Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an established optical neuroimaging method for measuring functional hemodynamic responses to infer neural activation. However, the impact of individual anatomy on the sensitivity of fNIRS measuring hemodynamics within cortical gray matter is still unknown. By means of Monte Carlo simulations and structural MRI of 23 healthy subjects (mean age: years), we characterized the individual distribution of tissue-specific NIR-light absorption underneath 24 prefrontal fNIRS channels. We, thereby, investigated the impact of scalp-cortex distance (SCD), frontal sinus volume as well as sulcal morphology on gray matter volumes () traversed by NIR-light, i.e. anatomy-dependent fNIRS sensitivity. The NIR-light absorption between optodes was distributed describing a rotational ellipsoid with a mean penetration depth of considering the deepest of light. Of the detected photon packages scalp and bone absorbed and absorbed of the energy. The mean volume was negatively correlated () with the SCD and frontal sinus volume () and was reduced by in subjects with relatively large compared to small frontal sinus. Head circumference was significantly positively correlated with the mean SCD () and the traversed frontal sinus volume (). Sulcal morphology had no significant impact on . Our findings suggest to consider individual SCD and frontal sinus volume as anatomical factors impacting fNIRS sensitivity. Head circumference may represent a practical measure to partly control for these sources of error variance.
Understanding the spatial and depth sensitivity of non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to brain tissue–i.e., near-infrared neuromonitoring (NIN) – is essential for designing experiments as well as interpreting research findings. However, a thorough characterization of such sensitivity in realistic head models has remained unavailable. In this study, we conducted 3,555 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to densely cover the scalp of a well-characterized, adult male template brain (Colin27). We sought to evaluate: (i) the spatial sensitivity profile of NIRS to brain tissue as a function of source-detector separation, (ii) the NIRS sensitivity to brain tissue as a function of depth in this realistic and complex head model, and (iii) the effect of NIRS instrument sensitivity on detecting brain activation. We found that increasing the source-detector (SD) separation from 20 to 65 mm provides monotonic increases in sensitivity to brain tissue. For every 10 mm increase in SD separation (up to ∼45 mm), sensitivity to gray matter increased an additional 4%. Our analyses also demonstrate that sensitivity in depth (S) decreases exponentially, with a “rule-of-thumb” formula S = 0.75*0.85depth. Thus, while the depth sensitivity of NIRS is not strictly limited, NIN signals in adult humans are strongly biased towards the outermost 10–15 mm of intracranial space. These general results, along with the detailed quantitation of sensitivity estimates around the head, can provide detailed guidance for interpreting the likely sources of NIRS signals, as well as help NIRS investigators design and plan better NIRS experiments, head probes and instruments.
Although Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in full segmented three-dimensional MRI based anatomical models of the human head have been reported in many articles. To our knowledge, there is no patient-oriented simulation for individualized calibration with NIRS measurement. Thus, we offer an approach for brain modeling based on image segmentation process with in vivo MRI T1 three-dimensional image to investigate the individualized calibration for NIRS measurement with Monte Carlo simulation.
In this study, an individualized brain is modeled based on in vivo MRI 3D image as five layers structure. The behavior of photon migration was studied for this individualized brain detections based on three-dimensional time-resolved Monte Carlo algorithm. During the Monte Carlo iteration, all photon paths were traced with various source-detector separations for characterization of brain structure to provide helpful information for individualized design of NIRS system.
Our results indicate that the patient-oriented simulation can provide significant characteristics on the optimal choice of source-detector separation within 3.3 cm of individualized design in this case. Significant distortions were observed around the cerebral cortex folding. The spatial sensitivity profile penetrated deeper to the brain in the case of expanded CSF. This finding suggests that the optical method may provide not only functional signal from brain activation but also structural information of brain atrophy with the expanded CSF layer. The proposed modeling method also provides multi-wavelength for NIRS simulation to approach the practical NIRS measurement.
In this study, the three-dimensional time-resolved brain modeling method approaches the realistic human brain that provides useful information for NIRS systematic design and calibration for individualized case with prior MRI data.
