Tumor suppressor SMAR1 interacts and stabilizes p53 through phosphorylation at its serine-15 residue. We show that SMAR1 transcription is regulated by p53 through its response element present in the SMAR1 promoter. Upon Doxorubicin induced DNA damage, acetylated p53 is recruited on SMAR1 promoter that allows activation of its transcription. Once SMAR1 is induced, cell cycle arrest is observed that is correlated to increased phospho-ser-15-p53 and decreased p53 acetylation. Further we demonstrate that SMAR1 expression is drastically reduced during advancement of human breast cancer. This was correlated with defective p53 expression in breast cancer where acetylated p53 is sequestered into the heterochromatin region and become inaccessible to activate SMAR1 promoter. In a recent report we have shown that SMAR1 represses Cyclin D1 transcription through recruitment of HDAC1 dependent repressor complex at the MAR site of Cyclin D1 promoter. Here we show that downmodulation of SMAR1 in high grade breast carcinoma is correlated with upregulated Cyclin D1 expression. We also established that SMAR1 inhibits tumor cell migration and metastases through inhibition of TGFβ signaling and its downstream target genes including cutl1 and various focal adhesion molecules. Thus, we report that SMAR1 plays a central role in coordinating p53 and TGFβ pathways in human breast cancer.
In Escherichia coli the gad system protects the cell from the extreme acid stress encountered during transit through the host stomach. The structural genes gadA, gadB, and gadC encode two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms and a glutamate/γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) antiporter, respectively. Glutamate decarboxylation involves both proton consumption and production of GABA, a neutral compound which is finally exported via the GadC antiporter. Regulation of gadA and gadBC transcription is very complex, involving several circuits controlling expression under different growth phase, medium, and pH conditions. In this study we found that the AraC-like activators GadX and GadW share the same 44-bp binding sites in the gadA and gadBC regulatory regions. The common binding sites are centered at 110.5 bp and 220.5 bp upstream of the transcriptional start points of the gadA and gadBC genes, respectively. At the gadA promoter this regulatory element overlaps one of the binding sites of the repressor H-NS. The DNA of the gadBC promoter has an intrinsic bend which is centered at position −121. These findings, combined with transcriptional regulation studies, may account for the two different mechanisms of transcriptional activation by GadX and GadW at the two promoters studied. We speculate that while at the gadA promoter GadX and GadW activate transcription by displacing H-NS via an antirepressor mechanism, at the gadBC promoter the mechanism of activation involves looping of the DNA sequence between the promoter and the activator binding site.
The Escherichia coli chromosome contains two distantly located genes, gadA and gadB, which encode biochemically undistinguishable isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad). The Gad reaction contributes to pH homeostasis by consuming intracellular H+ and producing γ-aminobutyric acid. This compound is exported via the protein product of the gadC gene, which is cotranscribed with gadB. Here we demonstrate that transcription of both gadA and gadBC is positively controlled by gadX, a gene downstream of gadA, encoding a transcriptional regulator belonging to the AraC/XylS family. The gadX promoter encompasses the 67-bp region preceding the gadX transcription start site and contains both RpoD and RpoS putative recognition sites. Transcription of gadX occurs in neutral rich medium upon entry into the stationary phase and is increased at acidic pH, paralleling the expression profile of the gad structural genes. However, PT5lacO-controlled gadX expression in neutral rich medium results in upregulation of target genes even in exponential phase, i.e., when the gad system is normally repressed. Autoregulation of the whole gad system is inferred by the positive effect of GadX on the gadA promoter and gadAX cotranscription. Transcription of gadX is derepressed in an hns mutant and strongly reduced in both rpoS and hns rpoS mutants, consistent with the expression profile of gad structural genes in these genetic backgrounds. Gel shift and DNase I footprinting analyses with a MalE-GadX fusion protein demonstrate that GadX binds gadA and gadBC promoters at different sites and with different binding affinities.
