Replication of reported associations is crucial to the investigation of complex disease. More than 100 SNPs have previously been reported as associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), but few of these have been replicated successfully. To investigate the general reproducibility of reported AR-associations in candidate gene studies, one Swedish (352 AR-cases, 709 controls) and one Singapore Chinese population (948 AR-cases, 580 controls) were analyzed using 49 AR-associated SNPs. The overall pattern of P-values indicated that very few of the investigated SNPs were associated with AR. Given published odds ratios (ORs) most SNPs showed high power to detect an association, but no correlations were found between the ORs of the two study populations or with published ORs. None of the association signals were in common to the two genome-wide association studies published in AR, indicating that the associations represent false positives or have much lower effect-sizes than reported.
Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting 10% to 25% of the population worldwide. Over the years, studies have found that allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, are associated with immunological responses to antigens driven by a Th2-mediated immune response. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses to a broad variety of antigens, the association between polymorphisms of TLRs and allergic diseases has been the focus in many animal and human studies. Although the etiology of allergic rhinitis is still unknown, extensive research over the years has confirmed that the underlying causes of allergic diseases are due to many genetic and environmental factors, along with the interactions among them, which include gene–environment, gene–gene, and environment–environment interactions. Currently, there is great inconsistency among studies mainly due to differences in genetic background and unique gene–environment interactions. This paper reviews studies focusing on the association between TLR polymorphisms and allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, which would help researchers better understand the role of TLR polymorphisms in the development of allergic rhinitis, and ultimately lead to more efficient therapeutic interventions being developed.
allergic rhinitis; allergic diseases; Toll-like receptors
S100A7 is a calcium-binding protein with chemotactic and antimicrobial properties. S100A7 protein levels are decreased in nasal lavage fluid from individuals with ongoing allergic rhinitis, suggesting a role for S100A7 in allergic airway inflammation. The aims of this study were to describe genetic variation in S100A7 and search for associations between this variation and allergic rhinitis.
Peripheral blood was collected from 184 atopic patients with a history of pollen-induced allergic rhinitis and 378 non-atopic individuals, all of Swedish origin. DNA was extracted and the S100A7 gene was resequenced in a subset of 47 randomly selected atopic individuals. Nine polymorphisms were genotyped in 184 atopic and 378 non-atopic individuals and subsequently investigated for associations with allergic rhinitis as well as skin prick test results. Haplotypes were estimated and compared in the two groups.
Thirteen polymorphisms were identified in S100A7, of which 7 were previously undescribed. rs3014837 (G/C), which gives rise to an Asp → Glu amino acid shift, had significantly increased minor allele frequency in atopic individuals. The major haplotype, containing the major allele at all sites, was more common in non-atopic individuals, while the haplotype containing the minor allele at rs3014837 was equally more common among the atopic individuals. Additionally, heterozygotes at this site had significantly higher scores in skin prick tests for 9 out of 11 tested allergens, compared to homozygotes.
This is the first study describing genetic variation, associated with allergy, in S100A7. The results indicate that rs3014837 is linked to allergic rhinitis in our Swedish population and render S100A7 a strong candidate for further investigations regarding its role in allergic inflammation.
The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is critical in linking innate and acquired immunity. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding TLRs have been associated with autoimmune diseases and cancer. We investigated the genetic variation of TLR genes and its potential impact on melanoma susceptibility and patient survival. The study included 763 cutaneous melanoma cases recruited in Germany and 736 matched controls that were genotyped for 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes. The relationship between genotype, disease status and survival was investigated taking into account patient and tumor characteristics, and melanoma treatment. Analysis of 7 SNPs in TLR2, 7 SNPs in TLR3 and 8 SNPs in TLR4 showed statistically significant differences in distribution of inferred haplotypes between cases and controls. No individual polymorphism was associated with disease susceptibility except for the observed tendency for TLR2-rs3804099 (odds ratio OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.99–1.34, p = 0.07) and TLR4-rs2149356 (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73–1.00, p = 0.06). Both polymorphisms were part of the haplotypes associated with risk modulation. An improved overall survival (Hazard ratio HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32–0.88) and survival following metastasis (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34–0.91) were observed in carriers of the variant allele (D299G) of TLR4-rs4986790. In addition various TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 haplotypes were associated with increased overall survival. Our results point to a novel association between TLR gene variants and haplotypes with melanoma survival. Our data suggest a role for the D299G polymorphism in the TLR4 gene in overall survival and a potential link with systemic treatment at stage IV of the disease. The polymorphic amino acid residue, located in the ectodomain of TLR4, can have functional consequences.