Patient-oriented simulation; Time-resolved Monte Carlo; Brain modeling; Spatial sensitivity profile
A major methodological challenge of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is its high sensitivity to haemodynamic fluctuations in the scalp. Superficial fluctuations contribute on the one hand to the physiological noise of fNIRS, impairing the signal-to-noise ratio, and may on the other hand be erroneously attributed to cerebral changes, leading to false positives in fNIRS experiments. Here we explore the localisation, time course and physiological origin of task-evoked superficial signals in fNIRS and present a method to separate them from cortical signals. We used complementary fNIRS, fMRI, MR-angiography and peripheral physiological measurements (blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance and skin blood flow) to study activation in the frontal lobe during a continuous performance task. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to analyse the fNIRS data, which included an additional predictor to account for systemic changes in the skin.
We found that skin blood volume strongly depends on the cognitive state and that sources of task-evoked systemic signals in fNIRS are co-localized with veins draining the scalp. Task-evoked superficial artefacts were mainly observed in concentration changes of oxygenated haemoglobin and could be effectively separated from cerebral signals by GLM analysis. Based on temporal correlation of fNIRS and fMRI signals with peripheral physiological measurements we conclude that the physiological origin of the systemic artefact is a task-evoked sympathetic arterial vasoconstriction followed by a decrease in venous volume.
Since changes in sympathetic outflow accompany almost any cognitive and emotional process, we expect scalp vessel artefacts to be present in a wide range of fNIRS settings used in neurocognitive research. Therefore a careful separation of fNIRS signals originating from activated brain and from scalp is a necessary precondition for unbiased fNIRS brain activation maps.
► Task-evoked changes in the skin blood volume induce artefacts in fNIRS signals. ► Artefacts result from a venous volume decrease due to sympathetic vasoconstriction. ► This phenomenon might induce false positives in fNIRS experiments on the forehead.
Time-domain optical brain imaging; Systemic changes; Skin blood flow; Periphery physiology; fMRI; Frontal lobe
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) allows the recovery of cortical oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with evoked brain activity. NIRS is a back-reflection measurement making it very sensitive to the superficial layers of the head, i.e. the skin and the skull, where systemic interference occurs. As a result, the NIRS signal is strongly contaminated with systemic interference of superficial origin. A recent approach to overcome this problem has been the use of additional short source-detector separation optodes as regressors. Since these additional measurements are mainly sensitive to superficial layers in adult humans, they can be used to remove the systemic interference present in longer separation measurements, improving the recovery of the cortical hemodynamic response function (HRF). One question that remains to answer is whether or not a short separation measurement is required in close proximity to each long separation NIRS channel. Here, we show that the systemic interference occurring in the superficial layers of the human head is inhomogeneous across the surface of the scalp. As a result, the improvement obtained by using a short separation optode decreases as the relative distance between the short and the long measurement is increased. NIRS data was acquired on 6 human subjects both at rest and during a motor task consisting of finger tapping. The effect of distance between the short and the long channel was first quantified by recovering a synthetic hemodynamic response added over the resting-state data. The effect was also observed in the functional data collected during the finger tapping task. Together, these results suggest that the short separation measurement must be located as close as 1.5 cm from the standard NIRS channel in order to provide an improvement which is of practical use. In this case, the improvement in Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) compared to a standard General Linear Model (GLM) procedure without using any small separation optode reached 50 % for HbO and 100 % for HbR. Using small separations located farther than 2 cm away resulted in mild or negligible improvements only.
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Systemic Interference; Short Optode Separations; Kalman filtering
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying brain function. NIRS presents several advantages relative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), such as measurement of concentration changes in both oxygenated- and deoxygenated hemoglobin, finer temporal resolution, and ease of administration, as well as disadvantages, most prominently inferior spatial resolution and decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While fMRI has become the gold standard for in vivo imaging of the human brain, in practice NIRS is a more convenient and less expensive technology than fMRI. It is therefore of interest to many researchers how NIRS compares to fMRI in studies of brain function. In the present study we scanned participants with simultaneous NIRS and fMRI on a battery of cognitive tasks, placing NIRS probes over both frontal and parietal brain regions. We performed detailed comparisons of the signals in both temporal and spatial domains. We found that NIRS signals have significantly weaker SNR, but are nonetheless often highly correlated with fMRI measurements. Both SNR and the distance between the scalp and the brain contributed to variability in the NIRS/fMRI correlations. In the spatial domain, we found that a photon path forming an ellipse between the NIRS emitter and detector correlated most strongly with the BOLD response. Taken together these findings suggest that, while NIRS can be an appropriate substitute for fMRI for studying brain activity related to cognitive tasks, care should be taken when designing studies with NIRS to ensure that: 1) the spatial resolution is adequate for answering the question of interest and 2) the design accounts for weaker SNR, especially in brain regions more distal from the scalp.