Plasmids containing cDNA for the rat 67- and 65-kD isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-67 and GAD-65) were expressed in COS-cells, and lysates of [35S]methionine-labeled cells were used for immunoprecipitations. Sera from 38 patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, which precipitated a 64-kD antigen from rat islets, reacted with recombinant GAD-65 in relation to their anti-64-kD titers. The eight strongest sera also precipitated recombinant GAD-67, suggesting that certain epitopes are common to both isoforms. Subsequently, [35S]methionine-labeled GAD-65 was purified from COS cell lysates and employed in a binding assay with 50 sera of patients with recent onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. 38 sera (76%) precipitated labeled GAD-65 with titers that correlated with islet cell antibodies (ICA), determined in a standard immunofluorescence assay. 2 sera were GAD positive but ICA negative, 4 were positive only for ICA, and 6 were negative for both GAD and ICA, as were the sera of 20 controls. The data illustrate that antibodies against GAD-65 are present in a majority of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and that autoantibodies against other islet cell antigens also exist. The radioligand-binding assay, which is convenient and sensitive for detecting GAD antibodies, will facilitate the screening of individuals with autoimmune islet cell disease.
Imbalances in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) homoeostasis underlie psychiatric and movement disorders. The ability of the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase), GAD65, to control synaptic GABA levels is influenced through its capacity to auto-inactivate. In contrast, the GAD67 isoform is constitutively active. Previous structural insights suggest that flexibility in the GAD65 catalytic loop drives enzyme inactivation. To test this idea, we constructed a panel of GAD65/67 chimaeras and compared the ability of these molecules to auto-inactivate. Together, our data reveal the important finding that the C-terminal domain of GAD plays a key role in controlling GAD65 auto-inactivation. In support of these findings, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of a GAD65/67 chimaera that reveals that the conformation of the catalytic loop is intimately linked to the C-terminal domain.
auto-inactivation; catalytic loop; chimaera; C-terminal domain; glutamic acid decarboxylase; X-ray crystallography; AET, 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GAD, glutamic acid decarboxylase; PLP, pyridoxal-5′-phosphate; PMP, pyridoxamine phosphate; SSA, succinic semialdehyde; TLS, translation libration screw-rotation; WT, wild-type
Escherichia coli can survive extreme acid stress for several hours. The most efficient acid resistance system is based on glutamate decarboxylation by the GadA and GadB decarboxylases and the import of glutamate via the GadC membrane protein. The expression of the corresponding genes is controlled by GadE, the central activator of glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR). We have previously shown by genetic approaches that as well as GadE, the response regulator of the Rcs system, RcsB is absolutely required for control of gadA/BC transcription. In the presence of GadE, basal activity of RcsB stimulates the expression of gadA/BC, whereas activation of RcsB leads to general repression of the gad genes. We report here the results of various in vitro assays that show RcsB to regulate by direct binding to the gadA promoter region. Furthermore, activation of gadA transcription requires a GAD box and binding of an RcsB/GadE heterodimer. In addition, we have identified an RcsB box, which lies just upstream of the −10 element of gadA promoter and is involved in repression of this operon.
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Mouse embryos lacking the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (encoded by the Gad1 gene) develop a complete cleft of the secondary palate. This phenotype suggests that this gene may be involved in the normal development of tissues outside of the CNS. Although Gad1 expression in adult non-CNS tissues has been noted previously, no systematic analysis of its embryonic expression outside of the nervous system has been performed. The objective of this study was to define additional structures outside of the central nervous system that express Gad1, indicating those structures that may require its function for normal development.
Our analysis detected the localized expression of Gad1 transcripts in several developing tissues in the mouse embryo from E9.0-E14.5. Tissues expressing Gad1 included the tail bud mesenchyme, the pharyngeal pouches and arches, the ectodermal placodes of the developing vibrissae, and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), mesenchyme and ectoderm of the limb buds.
Some of the sites of Gad1 expression are tissues that emit signals required for patterning and differentiation (AER, vibrissal placodes). Other sites correspond to proliferating stem cell populations that give rise to multiple differentiated tissues (tail bud mesenchyme, pharyngeal endoderm and mesenchyme). The dynamic expression of Gad1 in such tissues suggests a wider role for GABA signaling in development than was previously appreciated.
