The existence of an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS) has recently been reported, although the possible implications of this for migraine clinical presentation remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine RLS frequency in a population of migraineurs compared with healthy subjects and to assess RLS occurrence in episodic versus chronic migraine patients; the relationship between migraine-related disability and RLS comorbidity was also evaluated.
Two hundred and seventy-seven consecutive migraineurs (ICHD-II, 2004) were enrolled and compared with 200 controls; migraine was episodic in 175 and chronic in 102 patients. RLS (IRLSSG criteria, 2003) was present in 22.7% of the total sample of migraineurs and in 7.5% of the controls (p<0.0001). RLS occurred significantly more frequently in chronic compared with episodic migraineurs (34.3% vs 16%, respectively, p=0.0006); a significant association between RLS diagnosis and moderate-severe migraine-related disability was also documented (p=0.0003).
In conclusion, the results of the present study not only confirm the higher occurrence of RLS in migraine patients compared with the general population, but also suggest that RLS (the condition itself, or the disruption of sleep patterns often found in patients affected by RLS) might affect migraine clinical presentation, being associated with chronic and highly disabling migraine. These findings could have important therapeutic and prognostic implications in clinical practice.
chronic migraine; migraine; migraine disability; restless legs syndrome; sleep
The objective of this study is to translate and validate the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) in Hindi language.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty one consecutive patients diagnosed of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) were included in the study. Control group comprised of 31 subjects not having any symptom of RLS. The scale was procured from MAPI research trust; and, permission for the translation was sought. The translation was done according to the guidelines provided by the publisher. After translation, final version of the scale was applied in both the groups to find out the reliability and clinical validity.
RLS group had a predominance of females, and they were younger than the male counterparts (Age=36.80 ± 10.46 years vs 45.18 ± 8.34 years; t=2.28; P=0.03). There was no difference in the mean age between groups (RLS=39.77 ± 10.44 years vs Non RLS=38.29 ± 11.29 years; t=-0.53; P=0.59). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001). Translated version showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.86). IRLS scores were significantly different between both groups on all items (P<0.001).
Hindi version of IRLS is reliable and a clinically valid tool that can be applied in Hindi speaking population.
Hindi translation; International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group rating scale; Restless Leg Syndrome; translation; validation
A primary headache, particularly migraine, is associated with oxidative stress during the attack. However, data regarding the interictal state in migraineurs and in those with tension-type headache (TTH) is limited.
(1) To assess the oxidative stress in migraineurs and TTH subjects in between the episodes and (2) to see if there is a difference in the degree of oxidative stress in the different subtypes of migraine and TTH.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty migraineurs, 50 patients with TTH, and 50 control subjects were included in this study after screening for the exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria. A venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein at least 3 days after the last attack of headache. The sample was centrifuged immediately and the plasma was stored at –70°C. The ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS for Windows, v 11.0. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test, independent sample t test, univariate regression, and multivariate regression analysis were done as indicated.
Migraineurs had higher values of MDA and FRAP than the subjects in the other two groups (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the TTH group and the control group. FRAP levels were significantly higher in subjects who had mixed migraine (migraine with aura and without aura) as compared to those with only migraine without aura (mean difference 196.1; 95% CI = 27.3 to 364.9; P = 0.01). Similarly, oxidative stress was significantly higher in patients with episodic TTH as compared to those with chronic TTH (FRAP t = 3.16; P = 0.003 and MDA t = 2.75; P = 0.008).
This study suggests that oxidative stress continues even between headache episodes in migraineurs but not in those with TTH. This could probably be consequent to the different pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and migraine.
Migraine; tension type headache; oxidative stress; ferric reducing activity of plasma; malondialdehyde
Migraine and tension type headache (TTH) are two most common types of primary headaches. Though the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (ICHD-2) describes the diagnostic criteria, even then in clinical practice, patients may not respect these boundaries resulting in the difficulty in diagnosis of these pains.
Materials and Methods:
This cross-sectional study involved 50 subjects in each of the two groups – migraine and TTH – after screening for the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Diagnosis was made according to the ICHD-2 criteria. Their clinical history was taken in detail and noted in a semi-structured performa. They were examined for the presence of a number of factors like pericranial tenderness and muscle parafunction. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS v 11.0. To compare the non-parametric issues, chi-square test was run and continuous variables were analyzed using independent sample t test.