To investigate the relationship between the frontal and sensorimotor cortices and motor learning, hemodynamic responses were recorded from the frontal and sensorimotor cortices using functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while healthy subjects performed motor learning tasks used in rehabilitation medicine. Whole-head NIRS recordings indicated that response latencies in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) were shorter than in other frontal and parietal areas. Furthermore, the increment rate of the hemodynamic responses in the aDMPFC across the eight repeated trials significantly correlated with those in the other areas, as well as with the improvement rate of task performance across the 8 repeated trials. In the second experiment, to dissociate scalp- and brain-derived hemodynamic responses, hemodynamic responses were recorded from the head over the aDMPFC using a multi-distance probe arrangement. Six probes (a single source probe and 5 detectors) were linearly placed 6 mm apart from each of the neighboring probes. Using independent component analyses of hemodynamic signals from the 5 source-detector pairs, we dissociated scalp- and brain-derived components of the hemodynamic responses. Hemodynamic responses corrected for scalp-derived responses over the aDMPFC significantly increased across the 8 trials and correlated with task performance. In the third experiment, subjects were required to perform the same task with and without transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the aDMPFC before the task. The tDCS significantly improved task performance. These results indicate that the aDMPFC is crucial for improved performance in repetitive motor learning.
frontal pole; NIRS; rehabilitation; motor skill; tDCS
► We recorded NIRS from the visual cortex during pattern-reversal stimulation. ► Transient blood pressure changes were induced by arm-raising. ► Blood pressure changes significantly altered deep and shallow NIRS recordings. ► The effect appears to originate from both intra- and extra-cranial regions. ► Blood pressure must be considered as a potential confound in NIRS studies.
Brain near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging neurophysiological tool that combines straightforward activity localization with cost–economy, portability and patient compatibility. NIRS is proving its empirical utility across specific cognitive and emotional paradigms. However, a potential limitation is that it is not only sensitive to haemodynamic changes taking place in the cortex, and task-related cardiovascular responses expressed in the perfusion of extracranial layers may be confounding. Existing literature reports correlations between brain NIRS and systemic blood pressure, yet it falls short of establishing whether in normal participants the blood pressure changes encountered in experimental settings can have confounding effects. Here, we tested this hypothesis by performing two experimental manipulations while recording from superficial occipital cortex, encompassing striate and extrastriate regions. Visual stimulation with reversing chequerboards evoked cortical haemodynamic responses. Simultaneously and independently, transient systemic blood pressure changes were generated through rapid arm-raising. Shallow-penetration NIRS recordings, probing only extra-cerebral tissues, highlighted close haemodynamic coupling with blood pressure. A different coupling pattern was observed in deep-penetration recordings directed at haemodynamic signals from visual cortex. In absence of blood-pressure changes, NIRS signals tracked differences in visual stimulus duration. However when blood pressure was actively manipulated, this effect was absent and replaced by a very large pressure-related response. Our observations demonstrate that blood pressure fluctuations can exert confounding effects on brain NIRS, through expression in extracranial tissues and within the brain itself. We highlight the necessity for continuous blood pressure monitoring alongside brain NIRS, and for further research on methods to correct for physiological confounds.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); Blood pressure; Autonomic arousal; Visual stimulation
Sinusitis is a common disease in the horse. In human medicine it is described, that obstruction of the sinonasal communication plays a major role in the development of sinusitis. To get spatial sense of the equine specific communication ways between the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses, heads of 19 horses, aged 2 to 26 years, were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D) reformatted renderings of CT-datasets. Three-dimensional models were generated following manual and semi-automated segmentation. Before segmentation, the two-dimensional (2D) CT-images were verified against corresponding frozen sections of cadaveric heads.