The mechanisms involved in the targeting of proteins to different cytosolic compartments are still largely unknown. In this study we have investigated the targeting signal of the 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), a major autoantigen in two autoimmune diseases: Stiff-Man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. GAD65 is expressed in neurons and in pancreatic beta-cells, where it is concentrated in the Golgi complex region and in proximity to GABA- containing vesicles. GAD65, but not the similar isoform GAD67 which has a more diffuse cytosolic distribution, is palmitoylated within its first 100 amino acids (a.a.). We have previously demonstrated that the domain corresponding to a.a. 1-83 of GAD65 is required for the targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region. Here we show that this domain is sufficient to target an unrelated protein, beta- galactosidase, to the same region. Site-directed mutagenesis of all the putative acceptor sites for thiopalmitoylation within this domain did not abolish targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region. The replacement of a.a. 1-29 of GAD67 with the corresponding a.a. 1-27 of GAD65 was sufficient to target the otherwise soluble GAD67 to the Golgi complex region. Conversely, the replacement of a.a. 1-27 of GAD65 with a.a. 1-29 of GAD67 resulted in a GAD65 protein that had a diffuse cytosolic distribution and was primarily hydrophilic, suggesting that targeting to the Golgi complex region is required for palmitoylation of GAD65. We propose that the domain corresponding to a.a. 1-27 of GAD65, contains a signal required for the targeting of GAD65 to the Golgi complex region.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, which catalyses the reaction of l-glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid. There are two isoforms of GAD, a 65-kDa form and a 67-kDa form, which are encoded by two different genes. As previous studies suggested a role for GAD67 splice variants during fetal pancreas development, we have investigated the mRNA expression of GAD67 and GAD67 splice variants in a series of 14 human fetal pancreases between 14 weeks gestation and term and in adult control pancreases by RT-PCR. In this study, we demonstrate mRNA expression of GAD67 and four GAD67 splice variants, including GAD25, in human fetal and adult specimens. Some of the splice variants, including various proportions of exon 7 or a new exon between exons 6 and 7, have not been described before in the human pancreas. We speculate that the expression of these GAD67 splice variants might be related to human fetal pancreas development.
fetal development; GAD; pancreas; alternative splicing; human development
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). GAD exists in two adult isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67. During embryonic brain development at least two additional transcripts exist, I-80 and I-86, which are distinguished by insertions of 80 or 86 bp into GAD67 mRNA, respectively. Though it was described that embryonic GAD67 transcripts are not detectable during adulthood there are evidences suggesting re-expression under certain pathological conditions in the adult brain. In the present study we systematically analyzed for the first time the spatiotemporal distribution of different GADs with emphasis on embryonic GAD67 mRNAs in the postnatal brain using highly sensitive methods.
QPCR was used to precisely investigate the postnatal expression level of GAD related mRNAs in cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb of rats from P1 throughout adulthood. Within the first three postnatal weeks the expression of both GAD65 and GAD67 mRNAs reached adult levels in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. The olfactory bulb showed by far the highest expression of GAD65 as well as GAD67 transcripts. Embryonic GAD67 splice variants were still detectable at birth. They continuously declined to barely detectable levels during postnatal development in all investigated regions with exception of a comparatively high expression in the olfactory bulb. Radioactive in situ hybridizations confirmed the occurrence of embryonic GAD67 transcripts in the olfactory bulb and furthermore detected their localization mainly in the subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream.
Embryonic GAD67 transcripts can hardly be detected in the adult brain, except for specific regions associated with neurogenesis and high synaptic plasticity. Therefore a functional role in processes like proliferation, migration or synaptogenesis is suggested.
Sensory experience influences brain organization and function. A particularly striking example is in the olfactory bulb where reduction of odorant sensory signals profoundly down-regulates dopamine in glomerular neurons. There are two large populations of glomerular inhibitory interneurons: (1) GABAergic periglomerular (PG) cells, whose processes are limited to a single glomerulus, regulate intraglomerular processing and (2) DAergic-GABAergic short axon (SA) cells, whose processes contact multiple glomeruli, regulate interglomerular processing. The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is synthesized from L-glutamic acid by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) of which there are two major isoforms: GAD65 and GAD67. GAD65 is expressed in uniglomerular PG cells. GAD67 is expressed by SA cells, which also co-express the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Deafferentation or sensory deprivation decreases TH expression but it is not known if sensory input alters GAD isoforms. Here we report that either deafferentation or reduction of sensory input by nares occlusion significantly reduced GAD67 protein and the number of SA cells expressing GAD67. However, neither manipulation altered GAD65 protein or the number of GAD65 PG cells. These findings show that sensory experience strongly impacts transmitter regulation in the circuit that controls neural processing across glomeruli but not in the circuit that regulates intraglomerular processing.