In general, migraineurs had progressive illness (χ2=9.45; P=0.002) with increasing severity (χ2=21.86; P<0.001), frequency (χ2=8.5; P=0.04) and duration of each headache episode (χ2=4.45; P=0.03) as compared to TTH subjects. Along with the headache, they more commonly suffered orthostatic pre-syncope (χ2=19.94; P<0.001), palpitations (42%vs.18% among TTH patients; χ2=6.87; P=0.009), nausea and vomiting (68% vs. 6% in TTH; χ2=41.22; P<0.001, and 38% vs. none in TTH; χ2=23.45, P<0.001, respectively), phonophobia (χ2=44.98; P<0.001), photophobia (χ2=46.53; P<0.001), and osmophobia (χ2=15.94; P<0.001). Their pain tended to be aggravated by head bending (χ2=50.17; P<0.001) and exercise (χ2=11.41; P<0.001). Analgesics were more likely to relieve pain in migraineurs (χ2=21.16; P<0.001). In addition, post-headache lethargy was more frequent among the migraineurs (χ2=22.01; P<0.001). On the other hand, stressful situations used to trigger TTH (χ2=9.33; P=0.002) and muscle parafunction was more common in TTH patients (46% vs. 20%; χ2=7.64; P=0.006). All the cranial autonomic symptoms were more common in migraineurs as compared to TTH subjects (conjunctival injection: χ2=10.74, P=0.001; lacrimation: χ2=17.82, P<0.001; periorbital swelling: χ2=23.45, P<0.001; and nasal symptoms: χ2=6.38, P=0.01).
A number of symptoms that are presently not included in the ICHD-2 classification may help in differe-ntiating the migraine from the TTH.
Migraine; symptoms; tension type headache
The type and severity of daytime symptoms reported by insomnia sufferers may vary markedly. Whether distinctive daytime symptom profiles are related to different insomnia diagnoses has not been studied previously. Using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling, we investigated the concurrent validity of ICSD-2 insomnia diagnoses by analysing the relationship of prototypical profiles of daytime symptoms with a subset of ICSD-2 diagnoses, including insomnia associated to a mental disorder, psychophisiological insomnia, paradoxical insomnia, inadequate sleep hygiene, idiopathic insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. In a sample of 332 individuals meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia (221 women, Mage=46 yrs.), the profile analysis identified four prototypical patterns of daytime features. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that the diagnoses of insomnia associated to a mental disorder and idiopathic insomnia were associated with a daytime profile characterized by mood disturbance and low sleepiness; whereas the diagnoses of psychophysiological insomnia and inadequate sleep hygiene were related to a profile marked by poor sleep hygiene, daytime tension and low fatigue. Furthermore, whereas paradoxical insomnia was consistently associated to lower daytime impairment, insomnia associated to a mental disorder was related to the most severe daytime impairment. This classification of insomnia sufferers along multiple defining dimensions provides initial validation for two basic insomnia subtypes, with a presumably distinct aetiology: insomnia characterized mainly by an “internal” component, and a “learned” insomnia. Research to determine which dimensions are critical for inclusion or differential weighting for defining a general typological system for insomnia sufferers is warranted.
Insomnia; ICSD-2; Daytime symptoms; Concurrent validity
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sleep disturbance and headache type and frequency, in a random sample of participants in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey. The headache diagnoses were set by neurologists using the ICHD-2 criteria performing a semi structured face-to-face interview. Sleep problems were measured by the two validated instruments Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Among 297 participants, 77 subjects were headache-free, whereas 135 were diagnosed with tension-type headache (TTH), 51 with migraine, and 34 with other headache diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, using logistic regression, excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as ESS ≥ 10, was three times more likely among migraineurs compared with headache-free individuals (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–10.2). Severe sleep disturbances, defined as KSQ score in the upper quartile, was five times more likely among migraineurs (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 2.0–15.5), and three times more likely for subjects with TTH (OR = 3.3, 1.4–7.3) compared with headache-free individuals. Subjects with chronic headache were 17 times more likely to have severe sleep disturbances (OR = 17.4, 95% CI 5.1–59.8), and the association was somewhat stronger for chronic migraine (OR = 38.9, 95% CI 3.1–485.3) than for chronic TTH (OR = 18.3, 95% CI 3.6–93.0). In conclusion, there was a significant association between severe sleep disturbances and primary headache disorders, most pronounced for those with chronic headache. Even though one cannot address causality in the present study design, the results indicate an increased awareness of sleep problems among patients with headache.