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) encodes a kinase that is essential for NF-kB activation in Toll-like receptor and T-cell receptor signaling pathways, indicating a possible crosstalk between innate and acquired immunities. We attempted to determine whether the polymorphisms in the Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK-4) gene are associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in the Han Chinese population.
A population of 379 patients with AR and 333 healthy controls was studied. Blood was drawn for DNA extraction and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). A total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IRAK-4 were selected and individually genotyped.
Significant allelic differences between cases and controls were obtained for the SNP of rs3794262 in the IRAK-4 gene. In the stratified analysis for gender, two SNPs (rs4251431 and rs6582484) in males appeared as significant associations. Subgroup analysis for the presence of different allergen sensitivities displayed associations only in the house dust mite-allergic cohorts (rs3794262, rs4251481). None of the selected SNPs in IRAK-4 was associated with total IgE level. The haplotype analyisis indicated GCCTGCGA was significantly associated with AR. The SNP-SNP interaction information analysis indicated that the selected sets of polymorphisms had no synergistic effect.
Our findings did not support the potential contribution of the IRAK-4 gene to serum IgE levels. However, the results demonstrated a gender- and allergen-dependant association pattern between polymorphisms in IRAK-4 and AR in Chinese population.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease which affects about 600 million people worldwide and results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. However genetic association studies on known candidate genes yielded variable results. The aim of this study is to identify the genetic variants that influence predisposition towards allergic rhinitis in an ethnic Chinese population in Singapore using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. A total of 4461 ethnic Chinese volunteers were recruited in Singapore and classified according to their allergic disease status. The GWAS included a discovery stage comparing 515 atopic cases (including 456 AR cases) and 486 non-allergic non-rhinitis (NANR) controls. The top SNPs were then validated in a replication cohort consisting of a separate 2323 atopic cases (including 676 AR cases) and 511 NANR controls. Two SNPs showed consistent association in both discovery and replication phases; MRPL4 SNP rs8111930 on 19q13.2 (OR = 0.69, Pcombined = 4.46×10−05) and BCAP SNP rs505010 on chromosome 10q24.1 (OR = 0.64, Pcombined = 1.10×10−04). In addition, we also replicated multiple associations within known candidates regions such as HLA-DQ and NPSR1 locus in the discovery phase. Our study suggests that MRPL4 and BCAP, key components of the HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways respectively, are two novel candidate genes for atopy and allergic rhinitis. Further study on these molecules and their signaling pathways would help in understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and identification of targets for new therapeutic intervention.
Several studies point to a role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated if genetic variants in TLR genes are associated with RA and response to tumour necrosis factor blocking (anti-TNF) medication.
Methodology and Principal Findings
22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven TLR genes were genotyped in a Dutch cohort consisting of 378 RA patients and 294 controls. Significantly associated variants were investigated in replication cohorts from The Netherlands, United Kingdom and Sweden (2877 RA patients and 2025 controls). 182 of the Dutch patients were treated with anti-TNF medication. Using these patients and a replication cohort (269 Swedish patients) we analysed if genetic variants in TLR genes were associated with anti-TNF outcome. In the discovery phase of the study we found a significant association of SNPs rs2072493 in TLR5 and rs3853839 in TLR7 with RA disease susceptibility. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts did not confirm these findings. SNP rs2072493 in TLR5 was associated with anti-TNF outcome in the Dutch but not in the Swedish population.
We conclude that genetic variants in TLRs do not play a major role in susceptibility for developing RA nor in anti-TNF treatment outcome in a Caucasian population.
Six previous studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL13 gene and allergic rhinitis, but the results have been inconsistent. However, a recent meta-analysis using data from these 6 studies has shown that the A allele of IL13 SNP rs20541 was associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis, whereas no such relationship existed between IL13 SNP rs1800925 and allergic rhinitis. We investigated the associations between IL13 SNPs rs1800925 and rs20541 and the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese women.