Olfactory bulb; dopamine; GABA; gene regulation; periglomerular cell; short axon cell
The gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the key enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, is shown to be expressed in the testis of several different species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone isolated from the human testis confirmed the presence of GAD mRNA in the testis. The major GAD mRNA in the testis was 2.5 kilobases. Smaller amounts of a 3.7-kilobase mRNA with the same size as GAD mRNA in the brain was also detected in the testis. In situ hybridization using a GAD-specific probe revealed GAD mRNA expressing spermatocytes and spermatids located in the middle part of rat seminiferous tubules. Studies on the ontogeny of GAD mRNA expression showed low levels of GAD mRNA in testes of prepubertal rats, with increasing levels as sexual maturation is reached, compatible with GAD mRNA expression in germ cells. In agreement with this, fractionation of cells from the rat seminiferous epithelium followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed the highest levels of GAD mRNA associated with spermatocytes and spermatids. Evidence for the presence of GAD protein in the rat testis was obtained from the demonstration of GAD-like immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules, predominantly at a position where spermatids and spermatozoa are found. Furthermore, GAD-like immunoreactivity was seen in the midpiece of ejaculated human spermatozoa, the part that is responsible for generating energy for spermatozoan motility.
We investigated the presence of autoantibodies to baculovirus-expressed human recombinant 65- and 67-kD isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In the immunoprecipitation test using [35S]methionine-labeled GADs antibodies to GAD65 were detected in 13/15 (87%) islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive and in 1/35 (2.9%) ICA-negative first-degree relatives of patients with IDDM, in 6/11 (54.5%) ICA-positive nondiabetic schoolchildren, and in 35/50 (70%) patients with newly diagnosed IDDM. GAD67 antibodies were positive only in five (33%) of the ICA-positive relatives (P < 0.05) and in nine (18%) IDDM patients at onset (P < 0.00001). After onset of IDDM antibodies to GAD65 and GAD67 declined but were still positive in 25 and 9.4% of subjects with long-standing IDDM (> 10 yr). In all study groups antibodies to GAD67 were only detected in GAD65 antibody-positive sera. An immunotrapping enzyme activity assay for GAD65 antibodies was positive in 64/75 (85.3%) of sera that were GAD antibody positive in the immunoprecipitation test (r = 0.870, P < 0.0001). In two (2.7%) sera GAD65 antibodies that block GAD enzyme activity were found. Our data suggest that antibodies to GAD65 but not to GAD67 represent sensitive markers for preclinical and overt IDDM. The immunotrapping assay here described represents a valuable technique for specific and sensitive screening for GAD antibodies.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon amino acid that is commonly present in living organisms and functions as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammals. It is understood to have a potentially anti-hypertensive effect in mammals. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In plants, GAD is regulated via its calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) by Ca2+/CaM. We have previously reported that a C-terminal truncated version of one of the five rice GAD isoforms, GAD2ΔC, revealed higher enzymatic activity in vitro and that its over-expression resulted in exceptionally high GABA accumulation (Akama and Takaiwa, J Exp Bot 58:2699–2607, 2007). In this study, GAD2ΔC, under the control of the rice glutelin promoter (GluB-1), was introduced into rice cells via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to produce transgenic rice lines. Analysis of the free amino acid content of rice grains revealed up to about a 30-fold higher level of GABA than in non-transformed rice grains. There were also very high levels of various free protein amino acids in the seeds. GABA-enriched rice grains were milled to a fine powder for oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Six weeks of administration showed that transgenic rice brings about a 20 mmHg decrease in blood pressure in two different kinds of SHRs, while there was no significant hypotensive effect in WKYs. These results suggest an alternative way to control and/or cure hypertension in humans with GABA-enriched rice as part of a common daily diet.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11248-009-9272-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
GABA; γ-Aminobutyric acid; Glutelin promoter; Glutamate decarboxylase; Hypertension; Transgenic rice
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the enzyme that synthesizes the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurons and in pancreatic beta cells. It is a major target of autoimmunity in Stiff- Man syndrome (SMS), a rare neurological disease, and in insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus. The two GAD isoforms, GAD-65 and GAD-67, are the products of two different genes. GAD-67 and GAD-65 are very similar to each other in amino acid sequence and differ substantially only at their NH2-terminal region. We have investigated the reactivity of autoantibodies of 30 Stiff-Man syndrome patients to GAD. All patient sera contained antibodies that recognize strongly GAD-65, but also GAD- 67, when tested by immunoprecipitation on brain extracts and by immunoprecipitation or immunocytochemistry on cells transfected with either the GAD-65 or the GAD-67 gene. When tested by Western blotting, all patient