Chronic headache; Migraine; Tension-type headache; Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire; Daytime sleepiness
Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40–60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was “problem waking up too early” (29.4%), followed by “difficulty staying asleep” (28.0%) and “difficulty falling asleep” (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score ≥8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances.
Anxiety; Depression; Headache; Insomnia; Migraine; Tension-type headache
Most primary headaches in the elderly are similar to those in younger patients (tension, migraine, and cluster), but there are some differences, such as late-life migraine accompaniments and hypnic headaches. Although migraine in younger persons usually presents with headache, migraine in older persons may initially appear with visual or sensory phenomena, instead of headache (“migraine accompaniments”). Hypnic headaches awaken patients from sleep, are short-lived, and occur only in the elderly. The probability of secondary headache increases steadily with age. Secondary headaches include those associated with temporal arteritis, trigeminal neuralgia, sleep apnea, post- herpetic neuralgia, cervical spondylosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasm, and post-concussive syndrome. Certain rescue treatments for migraine headache in younger individuals (triptans or dihydroergotamine, for example) should not be used in elderly patients because of the risk of coronary artery disease. Naproxen and hydroxyzine are commonly used oral rescue therapies for older adults who have migraine or tension headaches. Intravenous magnesium, valproic acid, and metoclopramide are all effective rescue therapies for severe headaches in the emergency room setting. Some effective prophylactic agents for migraine in younger patients (amitriptyline and doxepin) are not usually recommended for older individuals because of the risks of cognitive impairment, urinary retention, and cardiac arrhythmia. For these reasons, the recommended oral preventive agents for migraine in older adults include divalproex sodium, topiramate, metoprolol, and propranolol. Oral agents that can prevent hypnic headaches include caffeine and lithium. Cough headaches respond to indomethacin or acetazolamide.
Cluster; Headache; Treatment; Elderly; Divalproex; Hydroxyzine; Hypnic; Lithium; Magnesium; Medication overuse; Metoclopramide; Metoprolol; Migraine accompaniment; Naproxen; Propranolol; Sleep apnea; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Temporal arteritis; Tension; Thunderclap; Topiramate; Trigeminal neuralgia
Aims and Objectives:
Translation of the Insomnia Severity Index from English to Hindi and Validation of the Hindi version.
Materials and Methods:
The translation process of the Insomnia Severity Index was initiated after obtaining due permission from the author of the original version of the same. Translation was carried out by using standard translation procedures, such as combined translation, decentering, and pretest method. The final version of the Insomnia Severity Index in Hindi was finally validated. A randomly selected sample size of 65 subjects was enrolled for the purpose of validation and testing the reliability of Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia was present in 45 subjects and they constituted the insomnia group. The rest 20 subjects did not have insomnia and were included in the control group. The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index was applied to both the groups.
The total sample constituted of 50.8% males and 49.2% females. The mean age in the control group was 30.8±8.3 years and that in the insomnia group was 40.3±4 years (t=3.04; P=0.001). The translated version of the Insomnia Severity Index showed a reliability of 0.91 (Cronbach's α=0.91). This was not just simple translation, but many of the words were changed to adapt it for the local population.
The Hindi version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a valid and reliable tool that can be administered for the assessment of severity of insomnia.
Hindi; insomnia; insomnia severity index; validation
The prevalence and significance of restless legs syndrome was assessed in 307 patients presenting to an acute-care geriatric medical service. Fifteen patients (5%) had restless legs syndrome; 13 (87%) of these patients had insomnia and 10 (67%) reported troublesome or frequent leg symptoms. Of 147 patients with current insomnia, iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 18 ng/ml) was present in 4/13 (31%) patients with restless legs and 8/134 (6%) patients without restless legs (P < 0.025). Improvement in symptoms of restless legs was noted with iron repletion. These findings suggest that restless legs syndrome is relatively common in the elderly and causes significant discomfort and sleep disturbance. Iron deficiency is a common and treatable cause.
Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by patients with end- stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. The aim of this study was to assess sleep quality and quality of life and to examine the prevalence of sleep disorders in a group of uremic patients on maintenance dialysis.
Patients and methods
Enrolled were 92 patients on maintenance dialysis, to whom 5 different questionnaires were distributed, examining sleep characteristics and quality of life [Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IRLS-Study group questionnaire, WHO-5 Well Being Index].