Three-dimensional analysis of the paranasal sinuses showed the bilateral existence of seven sinus compartments: rostral maxillary sinus, ventral conchal sinus, caudal maxillary sinus, dorsal conchal sinus, frontal sinus, sphenopalatine sinus and middle conchal sinus. The maxillary septum divides these seven compartments into two sinus systems: a rostral paranasal sinus system composed of the rostral maxillary sinus and the ventral conchal sinus and a caudal paranasal sinus system which comprises all other sinuses. The generated 3D models revealed a typically configuration of the sinonasal communication ways. The sinonasal communication started within the middle nasal meatus at the nasomaxillary aperture (Apertura nasomaxillaris), which opens in a common sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis communis). This common sinonasal channel ramifies into a rostral sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis rostralis) and a caudo-lateral sinonasal channel (Canalis sinunasalis caudalis). The rostral sinonasal channel ventilated the rostral paranasal sinus system, the caudo-lateral sinonasal channel opened into the caudal paranasal sinus system. The rostral sinonasal channel was connected to the rostral paranasal sinuses in various ways. Whereas, the caudal channel showed less anatomical variations and was in all cases connected to the caudal maxillary sinus. Volumetric measurements of the sinonasal channels showed no statistically significant differences (P <0.05) between the right and left side of the head.
Under physiologic conditions both paranasal sinus systems are connected to the nasal cavity by equine specific sinonasal channels. To resolve sinus disease it is aimed to maintain or even reconstruct the normal anatomy of the sinonasal communication by surgical intervention. Therefore, the presented 3D analyses may provide a useful basis.
Horse; Computed tomography; Nasomaxillary aperture; Apertura nasomaxillaris; Upper airway; Sinonasal channel system; Paranasal sinuses
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measures the functional hemodynamic response occuring at the surface of the cortex. Large pial veins are located above the surface of the cerebral cortex. Following activation, these veins exhibit oxygenation changes but their volume likely stays constant. The back-reflection geometry of the NIRS measurement renders the signal very sensitive to these superficial pial veins. As such, the measured NIRS signal contains contributions from both the cortical region as well as the pial vasculature. In this work, the cortical contribution to the NIRS signal was investigated using (1) Monte Carlo simulations over a realistic geometry constructed from anatomical and vascular MRI and (2) multimodal NIRS-BOLD recordings during motor stimulation. A good agreement was found between the simulations and the modeling analysis of in vivo measurements. Our results suggest that the cortical contribution to the deoxyhemoglobin signal change (ΔHbR) is equal to 16–22% of the cortical contribution to the total hemoglobin signal change (ΔHbT). Similarly, the cortical contribution of the oxyhemoglobin signal change (ΔHbO) is equal to 73–79% of the cortical contribution to the ΔHbT signal. These results suggest that ΔHbT is far less sensitive to pial vein contamination and therefore, it is likely that the ΔHbT signal provides better spatial specificity and should be used instead of ΔHbO or ΔHbR to map cerebral activity with NIRS. While different stimuli will result in different pial vein contributions, our finger tapping results do reveal the importance of considering the pial contribution.
NIRS-fMRI; Pial vasculature; Balloon Model; Monte Carlo simulations
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is regarded as a potential medical diagnostic technique for investigation of hemodynamic changes. However, uncertainties pertaining to the origin of NIRS signals have hampered its clinical interpretation. The uncertainities in NIRS measurements especially in case of living tissues are due to lack of rigorous combined theoretical-experimental studies resulting in clear understanding of the origin of NIRS signals. For their reliable interpretation it is important to understand the relationship between spatial changes in optical properties and corresponding changes in the NIRS signal. We investigated spatial sensitivity of near infrared optical measurements using an experimental approach. It uses a liquid optical phantom as tissue equivalent, which is explored under robot-control by a small, approximately point like perturbation of desired optical properties, and a NIRS instrument for trans-illumination/reflection measurements. The experimentally obtained sensitivity has been analyzed and compared with numerical simulations. In preliminary experiments we investigated the influence of various optical properties of the medium and of source/detector distances on the spatial sensitivity distribution. The acquired sensitivity maps can be used to define characteristic parameters. As an example, we used a 25% threshold to define a penetration depth measure which provides values in good accordance with published ones. To the best of our knowledge this is the first experimental study of NIRS spatial sensitivity. The presented method will allow in depth experimental investigation of the influence of various conditions pertaining to medium such as optical properties of tissue (scattering and absorption) and of the source/detector configuration.