Included were 393 cases who met the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) for rhinoconjunctivitis. Control subjects were 767 women without rhinoconjunctivitis according to the ISAAC criteria, who had also not been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis by a doctor. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, presence of older siblings, smoking, family history of allergic rhinitis, and education.
Compared with the GG genotype of IL13 SNP rs20541, the AA genotype, occurring in 7.1% of control subjects, was significantly positively related to the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 - 2.60). SNP rs1800925 was not associated with rhinoconjunctivitis. The haplotype comprising the rs1800925 C allele and the rs20541 A allele was significantly positively related to rhinoconjunctivitis. The multiplicative interactions between the two SNPs under study and smoking on the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis were not statistically significant. Based on the recessive model, however, the additive interaction between SNP rs1800925, but not rs20541, and smoking was significant.
This study suggests that the minor genotype of IL13 SNP rs20541 and the CA haplotype are significantly positively associated with the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis. In addition, a new pattern of biological interaction that affects the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis is described between SNP rs1800925 and smoking.
(See the editorial commentary by Wilkinson, on pages 525–7.)
Background. Tuberculosis has been associated with genetic variation in host immunity. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor/IL-1R signaling, are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis.
Methods. We used a case-population study design in Vietnam with cases that had either tuberculous meningitis or pulmonary tuberculosis. We genotyped 6 SNPs in the SIGIRR gene region (including the adjacent genes PKP3 and TMEM16J) in a discovery cohort of 352 patients with tuberculosis and 382 controls. Significant associations were genotyped in a validation cohort (339 patients with tuberculosis, 376 controls).
Results. Three SNPs (rs10902158, rs7105848, rs7111432) were associated with tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. The polymorphisms were associated with both tuberculous meningitis and pulmonary tuberculosis and were strongest with a recessive genetic model (odds ratios, 1.5–1.6; P = .0006–.001). Coinheritance of these polymorphisms with previously identified risk alleles in Toll-like receptor 2 and TIRAP was associated with an additive risk of tuberculosis susceptibility.
Conclusions. These results demonstrate a strong association of SNPs in the PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J gene region and tuberculosis in discovery and validation cohorts. To our knowledge, these are the first associations of polymorphisms in this region with any disease.
Background. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins, that represent a fundamental link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TLR4 and TLR9 in the normal nasal mucosa and in the mucosa of subjects with different phenotypes of rhinitis. Methodology. A confocal analysis of TLR4 and TLR9 (co)expression was carried out on biopsies from the inferior turbinate obtained from 4 patients affected by persistent allergic rhinitis, 8 patients with chronic rhino-sinusitis, and 6 patients with vasomotor rhinitis The results were compared with those of specimens obtained from 4 subjects undergoing nasal surgery, but with signs of nasal inflammation. Results. TLR4 and TLR9 were expressed in the healthy nasal mucosa; TLR4 and TLR9 expression was significantly decreased in allergic rhinitis. TLR4 was over expressed in the epithelium of chronic rhino-sinusitis. Both TLRs were co-expressed in the sub-epithelial infiltrate of chronic and vasomotor rhinitis, even though this expression was higher in the former compared with the latter. Conclusions. This study indicates that TLR4 and TLR9 show a different pattern of expression in different phenotypes of rhinitis, possibly related to the type and severity of the disease.
Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease of the upper airway mucosa that also affects leukocytes in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a receptor for unmethylated CpG dinucleotides found in bacterial and viral DNA. The present study was designed to examine the expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa and in leukocytes derived from different cellular compartments during symptomatic allergic rhinitis.
The study was based on 32 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and 18 healthy subjects, serving as controls. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and after allergen challenge. Bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid were sampled outside and during pollen season. The expression of TLR9 in tissues and cells was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively.
TLR9 was found in several cell types in the nasal mucosa and in different leukocyte subpopulations derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid. The leukocyte expression was generally higher in bone marrow than in peripheral blood, and not affected by symptomatic allergic rhinitis.