Low sleep quality was reported by 42 patients (45.7%), and insomnia by 28.3% (n=26). Additionally, Restless Legs Syndrome was reported by 42.4% (n=39). On the contrary, only one patient had an ESS score, indicative of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, 32 patients (34.8%) had a score indicative of low quality of life in WHO-5 questionnaire.
A significant presence of sleep disorders among haemodialysis patients was recorded. Still, further studies using polysomnographic records are necessary to confirm these results.
A striking feature of migraine is the difference between the estimated migraine prevalence and the actual number of migraineurs consulting their general practitioners (GPs). We investigated the impact of a sensitisation campaign on migraine in a large cohort of patients, living in a district of Rome. The study involved 10 GPs and a population of about 12 000 people, contacted by mail and posters located in GP clinics. Both the letter and poster stressed the impact of headache on quality of life and included the Italian version of the three-item Identification of Migraine (ID Migraine) screening test, consisting of questions on disability, nausea and photophobia. If the subjects suffered from headaches, they were invited to contact their GPs for a visit and a free consultation with a headache expert. By means of this sensitisation campaign, 195 headache patients consulted their GPs. Ninety-two percent of them (n=179) were migraineurs; 73% of them had never consulted a physician for headache. The ID Migraine test had a sensitivity of 0.92 (95% CI 0.86–0.95), a specificity of 0.75 (95% CI 0.47–0.91) and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.97 (95% CI 0.93–0.99) for a clinical diagnosis of migraine, according to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. This study confirms that a large number of migraine patients never see a doctor for their headache. This awareness campaign is likely to identify the severest cases of undiagnosed migraineurs. However, mailing campaigns do not seem to be so effective in bringing undiagnosed migraine patients into the primary care setting, and more efficient strategies have to be planned.
Migraine; ID Migraine; Sensitisation campaign
Previous reports have suggested that platelet level of serotonin in chronic tension headache (CTH) is lower than in normal control subjects, and that there is continuous activation of platelets both in migraine and in CTH. In this study we compared platelet serotonin concentration in 95 patients with CTH, 166 patients with migraine and 35 normal control subjects. Mean platelet serotonin (ng/10(9) platelets) was 310 for the CTH group, 384 during migraine headache, 474 for normal control subjects and 514 in headache-free migrainous patients. There was significant statistical difference of values between CTH patients and those of normal control subjects as well as headache-free migrainous patients, but not of those of migrainous patients during headache. It is suggested that CTH is a low serotonin syndrome, representing one end of the spectrum of idiopathic headache, the other end being represented by migraine.
The main aim of the study was to examine the relationship between headache and familial recurrence of psychiatric disorders in parents and their children. Headache history and symptomatology have been collected in a clinical sample of 200 patients and their families, using a semi-structured interview (ICHD-II criteria). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed by DSM-IV criteria. Chi squares and a loglinear analysis were computed in order to evaluate the main effects and interactions between the following factors: frequency and headache subtypes (migraine/not-migraine) in children, headache (migraine/not-migraine-absent/present) in parents, headache (absent/present) in grandparents, and psychiatric comorbidity (absent/present) have been analyzed: 94 mothers (47%) and 51 fathers (25.5%) had at least one psychiatric disorder, mainly mood and anxiety disorders. Considering the significant prevalence of Psi-co in children (P < 0.0001), we compared it with the presence of familiarity to headache: a significant interaction has been found (P < 0.05) showing that migraineurs with high familial recurrence of headache had a higher percentage (74.65%) of psychiatric disorders, than no-migraineurs (52.17%). Absence of headache familial loading seems to be related to psi-co only in no-migraine headache (87.5 vs. 45.5%). The occurrence of psychiatric disorders is high in children with headache, but a very different pattern seems to characterize migraine (familial co-transmission of migraine and Psi-Co?) if compared with non-migraine headache.
Headache; Child; Family; Genetic; Psychiatric disorders; Anxiety and depression
Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood.
This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ‘high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)’ in adults with chronic kidney disease.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD) were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire.
Average age was 54.17 (± 12.96) years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01) and depression (P < 0.001). Fifty-one percent subjects were at “high risk for sleep apnea”. They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001), coronary disease (P = 0.02), insomnia (P = 0.008), and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001). However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59) and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34) were found to be associated with “higher risk for sleep apnea”.
Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders.
