20243T in the model was negligible. The strains that showed pathogenic potential in the rabbit IE model (PHLS A357/84, PHLS A103/70, and ATCC 53103) were more resistant than strain Shirota to intracellular killing activity by mouse macrophages in vitro and also to bactericidal nitrogen intermediates, such as nitric oxide and NO2− ions. These results suggest that resistance to host innate defense systems, which would function at inflammatory lesions, should be considered in the safety assessment of Lactobacillus strains.
The management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to be of concern, due to complications that can occur. An emerging concept that is a common underlying pathophysiological process is involved, wherein pathogens causing UTI have a role in inflammatory progression. We hypothesized that members of the commensal flora, such as lactobacilli, may counter this reaction through anti-inflammatory mediation. This was assessed in a pilot two-patient study in which probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri were administered to one patient and placebo to another, both along with antibiotics to treat acute UTI. Urinary TNF-alpha was significantly downregulated (P = .015) in the patient who received the probiotic and who used intermittent catheterization compared with patient on placebo and using an indwelling catheter. The extent to which this alteration resulted in improved well-being in spinal cord injured patients remains to be determined in a larger study.
Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9) expressions in both healthy and infected mice.
Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches). Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine.
The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing an alternative way to reduce the severity of the infection.
Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are effective in the management of allergic diseases or gastroenteritis. It is hypothesized that such probiotics have immunoregulatory properties and promote mucosal tolerance. Our goal was to investigate whether Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 could inhibit airway inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of asthma.
BALB/c mice aged 6 weeks were used in the present study. Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 was administered daily, starting 1 week prior to the first OVA sensitization (group 1) and 2 days before the first 1% OVA airway challenge (group 2). Mice that received only saline at both sensitization and airway challenge time points were used as negative controls (group 3), and those that had OVA-induced asthma were used as positive controls (group 4). Airway responsiveness to methacholine was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. At the endpoint of the study, total IgE as well as OVA-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung pathology was also evaluated.
Airway hyperresponsiveness, total cell counts and the proportion of eosinophils in BAL fluid were significantly decreased in group 1 compared with group 4 (P<0.05). Total serum IgE levels were also significantly decreased in group 1 compared with group 4. Serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were not significantly influenced by treatment with Lcr35. There was significantly less peribronchial and perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells in group 1 compared with group 4; however, there were no significant differences in methacholine challenge, BAL, serology or histology between groups 2 and 4.
Oral treatment with Lcr35 prior to sensitization can attenuate airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. These results suggest that Lcr35 may have potential for preventing asthma.
Asthma; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; probiotics; primary prevention; animal disease model
Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used as immunomodulatory agents. Yet detailed molecular knowledge on the immunomodulatory molecules of these bacteria is lagging behind. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is considered a major microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) of Gram-positive bacteria. However, many details and quantitative data on its immune signalling capacity are still unknown, especially in beneficial bacteria. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dltD mutant of the model probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), having modified LTA molecules, has an enhanced probiotic efficacy in a DSS-induced colitis model as compared to wild-type.
In this study, the importance of D-alanylated and acylated LTA for the pro-inflammatory activity of LGG was studied in vitro. Purified native LTA of LGG wild-type exhibited a concentration-dependent activation of NF-κB signalling in HEK293T cells after interaction with TLR2/6, but not with TLR2 alone. Chemical deacylation of LTA interfered with the TLR2/6 interaction, while a moderate effect was observed with chemical dealanylation. Similarly, the dltD mutant of LGG exhibited a significantly reduced capacity to activate TLR2/6-dependent NF-κB signalling in a HEK293T reporter cell line compared to wild-type. In addition, the dltD mutant of LGG showed a reduced induction of mRNA of the chemokine IL-8 in the Caco-2 epithelial cell line compared to wild-type. Experiments with highly purified LTA of LGG confirmed that LTA is a crucial factor for IL-8 mRNA induction in Caco-2 epithelial cells. Chemical dealanylation and deacylation reduced IL-8 mRNA expression.
Taken together, our results indicate that LTA of LGG is a crucial MAMP with pro-inflammatory activities such as IL-8 induction in intestinal epithelial cells and NF-κB induction in HEK293T cells via TLR2/6 interaction. The lipid chains of LGG LTA are needed for these activities, while also the D-alanine substituents are important, especially for IL-8 induction in Caco-2 cells.