(120.3890) Medical optics instrumentation; (170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (300.1030) Absorption
The redox state of cerebral mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (Δ[oxCCO]) is a signal with strong potential as a non-invasive, bedside biomarker of cerebral metabolic status. We hypothesised that the higher mitochondrial density of brain compared to skin and skull would lead to evidence of brain-specificity of the Δ[oxCCO] signal when measured with a multi-distance near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Measurements of Δ[oxCCO] as well as of concentration changes in oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) were taken at multiple source-detector distances during systemic hypoxia and hypocapnia (decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery), and hyperoxia and hypercapnia (increase in cerebral oxygen delivery) from 15 adult healthy volunteers. Increasing source-detector spacing is associated with increasing light penetration depth and thus higher sensitivity to cerebral changes. An increase in Δ[oxCCO] was observed during the challenges that increased cerebral oxygen delivery and the opposite was observed when cerebral oxygen delivery decreased. A consistent pattern of statistically significant increasing amplitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response with increasing light penetration depth was observed in all four challenges, a behaviour that was distinctly different from that of the haemoglobin chromophores, which did not show this statistically significant depth gradient. This depth-dependence of the Δ[oxCCO] signal corroborates the notion of higher concentrations of CCO being present in cerebral tissue compared to extracranial components and highlights the value of NIRS-derived Δ[oxCCO] as a brain-specific signal of cerebral metabolism, superior in this aspect to haemoglobin.
•NIRS was used to measure oxidised cytochrome c oxidase (Δ[oxCCO]) in healthy brain.•Δ[oxCCO] changed in the same direction as changes in cerebral oxygen delivery.•Magnitude of Δ[oxCCO] response increased with increasing light penetration depth.•Corresponding haemoglobin changes showed no dependence on light penetration depth.•NIRS-measured Δ[oxCCO] has higher brain specificity than haemoglobin.
Cytochrome c oxidase; Hypoxia; Hyperoxia; Hypocapnia; Hypercapnia; Near-infrared spectroscopy
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become increasingly established as a promising technique for monitoring functional brain activity. To our knowledge, no study has yet used fNIRS to investigate overt reading of irregular words and nonwords with a full coverage of the cerebral regions involved in reading processes. The aim of our study was to design and validate a protocol using fNIRS for the assessment of overt reading. Twelve healthy French-speaking adults underwent one session of fNIRS recording while performing an overt reading of 13 blocks of irregular words and nonwords. Reading blocks were separated by baseline periods during which participants were instructed to fixate a cross. Sources (n = 55) and detectors (n = 16) were placed bilaterally over frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Two wavelengths were used: 690 nm, more sensitive to deoxyhemoglobin (HbR) concentration changes, and 830 nm, more sensitive to oxyhemoglobin (HbO) concentration changes. For all participants, total hemoglobin (HbT) concentrations (HbO + HbR) were significantly higher than baseline for both irregular word and nonword reading in the inferior frontal gyri, the middle and superior temporal gyri, and the occipital cortices bilaterally. In the temporal gyri, although the difference was not significant, [HbT] values were higher in the left hemisphere. In the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, higher [HbT] values were found in nonword than in irregular word reading. This activation could be related to the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion characterizing the phonological pathway of reading. Our findings confirm that fNIRS is an appropriate technique to assess the neural correlates of overt reading.
Adults; irregular words; lexical reading; nonwords; optical imaging; phonological reading; reading aloud
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a portable monitor of cerebral hemodynamics with wide clinical potential. However, in fNIRS, the vascular signal from the brain is often obscured by vascular signals present in the scalp and skull. In this paper, we evaluate two methods for improving in vivo data from adult human subjects through the use of high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT). First, we test whether we can extend superficial regression methods (which utilize the multiple source–detector pair separations) from sparse optode arrays to application with DOT imaging arrays. In order to accomplish this goal, we modify the method to remove physiological artifacts from deeper sampling channels using an average of shallow measurements. Second, DOT provides three-dimensional image reconstructions and should explicitly separate different tissue layers. We test whether DOT's depth-sectioning can completely remove superficial physiological artifacts. Herein, we assess improvements in signal quality and reproducibility due to these methods using a well-characterized visual paradigm and our high-density DOT system. Both approaches remove noise from the data, resulting in cleaner imaging and more consistent hemodynamic responses. Additionally, the two methods act synergistically, with greater improvements when the approaches are used together.