Chronic kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Insomnia; Obstructive sleep apnea
This tutorial summarises the state-of-the-art on migraine genetics and looks at the possible future direction of this field of research. The view of migraine as a genetic disorder, initially based on epidemiological observations of transmission of the condition within families, was subsequently confirmed by the identification of monogenic forms of “syndromic” migraine, such as familial hemiplegic migraine. We are currently witnessing a change in the way genetic analysis is used in migraine research: rather than studying modalities of inheritance in non-monogenic forms of migraine and in the persistent modalities of migraine headache, researchers are now tending to focus on the search for genetic markers of dysfunction in biological systems. One example of the evolution of migraine genetic research is provided by the recent efforts to shed light on the pharmacogenomic mechanisms of drug response in migraineurs. In addition, novel molecular approaches about to be introduced are expected to further increase knowledge on this topic and improve patient management.
Migraine; Genetics; Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM); CADASIL; MELAS; Pharmacogenomics
An adult cohort with tuberous sclerosis complex was investigated for the prevalence of sleep disturbances and the relationship with seizure variables, medication, and psychological functioning. Information on 35 adults was gathered using four questionnaires: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Sleep and Epilepsy Questionnaire (SEQ), Sleep Diagnosis List (SDL), and Adult Self-Report Scale (ASR). In addition, clinical, genetic and electrophysiological data were collected. Of 35 respondents, 25 had a history of epilepsy. A subjective sleep disorder was found in 31% of the cohort. Insomnia scores showed a significant positive correlation with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and restless legs syndrome scores. Significant correlations were found between daytime sleepiness and scores on depression, antisocial behavior, and use of mental health medication. A subgroup using antiepileptic medication showed high correlations between daytime sleepiness, attention deficits, and anxiety scores.
Epilepsy; Sleep; Tuberous sclerosis complex; Behavior
Migraine is a common headache disorder that is increasingly being evaluated in population-based studies. The American Migraine Study II and the Women’s Health Study (WHS) have successfully used “modified” International Classification of Headache Disorders - I (ICHD-I) criteria to classify patients. Investigating agreement of self-reported migraine in large epidemiological studies with the criteria of the revised version (ICHD-II) is sparse. We have investigated 1,675 women with self-reported migraine participating in the WHS, who provided additional information on a detailed migraine questionnaire, which allowed us to apply all ICHD-II criteria. In this sub-cohort we confirmed self-reported migraine in over 87% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for migraine (71.5%) and probable migraine without aura (16.2 %). In conclusion, there is excellent agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II based migraine classification in the WHS. In addition, questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in large population-based studies is feasible.
migraine; epidemiology; questionnaire; ICHD-I; ICHD-II
Recent studies have suggested a strong link between migraines and restless legs syndrome (RLS). It is possible that these disorders share a dopaminergic dysfunction in the hypothalamic A11 nucleus that contributes to this association. However, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the effect of dopaminergic treatment on migraine symptoms in patients with concomitant migraines and RLS.
We present an illustrative patient with concomitant RLS and migraine who showed improvement in her headache frequency and RLS symptoms following immediate-release pramipexole (P-IR) treatment and provide review results from the medical records of patients who experienced both migraines and RLS in our previous cross-sectional study.
Ten patients (nine patients from the previously completed single-center study) received P-IR treatment were included in the study. RLS symptoms improved markedly in all of the subjects. Five out of the 10 patients (50%) reported improvement in migraine headaches. Of these five patients, four (80%) had reported morning headaches before P-IR treatment.
Our results indicate that the identification of RLS in migraine patients is clinically significant and that dopaminergic treatment may improve both migraines, particularly morning headache (80% improvement in this study), and RLS symptoms. However, further clinical studies are warranted to verify our results.
Pramipexole; migraine; restless legs syndrome; dopaminergic dysfunction; morning headache
Migraine and tension-type headache are primary headache disorders that occur during pregnancy. Most women with migraine improve during pregnancy. Some women have their first attack during pregnancy. Migraine can recur postpartum; it can also begin at that time. Women who have had menstrual migraine and migraine onset at menarche tend to experience no migraine during pregnancy. Not all migraines improve during pregnancy, however. Some women experience migraine for the first time during pregnancy.
Headaches caused by cerebral arteriovenous malformations often present as migraine with aura. Cerebral venous thrombosis (common during pregnancy and the puerperium) may manifest with migraine-like visual disturbance and headache.