sera selectively recognized GAD-65. Western blot analysis of deletion mutants of GAD-65 demonstrated that autoantibodies are directed predominantly against two regions of the GAD-65 molecule. All SMS sera strongly recognized a fragment contained between amino acid 475 and the COOH terminus (amino acid 585). Within this region, amino acids 475-484 and 571-585 were required for reactivity. The requirement of these two discontinuous segments implies that the epitope is influenced by conformation. This reactivity is similar to that displayed by the monoclonal antibody GAD 6, suggesting the presence of a single immunodominant epitope (SMS-E1) in this region of GAD-65. In addition, most SMS sera recognized at least one epitope (SMS-E2) in the NH2-terminal domain of GAD-65 (amino acids 1-95). The demonstration in SMS patients of a strikingly homogeneous humoral autoimmune response against GAD and the identification of dominant autoreactive target regions may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GAD processing and presentation involved in GAD autoimmunity. Moreover, the reactivity reported here of GAD autoantibodies in SMS partially differs from the reactivity of GAD autoantibodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, suggesting a link between the pattern of humoral autoimmunity and the clinical condition.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is thought to result from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Years before IDDM symptoms appear, we can detect autoantibodies to one or both forms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67), synthesized from their respective cDNAs in a bacterial expression system. Individual IDDM sera show distinctive profiles of epitope recognition, suggesting different humoral immune responses. Although the level of GAD autoantibodies generally decline after IDDM onset, patients with IDDM-associated neuropathies have high levels of antibodies to GAD, years after the appearance of clinical IDDM. We note a striking sequence similarity between the two GADs and Coxsackievirus, a virus that has been associated with IDDM both in humans and in experimental animals. This similarity suggests that molecular mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of IDDM.
Degenerate oligonucleotides based on the published Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) protein sequence were used in a polymerase chain reaction to generate a DNA probe for the E. coli GAD structural gene. Southern blots showed that there were two cross-hybridizing GAD genes, and both of these were cloned and sequenced. The two GAD structural genes, designated gadA and gadB, were found to be 98% similar at the nucleotide level. Each gene encoded a 466-residue polypeptide, named, respectively, GAD alpha and GAD beta, and these differed by only five amino acids. Both GAD alpha and GAD beta contain amino acid residues which are highly conserved among pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases, but otherwise the protein sequences were not homologous to any other known proteins. By restriction mapping and hybridization to the Kohara miniset library, the two GAD genes were located on the E. coli chromosome. gadA maps at 4046 kb and gadB at 1588 kb. Neither of these positions is in agreement with the current map position for gadS as determined by genetic means. Analysis of Southern blots indicated that two GAD genes were present in all E. coli strains examined, including representatives from the ECOR collection. However, no significant cross-hybridizing gene was found in Salmonella species. Information about the DNA sequences and map positions of gadA and gadB should facilitate a genetic approach to elucidate the role of GAD in E. coli metabolism.
Acid in the stomach is thought to be a barrier to bacterial colonization of the intestine. Escherichia coli, however, has three systems for acid resistance, which overcome this barrier. The most effective of these systems is dependent on transport and decarboxylation of glutamate. GadX regulates two genes that encode isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase critical to this system, but additional genes associated with the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system remained to be identified. The gadX gene and a second downstream araC-like transcription factor gene, gadW, were mutated separately and in combination, and the gene expression profiles of the mutants were compared to those of the wild-type strain grown in neutral and acidified media under conditions favoring induction of glutamate-dependent acid resistance. Cluster and principal-component analyses identified 15 GadX-regulated, acid-inducible genes. Reverse transcriptase mapping demonstrated that these genes are organized in 10 operons. Analysis of the strain lacking GadX but possessing GadW confirmed that GadX is a transcriptional activator under acidic growth conditions. Analysis of the strain lacking GadW but possessing GadX indicated that GadW exerts negative control over three GadX target genes. The strain lacking both GadX and GadW was defective in acid induction of most but not all GadX target genes, consistent with the roles of GadW as an inhibitor of GadX-dependent activation of some genes and an activator of other genes. Resistance to acid was decreased under certain conditions in a gadX mutant and even more so by combined mutation of gadX and gadW. However, there was no defect in colonization of the streptomycin-treated mouse model by the gadX mutant in competition with the wild type, and the gadX gadW mutant was a better colonizer than the wild type. Thus, E. coli colonization of the mouse does not appear to require glutamate-dependent acid resistance.