neuroimaging; biomedical optics; near-infrared spectroscopy; diffuse optical tomography; artifact removal; image quality
We sought to determine the extent of the frontal sinus by intraoperative transillumination through the superomedial orbital wall in a subcranial approach to the anterior skull base. After raising a bicoronal flap, the frontal sinus was transilluminated through the superomedial orbital wall with a fiber-optic light source, delineating the extent of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinus boundary was marked with a marker pen. A frontal sinus anterior wall osteotomy was performed with a sagittal saw, staying within the confines of the frontal sinus marking. A bone flap was removed, and the posterior wall was drilled out. The remaining procedure was performed in a standard fashion. At the end of the procedure, the bone flap was fixed with a titanium plate. A total of 58 patients had undergone craniofacial resection from January 2004 to December 2007. In 13 patients, a subcranial approach was employed using the transillumination technique. Transillumination was successful in delineating the frontal sinus periphery in all 13 patients. Intraoperative transillumination of the frontal sinus through the superomedial orbital wall is a simple and effective method to delineate the frontal sinus periphery in a subcranial approach to the anterior skull base.
Transillumination of frontal sinus; subcranial approach; frontal craniotomy; osteoplastic flap; anterior skull base
Abnormal prefrontal functioning plays a central role in the working memory (WM) deficits of schizophrenic patients, but the nature of the relationship between WM and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Using two functional neuroimaging methods, we investigated the neural correlates of remembering and forgetting in schizophrenic and healthy participants. We focused on the brain activation during WM maintenance phase with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We also examined oxygenated hemoglobin changes in relation to memory performance with the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the same spatial WM task. Distinct types of correct and error trials were segregated for analysis. fMRI data indicated that prefrontal activation was increased during WM maintenance on correct trials in both schizophrenic and healthy subjects. However, a significant difference was observed in the functional asymmetry of frontal activation pattern. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the right frontal, temporal and cingulate regions. Schizophrenic patients showed greater activation compared with control subjects in left frontal, temporal and parietal regions as well as in right frontal regions. We also observed increased ‘false memory’ errors in schizophrenic patients, associated with increased prefrontal activation and resembling the activation pattern observed on the correct trials. NIRS data replicated the fMRI results. Thus, increased frontal activity was correlated with the accuracy of WM in both healthy control and schizophrenic participants. The major difference between the two groups concerned functional asymmetry; healthy subjects recruited right frontal regions during spatial WM maintenance whereas schizophrenic subjects recruited a wider network in both hemispheres to achieve the same level of memory performance. Increased “false memory” errors and accompanying bilateral prefrontal activation in schizophrenia suggest that the etiology of memory errors must be considered when comparing group performances. Finally, the concordance of fMRI and NIRS data supports NIRS as an alternative functional neuroimaging method for psychiatric research.
Sex identification of unknown individuals is important in forensic sciences. At times when only skull remains are found and other means of identification fails, radiographs of frontal sinus can be used for identification. Frontal sinus morphology is unique to individual and can be used effectively in person identification; whereas its use in determining sexual dimorphism is limited.
To determine sexual dimorphism among Indians by evaluating frontal sinus pattern using postero-anterior radiograph.
Materials and Methods:
The right and left areas, maximum height and width of frontal sinus were determined in 300 digital postero-anterior view radiographs obtained from 150 males and 150 females aged between 18-30 years. The measurements were carried out by transferring the image to Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 extended. Comparison of values were done using student's t-test and accuracy of sex determination was assessed through Logistic regression analysis.
Results and Conclusions:
One hundred and forty seven males and 142 females show presence of frontal sinus with seven individuals showing unilateral/bilateral absence of frontal sinuses. The mean values of the frontal sinus height, width and area are greater in males. Right frontal sinus is larger than the left sinus in both the sex. The mathematical model based on logistic regression analysis gives an average concordance index for sex determination of 64.6%. Thus, frontal sinus provides average accuracy in sex determination among Indian population. This may be due to its greater variation in morphology.