The widespread expression of TLR9 in the nasal mucosa along with its rich representation in leukocytes in different compartments, demonstrate the possibility for cells involved in allergic airway inflammation to directly interact with bacterial and viral DNA.
Susceptibility to tuberculosis is not only determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but also by the genetic component of the host. Macrophage receptor with a collagenous structure (MARCO) is essential components required for toll like receptor-signaling in macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which may contribute to tuberculosis risk.
To specifically investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MARCO gene are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in Chinese Han population. By selecting tagging SNPs in MARCO gene, 17 tag SNPs were identified and genotyped in 923 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 1033 healthy control subjects using a hospital based case-control association study. Single-point and haplotype analysis revealed an association in intron and exon region of MARCO gene. One SNP (rs17009726) was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, where the carriers of the G allele had a 1.65 fold (95% CI = 1.32–2.05, pcorrected = 9.27E–5) increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. Haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype GC containing G allele of 17009726 and haplotype TGCC (rs17795618T/A, rs1371562G/T, rs6761637T/C, rs2011839C/T) were also associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (pcorrected = 0.0001 and 0.029, respectively).
Our study suggested that genetic variants in MARCO gene were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in Chinese Han population, and the findings emphasize the importance of MARCO mediated immune responses in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
Genetic variation in two members of the Toll-like receptors family, TLR4 and the gene cluster TLR6-1-10, has been implicated in prostate cancer in several studies, but the associated alleles have not been consistent across reports.
We performed a pooled analysis combining genotype data from three case-control studies, CAPS, HPFS and PLCO, with data from 3,101 prostate cancer cases and 2,523 controls. We performed imputation to obtain dense coverage of the genes and comparable genotype data for all cohorts. In total, 58 SNPs in TLR4 and 96 SNPs in TLR6-1-10 were genotyped or imputed and analyzed in the entire dataset. We performed cohort-specific analysis as well as meta-analysis and pooled analysis. We also evaluated whether the analyses differed by age or disease severity.
We observed no overall association between genetic variation at the TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 loci and risk of prostate cancer.
Common germline genetic variation in TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 does not appear to have a strong association with risk of prostate cancer.
Association; TLR; polymorphism; imputation; meta-analysis
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates immune responses to exogenous and endogenous ligands, and interacts with heat-shock proteins, which are reportedly involved in normal tension glaucoma (NTG). We investigated whether TLR2 polymorphisms are associated with NTG.
200 Japanese patients with NTG and 128 healthy Japanese controls were recruited. We genotyped five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR2 gene and assessed the allele and haplotype diversities between cases and controls for all SNPs.
No significant differences in the frequency of TLR2 alleles and haplotypes in the NTG cases were detected, compared with the controls.
Our study showed no evidence for an association between TLR2 polymorphisms and NTG. TLR2 polymorphisms may not play an important role in NTG pathogenesis in the Japanese population.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the transuding subunit of lipopolysaccharide receptor and an important intracellular signal pathway of the innate immune response. Published data about the relationship between TLR4 mutations and atopy/asthma are not consistent. This study was performed to detect two commonly reported Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in TLR4 gene in Singaporean Chinese and their possible association with atopy-related phenotypes. A total of 117 unrelated Singapore residents were randomly selected for this study. Among them, atopy was evident in 66 subjects while 61 had allergic rhinitis. Twenty-one patients had concomitant asthma and 17 were atopic. In all subjects, neither the Asp299Gly nor Thr399Ile polymorphism was found by DNA sequencing. This discrepant result could be due to the ethnic variation of allelic distribution in TLR4 gene. Although it is still debatable whether there is any role of TLR4 polymorphisms on atopy-related phenotypes, one needs to develop an appropriate model to investigate the interactions between genetic variations and environmental factors that contribute to the complex traits in allergic diseases.
TLR4 polymorphisms; Singaporean Chinese; atopy
The ADAM33 gene has been identified as a potentially important asthma candidate gene and polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to be associated with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
To assess whether the ADAM33 polymorphisms are associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) due to house dust mites in a Chinese population.
In a hospital-based case-control study of 515 patients with mite-sensitized PER and 495 healthy controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM33. Serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were measured by the ImmunoCAP assays.