Chromatin modulation at various cis-acting elements is critical for V(D)J recombination during T and B cell development. MARβ, a matrix-associated region (MAR) located upstream of the T cell receptor β (TCRβ) enhancer (Eβ), serves a crucial role in silencing Eβ-mediated TCR activation. By DNaseI hypersensitivity assays, we show here that overexpression of the MAR binding proteins SMAR1 and Cux/CDP modulate the chromatin structure at MARβ. We further demonstrate that the silencer function of MARβ is mediated independently by SMAR1 and Cux/CDP as judged by their ability to repress Eβ-dependent reporter gene expression. Moreover, the repressor activity of SMAR1 is strongly enhanced in the presence of Cux/CDP. These two proteins physically interact with each other and colocalize within the perinuclear region through a SMAR1 domain required for repression. The repression domain of SMAR1 is separate from the MARβ binding domain and contains a nuclear localization signal and an arginine–serine (RS)-rich domain, characteristic of pre-mRNA splicing regulators. Our data suggest that at the double positive stage of T cell development, cis-acting MARβ elements recruit the strong negative regulators Cux and SMAR1 to control Eβ-mediated recombination and transcription.
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized in brain by two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad), Gad1 and Gad2. Gad1 provides most of the GABA in brain, but Gad2 can be rapidly activated in times of high GABA demand. Mice lacking Gad2 are viable whereas deletion of Gad1 is lethal. We produced null mutant mice for Gad2 on three different genetic backgrounds: predominantly C57BL/6J and one or two generations of backcrossing to 129S1/SvimJ (129N1, 129N2).We used these mice to determine if actions of alcohol are regulated by synthesis of GABA from this isoform. We also studied behavioral responses to a benzodiazepine (flurazepam) and a GABAA receptor agonist (gabaxadol). Deletion of Gad2 increased ethanol palatability and intake and slightly reduced the severity of ethanol-induced withdrawal, but these effects depended strongly on genetic background. Mutant mice on the 129N2 background showed the above three ethanol behavioral phenotypes, but the C57BL/6J inbred background did not show any of these phenotypes. Effects on ethanol consumption also depended on the test as the mutation did not alter consumption in limited access models. Deletion of Gad2 reduced the effect of flurazepam on motor incoordination and increased the effect of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist gabaxadol without changing the duration of loss of righting reflex produced by these drugs. These results are consistent with earlier proposals that deletion of Gad2 (on 129N2 background) reduces synaptic GABA but also suggest changes in extrasynaptic receptor function.
Alcohol intake; gabaxadol; Gad2; knockout mice; palatability; withdrawal
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with altered activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which has been attributed to lower expression of the 67 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), the major γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme. However, little is know n about the relationship of prefrontal GAD67 m RNA levels and illness severity, translation of the transcript into protein, and protein levels in axon terminals, the key site of GABA production and function.
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure GAD67 m RNA levels in postmortem specimens of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from subjects with schizophrenia and matched comparison subjects with no know n history of psychiatric or neurological disorders (N=42 pairs). In a subset of this cohort in which potential confounds of protein measures were controlled (N=19 pairs), Western blotting was used to quantify tissue levels of GAD67 protein in tissue. In five of these pairs, multilabel confocalimm unofluorescence was used to quantify GAD67 protein levels in the axon terminals of parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons, which are know n to have low levels of GAD67 m RNA in schizophrenia.
GAD67 m RNA levels were significantly lower in schizophrenia subjects (by 15%), but transcript levels were not associated with predictors or measures of illness severity or chronicity. In schizophrenia subjects, GAD67 protein levels were significantly lower in total gray matter (by 10%) and in parvalbumin axon terminals (by 49%).
The findings that lower GAD67 m RNA expression is com m on in schizophrenia, that it is not a consequence of having the illness, and that it leads to less translation of the protein, especially in the axon terminals of parvalbumin-containing neurons, support the hypothesis that lower GABA synthesis in parvalbumin neurons contributes to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction and impaired cognition in schizophrenia.