Lipoteichoic acid; Probiotics; Immunomodulation; Pro-inflammatory
The response of the immune system to probiotics remains controversial. Some strains modulate the cytokine production of dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and induce a regulatory response, while others induce conversely a pro-inflammatory response. These strain-dependent effects are thought to be linked to specific interactions between bacteria and pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the effects of a well characterized probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35, on human monocyte-derived immature DCs, using a wide range of bacterial concentrations (multiplicity of infection, MOI, from 0.01 to 100). DNA microarray and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the probiotic induced a large-scale change in gene expression (nearly 1,700 modulated genes, with 3-fold changes), but only with high doses (MOI, 100). The upregulated genes were mainly involved in immune response and identified a molecular signature of inflammation according to the model of Torri. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed a dose-dependent maturation of the DC membrane phenotype, until DCs reached a semi-mature state, with an upregulation of the membrane expression of CD86, CD83, HLA-DR and TLR4, associated with a down-regulation of DC-SIGN, MR and CD14. Measurement of the DC-secreted cytokines showed that Lcr35 induced a strong dose-dependent increase of the pro-Th1/Th17 cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p70, IL-12p40 and IL-23), but only a low increase in IL-10 concentration. The probiotic L. rhamnosus Lcr35 therefore induce a dose-dependent immunomodulation of human DCs leading, at high doses, to the semi-maturation of the cells and to a strong pro-inflammatory effect. These results contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism of action of this probiotic, and thus of its potential clinical indications in the treatment of either infectious or IgE-dependent allergic diseases.
Probiotic bacteria alleviate many gastrointestinal symptoms, but the current trend of combining bacteria for additional benefit may make their effects more complex. We characterize four probiotics and their combination in terms of pathogen adhesion, barrier function, cell death, and inflammatory response in Helicobacter pylori-infected epithelial cells. H. pylori-infected Caco-2 cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js, Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, or all four organisms in combination. We evaluated the adhesion of H. pylori by in situ immunofluorescence; epithelial barrier function by measurement of transepithelial resistance; apoptosis by measurement of caspase 3 activation; cell membrane leakage by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase release; and inflammation by measurement of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release. All probiotics inhibited H. pylori adhesion. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js, and the combination inhibited H. pylori-induced cell membrane leakage. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and the combination initially improved epithelial barrier function but increased the H. pylori-induced barrier deterioration after incubation for 24 to 42 h. L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii Js inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 release, whereas L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, and B. breve Bb99 suppressed PGE2 release. None of these anti-inflammatory effects persisted when the probiotics were used in combination. The combination thus increased the levels of IL-8, PGE2, and LTB4 released from H. pylori-infected epithelial cells. The proinflammatory actions of the individual components dominated the anti-inflammatory effects when the probiotic bacteria were used in combination. Our results stress that the therapeutic response can be optimized if probiotic strains are characterized before they are used in combination.
Gut microbiome–host metabolic interactions affect human health and can be modified by probiotic and prebiotic supplementation. Here, we have assessed the effects of consumption of a combination of probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei or L. rhamnosus) and two galactosyl-oligosaccharide prebiotics on the symbiotic microbiome–mammalian supersystem using integrative metabolic profiling and modeling of multiple compartments in germ-free mice inoculated with a model of human baby microbiota. We have shown specific impacts of two prebiotics on the microbial populations of HBM mice when co-administered with two probiotics. We observed an increase in the populations of Bifidobacterium longum and B. breve, and a reduction in Clostridium perfringens, which were more marked when combining prebiotics with L. rhamnosus. In turn, these microbial effects were associated with modulation of a range of host metabolic pathways observed via changes in lipid profiles, gluconeogenesis, and amino-acid and methylamine metabolism associated to fermentation of carbohydrates by different bacterial strains. These results provide evidence for the potential use of prebiotics for beneficially modifying the gut microbial balance as well as host energy and lipid homeostasis.
galactosyl-oligosaccharides; human baby microbiota; Lactobacillus paracasei; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; metabonomics