In the single-locus analysis, three polymorphisms, rs3918392 (F1), rs528557 (S2) and rs2787093, were significantly associated with mite-sensitized PER. SNP S2 was associated with significantly increased risk both of asthmatic and nonasthmatic mite-sensitized PER. In the combined genotypes analysis, individuals with 2–4 risk alleles had a significantly higher risk of mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.50–2.62) than those with 0–1 risk alleles. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that the ACAGCCT haplotype might have potential to protect against mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.49–0.90).
Polymorphisms in the ADAM33 gene may contribute to susceptibility of mite-sensitized PER in this Chinese population.
Recent studies showed that overwhelming inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor (TLR)-related pathway was important in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in four genes of the TLR signaling pathway were associated with sepsis-induced ALI susceptibility and risk of death in Chinese Han population.
Fourteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 were genotyped in samples of sepsis-induced ALI (n = 272) and sepsis alone patients (n = 276), and tested for association in this case-control collection. Then, we investigated correlation between the associated SNP and the mRNA expression level of the corresponding gene. And we also investigated correlation between the associated SNP and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) ex vivo. The mRNA expression level was determined using real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays, and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The association analysis revealed that rs4755453, an intronic SNP of TRAF6, was significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI. The C allele frequency of rs4755453 in the sepsis alone group was significantly higher than that in the sepsis-induced ALI group (P = 0.00026, odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.74). These associations remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. TRAF6 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from homozygotes of the rs4755453G allele were significantly higher than that in heterozygotes and homozygotes of the rs4755453C allele at baseline (P = 0.012 and P = 0.003, respectively) as well as after LPS stimulation (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005). Moreover, the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in the subjects with rs4755453GG genotype than in subjects with CG and CC genotype. None of the 14 tagSNPs showed associations with risk of death and severity among ALI cases.
Our findings indicated that common genetic variants in TRAF6 were significantly associated with susceptibility to sepsis-induced ALI in Chinese Han population. This was the first genetic evidence supporting a role for TRAF6 in ALI.
Acute lung injury; Genetic variation; TRAF6; TLR signaling pathway
Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen.
27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins.
mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season.
The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.
Asthma genetics has been extensively studied and many genes have been associated with the development or severity of this disease. In contrast, the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis (AR) has not been evaluated as extensively. It is well known that asthma is closely related with AR since a large proportion of individuals with asthma also present symptoms of AR, and patients with AR have a 5–6 fold increased risk of developing asthma. Thus, the relevance of asthma candidate genes as predisposing factors for AR is worth investigating. The present study was designed to investigate if SNPs in highly replicated asthma genes are associated with the occurrence of AR.
A total of 192 SNPs from 21 asthma candidate genes reported to be associated with asthma in 6 or more unrelated studies were genotyped in a Swedish population with 246 AR patients and 431 controls. Genotypes for 429 SNPs from the same set of genes were also extracted from a Singapore Chinese genome-wide dataset which consisted of 456 AR cases and 486 controls. All SNPs were subsequently analyzed for association with AR and their influence on allergic sensitization to common allergens.
A limited number of potential associations were observed and the overall pattern of P-values corresponds well to the expectations in the absence of an effect. However, in the tests of allele effects in the Chinese population the number of significant P-values exceeds the expectations. The strongest signals were found for SNPs in NPSR1 and CTLA4. In these genes, a total of nine SNPs showed P-values <0.001 with corresponding Q-values <0.05. In the NPSR1 gene some P-values were lower than the Bonferroni correction level. Reanalysis after elimination of all patients with asthmatic symptoms excluded asthma as a confounding factor in our results. Weaker indications were found for IL13 and GSTP1 with respect to sensitization to birch pollen in the Swedish population.
Genetic variation in the majority of the highly replicated asthma genes were not associated to AR in our populations which suggest that asthma and AR could have less in common than previously anticipated. However, NPSR1 and CTLA4 can be genetic links between AR and asthma and associations of polymorphisms in NPSR1 with AR have not been reported previously.
Allergic rhinitis; Association; Asthma; Case–control; Replication
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are mediators of inflammation in the gut and potentially important modulators of colon and rectal cancer risk.