Frontal sinus; forensic identification; human skull; sex determination
We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method to noninvasively measure relative changes in the pulsate components of cerebral blood flow (pCBF) and volume (pCBV) from the shape of heartbeat oscillations. We present a model that is used and data to show the feasibility of the method. We use a continuous-wave NIRS system to measure the arterial oscillations originating in the brains of piglets. Changes in the animals' CBF are induced by adding CO2 to the breathing gas. To study the influence of scalp on our measurements, comparative, invasive measurements are performed on one side of the head simultaneously with noninvasive measurements on the other side. We also did comparative measurements of CBF using a laser Doppler system to validate the results of our method. The results indicate that for sufficient source-detector separation, the signal contribution of the scalp is minimal and the measurements are representative of the cerebral hemodynamics. Moreover, good correlation between the results of the laser Doppler system and the NIRS system indicate that the presented method is capable of measuring relative changes in CBF. Preliminary results show the potential of this NIRS method to measure pCBF and pCBV relative changes in neonatal pigs.
cerebral blood flow; cerebral blood volume; near-infrared spectroscopy; arterial oscillations
A prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) to evaluate the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children. Subjects 0–14 years of age who had a computed tomography (CT) scan of the head performed as part of clinical care were eligible for enrollment. The children were stratified into two groups based on whether the CT was normal or abnormal. Children in the abnormal imaging cohort were further divided into those with ICH and those with other abnormalities of the brain parenchyma (contusions, diffuse axonal injury [DAI], or cerebral edema) or fractures. NIRS measurements were performed on all subjects within 24 h of head CT. The NIRS operator was blinded to the presence or absence of ICH. NIRS measurements were performed in eight different scalp locations (four bilaterally). A total of 103 measurements were made. The optical density (OD) was automatically calculated by comparing the reflected and diffused optical signal. A ΔOD>0.2 between hemispheres in any scalp location was considered abnormal. NIRS was performed in a total of 28 subjects: 7 had normal imaging and 21 had abnormal imaging. Of those with abnormal imaging, 12 had ICH. The sensitivity and specificity of NIRS at detecting ICH was 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.8 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, NIRS correctly identified all cases of ICH in this pilot study. Our preliminary results suggest that NIRS may be beneficial in the evaluation of a child with possible ICH.
abusive head trauma; children; intracranial hemorrhage; near infrared spectroscopy; traumatic brain injury
oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast functional MRI images show
activated cortical areas by detecting a reduced concentration of
deoxyhaemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) during neuronal activity; however, near
infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has shown various patterns of cerebral
blood oxygenation (CBO) changes in the frontal lobe during cognitive
tasks. To determine if various patterns of CBO changes occur in the
frontal lobe when the brain is directly stimulated, changes in CBO in
the frontal lobe induced by deep brain stimulation in patients with
implanted electrodes were evaluated.
were studied, including five with Parkinson's disease and one with
essential tremor. To reduce tremor or rigidity, the electrodes were
implanted at the thalamic nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM: three
Parkinson's disease and one essential tremor) or the globus pallidus
internus (GPi: two Parkinson's disease). Using NIRS, changes of
deoxy-Hb, oxyhaemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and total haemoglobin (total Hb) were
measured in the bilateral frontal lobes during various stimulus conditions.
(120 Hz) GPi stimulation consistently increased oxy-Hb and total Hb
with a decrease of deoxy-Hb in an intensity and time dependent manner.
Oxy-Hb and total Hb increased immediately after the onset of
stimulation and then gradually decreased when stimulation was
continued. By contrast, high frequency (120 Hz) VIM stimulation
decreased oxy-Hb, deoxy Hb and total Hb in an intensity dependent
manner. In the severe tremor patient with VIM stimulation, frequency
response was examined by decreasing stimulus frequencies; deoxy-Hb
increased at high frequencies (70-40 Hz), and then decreased below the
control level at low frequencies (30-0 Hz), whereas oxy-Hb and total
Hb increased consistently at high and low frequencies.
electrical stimulation of GPi and VIM caused various CBO changes in the
frontal lobe, which were similar to those found during cognitive tasks.
Such a multiplicity of CBO changes in the frontal lobe may be caused by
complex neuronal circuits in the frontal lobe which has many neuronal
connections to other cortical areas or the basal ganglia.
Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM) and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it.
hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by co-localizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 hours of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1.