Pancreatic beta-cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-secreting neurons both express the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with beta-cell destruction and impairment of GABA-ergic neurotransmitter pathways. The predominant form of GAD in pancreatic beta-cells, GAD65, is synthesized as a soluble hydrophilic molecule, which is modified to become firmly membrane anchored. Here we show by immunogold electron microscopy that GAD65 is localized to the membrane of small vesicles which are identical in size to small synaptic-like microvesicles in pancreatic beta-cells. The NH2-terminal domain of GAD65 is the site of a two-step modification, the last of which results in a firm membrane anchoring that involves posttranslational hydroxylamine sensitive palmitoylation. GAD65 can be released from the membrane by an apparent enzyme activity in islets, suggesting that the membrane anchoring step is reversible and potentially regulated. The hydrophobic modifications and consequent membrane anchoring of GAD65 to microvesicles that store its product GABA may be of functional importance and, moreover, significant for its selective role as an autoantigen.
Matrix attachment region binding proteins have been shown to play an important role in gene regulation by altering chromatin in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Our previous studies report that SMAR1, a matrix-associated protein, regresses B16-F1-induced tumors in mice. Here we show SMAR1 targets the cyclin D1 promoter, a gene product whose dysregulation is attributed to breast malignancies. Our studies reveal that SMAR1 represses cyclin D1 gene expression, which can be reversed by small interfering RNA specific to SMAR1. We demonstrate that SMAR1 interacts with histone deacetylation complex 1, SIN3, and pocket retinoblastomas to form a multiprotein repressor complex. This interaction is mediated by the SMAR1(160-350) domain. Our data suggest SMAR1 recruits a repressor complex to the cyclin D1 promoter that results in deacetylation of chromatin at that locus, which spreads to a distance of at least the 5 kb studied upstream of the cyclin D1 promoter. Interestingly, we find that the high induction of cyclin D1 in breast cancer cell lines can be correlated to the decreased levels of SMAR1 in these lines. Our results establish the molecular mechanism exhibited by SMAR1 to regulate cyclin D1 by modification of chromatin.
Dysfunction of prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia includes changes in GABAergic mRNAs, including decreased expression of GAD1, encoding the 67 kDa glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) GABA synthesis enzyme. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Alterations in DNA methylation as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression are thought to play a role but this hypothesis is difficult to test because no techniques are available to extract DNA from GAD1 expressing neurons efficiently from human postmortem brain. Here, we present an alternative approach that is based on immunoprecipitation of mononucleosomes with anti-methyl-histone antibodies differentiating between sites of potential gene expression as opposed to repressive or silenced chromatin. Methylation patterns of CpG dinucleotides at the GAD1 proximal promoter and intron 2 were determined for each of the two chromatin fractions separately, using a case-control design for 14 schizophrenia subjects affected by a decrease in prefrontal GAD1 mRNA levels. In controls, the methylation frequencies at CpG dinucleotides, while overall higher in repressive as compared to open chromatin, did not exceed 5% at the proximal GAD1 promoter and 30% within intron 2. Subjects with schizophrenia showed a significant, on average 8-fold deficit in repressive chromatin-associated DNA methylation at the promoter. These results suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms are involved in dysregulated GABAergic gene expression in schizophrenia.
A phase II clinical trial with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) has shown efficacy in preserving residual insulin secretion in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have performed a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term cellular and humoral immune responses after GAD-alum-treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with GAD65. Frequencies of naïve, central and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured, together with cytokine secretion, proliferation, gene expression and serum GAD65 autoantibody (GADA) levels. We here show that GAD-alum-treated patients display increased memory T-cell frequencies and prompt T-cell activation upon in vitro stimulation with GAD65, but not with control antigens, compared with placebo subjects. GAD65-induced T-cell activation was accompanied by secretion of T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and T regulatory cytokines and by induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways. Moreover, post-treatment serum GADA titres remained persistently increased in the GAD-alum arm, but did not inhibit GAD65 enzymatic activity. In conclusion, memory T- and B-cell responses persist 4 years after GAD-alum-treatment. In parallel to a GAD65-induced T-cell activation, our results show induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways important for regulating the GAD65 immunity.