We use data from a population-based study of incident colon cancer cases (n=1,555) and controls (n=1,956) and rectal cancer cases (n=754) and controls (n=959). We evaluate genetic variation in TLR2 (6 SNPs), TLR3 (4 SNPs), and TLR4 (8 SNPs) with risk of developing colon or rectal cancer and survival after diagnosis.
TLR3 rs11721827 was associated with rectal cancer (OR 1.27 95% CI 1.02,1.58 for AC/CC vs AA genotype Wald p 0.035; adjusted p 0.126); TLR3 rs3775292 and TLR4 rs11536898 were associated with colon cancer (OR 0.68 95% CI 0.49,0.95 for GG vs CC/CG and OR 0.50 95% CI 0.29,0.87 for AA vs. CA/CC respectively; Wald p=0.023 and 0.015; adjusted p=0.085 and 0.101 respectively). TLR2 rs7656411 and rs3804099 respectively interacted with NSAID use and cigarette smoking to alter risk of colon cancer (adjusted p=0.034 and 0.077); TLR3 rs11721827 interacted with NSAID use to alter risk of colon cancer (adjusted p=0.071). TLR3 rs3775292 interacted with dietary carbohydrates to alter colon cancer risk and with dietary carbohydrates and saturated fat to alter rectal cancer risk (adjusted p=0.064, 0.0035, and 0.025 respectively). Multiple SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 were associated with colon cancer survival. Although few independent associations with TLR genes were observed, we observed significant interaction with TLR2 and TLR3 with hypothesized lifestyle factors. Interaction with dietary factors remained significant for rectal cancer after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; Toll-like receptors (TLR); NSAID; cigarette smoking; diet; survival
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the immune response to fungal pathogens. We examined the role of TLR polymorphisms in conferring a risk of invasive aspergillosis among recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplants.
We analyzed 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2), the toll-like receptor 3 gene (TLR3), the toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4), and the toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9) in a cohort of 336 recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants and their unrelated donors. The risk of invasive aspergillosis was assessed with the use of multivariate Cox regression analysis. The analysis was replicated in a validation study involving 103 case patients and 263 matched controls who received hematopoietic-cell transplants from related and unrelated donors.
In the discovery study, two donor TLR4 haplotypes (S3 and S4) increased the risk of invasive aspergillosis (adjusted hazard ratio for S3, 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 4.25; P = 0.02; adjusted hazard ratio for S4, 6.16; 95% CI, 1.97 to 19.26; P = 0.002). The haplotype S4 was present in carriers of two SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (1063 A/G [D299G] and 1363 C/T [T399I]) that influence TLR4 function. In the validation study, donor haplotype S4 also increased the risk of invasive aspergillosis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.15 to 5.41; P = 0.02); the association was present in unrelated recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.04 to 24.01; P = 0.04) but not in related recipients (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.93 to 5.68; P = 0.07). In the discovery study, seropositivity for cytomegalovirus (CMV) in donors or recipients, donor positivity for S4, or both, as compared with negative results for CMV and S4, were associated with an increase in the 3-year probability of invasive aspergillosis (12% vs. 1%, P = 0.02) and death that was not related to relapse (35% vs. 22%, P = 0.02).
This study suggests an association between the donor TLR4 haplotype S4 and the risk of invasive aspergillosis among recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants from unrelated donors.
In this review we focus on sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), toll like receptor-9 (TLR-9) vaccines, and anti-IL-5 as novel immunomodulating therapies in allergy. SLIT provides a novel oral route of administering an allergen to induce tolerance to inhaled allergens. Studies of SLIT in allergic rhinitis demonstrate that it reduces symptoms and medication use and is associated with a low incidence of systemic allergic reactions. Initial phase II studies with TLR-9 vaccines conjugated to a ragweed allergen demonstrate that they reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the ragweed season. Anti-IL-5 is effective as a corticosteroid sparing agent in the hypereosinophilic syndrome. In contrast, anti-IL-5 has not shown benefit in moderate asthmatics with persistent symptoms, but may reduce features of airway remodeling in asthma. At present all these immunomodulating approaches (SLIT, TLR-9 vaccines, and anti-IL-5) are investigational in the USA and require further study to determine their safety and effectiveness.
sublingual immunotherapy; subcutaneous immunotherapy; anti-IL-5; TLR-9; tolerance
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) has a strong genetic component. Specific gene polymorphisms may be associated with OPLL in several genes which regulate calcification in chondrocytes, change of extracellular collagen matrix and secretions of many growth factors and cytokines controlling bone morphogenesis. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) may play a role in the pathogenesis of OPLL by intermediate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). The current study focused on coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR5 for a case-control study investigating the relationship between TLR5 and OPLL in a Korean population.