Nondrug therapies (relaxation, sleep, massage, ice packs and biofeedback) should be tried first to treat migraine in women who are pregnant. For treatment of acute migraine attacks 1000 mg of paracetamol (acetaminophen) preferably as a suppository is considered the first choice drug treatment.
Migraine has also been recently postulated as one of the major risk factors for stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. There is thus an urgent need for prospective studies of large numbers of pregnant women to determine the real existence and extent of the risks posed by migraine during pregnancy.
Migraine, Pregnancy, Headache
The prevalence and the
clinical features of chronic daily
headache (CDH) were studied in
968 children and adolescents
observed during a period of one
year in the Headache Centre of the
Anna Meyer Paediatric Hospital of
Florence. Nine hundred and fortyfour
patients (97.52%) had primary
headache according to ICHD-II, 24
subjects had secondary headache
and 56 patients had CDH (5.93%
of primary headaches). The mean
age of subjects with CDH was
higher than general (13.5 vs. 11.5
years), with a female preponderance
(69.6% vs. 30.4%). According
to the ICHD-II, headaches were
classified as chronic migraine in 10
patients (1.5.2 ICHD-II), chronic
tension-type headache in 36 (2.3
ICHD-II), new daily persistent
headache in 8 (4.8 ICHD-II) and 2
patients reported mixed pattern
(chronic migraine+chronic tension
type headache). Medication
overuse was not implicated in our
Chronic daily headache; Children; Juvenile headache; Migraine; Tension type headache
Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF.
Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels.
This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a mental disorder.
Our aim was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality and arousal in migraine and to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and pain thresholds (PT) in controls, interictal, preictal and postictal migraine.
Polysomnography and PT (to pressure, heat and cold) measurements were done in 34 healthy controls and 50 migraineurs. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by sleep diaries, Epworth sleepiness scale, Karolinska sleep questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Migraineurs who had their sleep registration more than 48 h from an attack were classified as interictal while those who were less than 48 h from an attack were classified as either preictal or postictal.
Migraineurs reported more insomnia and other sleep-related symptoms than controls, but the objective sleep differences were smaller and we found no differences in daytime sleepiness. Interictal migraineurs had more awakenings (p=0.048), a strong tendency for more slow-wave sleep (p=0.050), lower thermal pain thresholds (TPT) (heat pain thresholds p=0.043 and cold pain thresholds p=0.031) than controls. Migraineurs in the preictal phase had shorter latency to sleep onset than controls (p=0.003). Slow-wave sleep correlated negatively with pressure PT and slow bursts correlated negatively with TPT.
Lower PT in interictal migraineurs seems related to increased sleep pressure. We hypothesize that migraineurs on the average suffer from a relative sleep deprivation and need more sleep than healthy controls. Lack of adequate rest might be an attack-precipitating- and hyperalgesia-inducing factor.
Migraine phase; Sleep; Arousal; Pain thresholds
The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful.
No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children.
Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians.
After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd.
In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index.
This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control.
Polysomnography; Periodic limb movements; PLMd; PLMs; Children; Migraine without aura; MoA
Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ropinirole in the treatment of patients with restless legs syndrome.
Methods: A 12 week, prospective, double blind, randomised comparison involving 284 patients from 10 European countries. All participants had a score of ⩾15 on the international restless legs scale (IRLS). Patients were randomised (1:1) to receive either ropinirole 0.25–4.0 mg once daily or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline to week 12 in total IRLS score. Global improvements (clinical global impression (CGI) scale) and improvements in sleep, health related quality of life (QoL; using generic and disease specific measures), work, and other activities were also assessed.
Results: 112/146 patients (76.7%) taking ropinirole and 109/138 (79.0%) taking placebo completed the study. Improvement in IRLS at week 12 with ropinirole (mean (SD) dose, 1.90 (1.13) mg/day) was greater than with placebo (mean (SE): -11.04 (0.719) v -8.03 (0.738) points; adjusted difference = -3.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), -5.03 to -0.99); p = 0.0036). More patients in the ropinirole group (53.4%) showed improvement on the CGI scale at week 12 than in the placebo group (40.9%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.7 (1.02 to 2.69); p = 0.0416). Significant differences on both IRLS and CGI scales favouring ropinirole were apparent by week 1. Ropinirole was also associated with significantly greater improvements in sleep and QoL end points. The most common adverse events were nausea and headache.
Conclusions: Ropinirole improves restless legs syndrome compared with placebo, with benefits apparent by week 1. It is generally well tolerated.