We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity.
fluorescence imaging; activatable; near infrared; multiple excitations
Transcranial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides an assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism by monitoring concentration changes in oxidised cytochrome c oxidase Δ[oxCCO]. We investigated the response of Δ[oxCCO] to global changes in cerebral oxygen delivery at different source-detector separations in 16 healthy adults. Hypoxaemia was induced by delivery of a hypoxic inspired gas mix and hypercapnia by addition of 6 % CO2 to the inspired gases. A hybrid optical spectrometer was used to measure frontal cortex light absorption and scattering at discrete wavelengths and broadband light attenuation at 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm. Without optical scattering changes, a decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery, resulting from the reduction in arterial oxygen saturation during hypoxia, led to a decrease in Δ[oxCCO]. In contrast, Δ[oxCCO] increased when cerebral oxygen delivery increased due to increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia. In both cases the magnitude of the Δ[oxCCO] response increased from the detectors proximal (measuring superficial tissue layers) to the detectors distal (measuring deep tissue layers) to the broadband light source. We conclude that the Δ[oxCCO] response to hypoxia and hypercapnia appears to be dependent on penetration depth, possibly reflecting differences between the intra- and extracerebral tissue concentration of cytochrome c oxidase.
OBJECTIVE—To develop an in vivo model for
testing spatially resolved spectroscopy and quantified near infrared
spectroscopy (NIRS) cerebral blood flow measurements.
METHOD—Multiple detector NIRS has been used to
study changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin (O2Hb) concentration
during selective internal carotid angiography. A significant reduction
in O2Hb occurred in tissue interrogated by detectors
situated between 0.7 and 4.1cm from the NIRS light source.
RESULTS—The time course of O2Hb
concentration change was consistent with displacement of oxygenated
blood by the radiocontrast medium from vascular beds of differing flow
and NIR light attenuation. Increasing changes in O2Hb
concentration per unit photon path length—predicted to occur at
greater emitter-detector separations if those changes had occurred
predominantly in cerebral tissue—were found in the first four seconds
after injection of radiocontrast medium. However, later changes
(6-10 s) were larger and were not proportional to emitter-detector separation.
CONCLUSION—The findings indicate that simple
assumptions regarding the distribution of the internal carotid artery
blood supply to cerebral and extracerebral tissues, the photon path
length through those tissues, and their relative contributions to
attenuation of NIR light may not be justified.
Measurements of human brain function in children are of increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Many techniques for brain mapping used in children, including functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), use probes placed on or near the scalp. The distance between the scalp and the brain is a key variable for these techniques because optical, electrical and magnetic signals are attenuated by distance. However, little is known about how scalp-brain distance differs between different cortical regions in children or how it changes with development. We investigated scalp-brain distance in 71 children, from newborn to age 12 years, using structural T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole head. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from the scalp surface to allow for accurate calculation of brain-scalp distance. Nine brain landmarks in different cortical regions were manually selected in each subject based on the published fNIRS literature. Significant effects were found for age, cortical region and hemisphere. Brain-scalp distances were lowest in young children, and increased with age to up to double the newborn distance. There were also dramatic differences between brain regions, with up to 50% differences between landmarks. In frontal and temporal regions, scalp-brain distances were significantly greater in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The largest contributors to developmental changes in brain-scalp distance were increases in the corticospinal fluid (CSF) and inner table of the cranium. These results have important implications for functional imaging studies of children: age and brain-region related differences in fNIRS signals could be due to the confounding factor of brain-scalp distance and not true differences in brain activity.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an established tool to investigate brain function and is, due to its portability and resistance to electromagnetic noise, an interesting modality for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs have been successfully realized using the decoding of movement kinematics from intra-cortical recordings in monkey and human. Recently, it has been shown that hemodynamic brain responses as measured by fMRI are modulated by the direction of hand movements. However, quantitative data on the decoding of movement direction from hemodynamic responses is still lacking and it remains unclear whether this can be achieved with fNIRS, which records signals at a lower spatial resolution but with the advantage of being portable. Here, we recorded brain activity with fNIRS above different cortical areas while subjects performed hand movements in two different directions. We found that hemodynamic signals in contralateral sensorimotor areas vary with the direction of movements, though only weakly. Using these signals, movement direction could be inferred on a single-trial basis with an accuracy of ∼65% on average across subjects. The temporal evolution of decoding accuracy resembled that of typical hemodynamic responses observed in motor experiments. Simultaneous recordings with a head tracking system showed that head movements, at least up to some extent, do not influence the decoding of fNIRS signals. Due to the low accuracy, fNIRS is not a viable alternative for BMIs utilizing decoding of movement direction. However, due to its relative resistance to head movements, it is promising for studies investigating brain activity during motor experiments.