A total of 166 patients with OPLL and 231 controls were recruited for a case-control association study investigating the relationship between SNPs of TLR5 gene and OPLL. Four SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing (rs5744168, rs5744169, rs2072493, and rs5744174). SNP data were analyzed using the SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, Haploview, and Helixtree programs. Multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender was performed to calculate an odds ratio (OR).
None of SNPs were associated with OPLL in three alternative models (codominant, dominant, and recessive models; p > 0.05). A strong linkage disequilibrium block, including all 4 SNPs, was constructed using the Gabriel method. No haplotype was significantly associated with OPLL in three alternative models.
These results suggest that Toll-like receptor 5 gene may not be associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament risk in Korean population.
OPLL; TLR5 gene; Polymorphisms; Genetic association study
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may influence the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) given their important roles in recognizing microbial pathogens and stimulating multiple immune pathways. We conducted an investigation of TLR gene variants in a pooled analysis including three population-based case–control studies of NHL (1946 cases and 1808 controls). Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped. Two TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 variants in moderate linkage disequilibrium were significantly associated with NHL: rs10008492 [odds ratio for CT genotype (ORCT) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.30; ORTT 1.40, 95% CI 1.15–1.71; Ptrend = 0.001] and rs4833103 (ORAC 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.88; ORAA 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.90; Ptrend = 0.002; Pdominant = 0.0002). Associations with these SNPs were consistent across all the three studies and did not appreciably differ by histologic subtype. We found little evidence of association between TLR2 variation and all NHL, although the rare variant rs3804100 was significantly associated with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), both overall (ORCT/CC 1.89, 95% CI 1.27–2.81; Pdominant = 0.002) and in two of the three studies. No associations with TLR4 variants were observed. This pooled analysis provides strong evidence that variation in the TLR10–TLR1–TLR6 region is associated with NHL risk and suggests that TLR2 variants may influence susceptibility to MZL.
The development of allergic rhinitis is considered to be caused by the complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-13/4/4RA pathway have previously been shown to be associated with atopic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between IL-13 R130Q, IL-4 T589C, IL4 receptor alpha (IL-4RA) I50V, or IL-4RA Q576R polymorphisms and risk of allergic rhinitis in a hospital-based Malaysian population. A case-control pilot study was undertaken and genotyping of these polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism on 54 allergic rhinitis patients and 45 healthy individuals. Polymorphism of IL-13 R130Q showed significant difference in genotype (p = 0.048) and allele (p = 0.002) frequencies in allergic rhinitis when compared with healthy controls. Individuals who were GA heterozygotes (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 3.567; 95% CI, 1.211–10.509), and carriers of A allele genotype (ORadj = 3.686; 95% CI, 1.300–10.451) and A allele (ORadj = 3.071; 95% CI, 1.514–6.232) had an elevated risk of developing allergic rhinitis. The genotype and allele frequencies of IL-4 T589C, IL-4RA I50V, and IL-4RA Q576R polymorphisms were not significantly different between the allergic rhinitis patients and normal healthy individuals and did not show an associated risk with allergic rhinitis. Our findings indicate that polymorphic variant of IL-13 R130Q appears to be associated with increased risk for development of allergic rhinitis in a hospital-based Malaysian population but not IL-4 T589C, IL-4RA I50V, and IL-4RA Q576 polymorphisms. Additional studies using larger sample size are required to confirm our findings and its exact role in allergic rhinitis.
Allele; allergy; RFLP; genotyping; IL-13; IL-4; IL-4RA; PCR; polymorphism; rhinitis