Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide, and outcomes for patients with advanced bladder cancer remain poor. Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a potent glycopeptide inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation that was discovered in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a disorder with bladder epithelial thinning and ulceration. APF mediates its antiproliferative activity in primary normal bladder epithelial cells via cytoskeletal associated protein 4 (CKAP4). Because synthetic asialo-APF (as-APF) has also been shown to inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, and because the peptide segment of APF is 100% homologous to part of frizzled 8, we determined whether CKAP4 mediates as-APF inhibition of proliferation and/or downstream Wnt/frizzled signaling events in T24 cells.
T24 cells were transfected with double-stranded siRNAs against CKAP4 and treated with synthetic as-APF or inactive control peptide; cells that did not undergo electroporation and cells transfected with non-target (scrambled) double-stranded siRNA served as negative controls. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Expression of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), β-catenin, p53, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Akt, GSK-3β, MMP2, β-catenin, and p53 protein expression, plus Akt, GSK-3β, and β-catenin phosphorylation, were determined by Western blot.
T24 cell proliferation, MMP2 expression, Akt ser473 and thr308 phosphorylation, GSK3β tyr216 phosphorylation, and β-catenin ser45/thr41 phosphorylation were all decreased by APF, whereas p53 expression, and β-catenin ser33,37/thr41 phosphorylation, were increased by APF treatment in non-electroporated and non-target siRNA-transfected cells. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression of Akt, GSK3β, or β-catenin changed in response to APF in these cells. In addition, the changes in cell proliferation, MMP2/p53 mRNA and protein expression, and Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin phosphorylation in response to APF treatment were all specifically abrogated following CKAP4 siRNA knockdown.
Synthetic as-APF inhibits cell proliferation in T24 bladder carcinoma cells via the CKAP4 receptor. The mechanism for this inhibition involves regulating phosphorylation of specific cell signaling molecules (Akt, GSK3β, and β-catenin) plus mRNA and protein expression of p53 and MMP2.
Frizzled 8-associated Antiproliferative Factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide urinary biomarker of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic condition of unknown etiology with variable symptoms that generally include pelvic and/or perineal pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. We previously reported that native human APF suppresses the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial cells through a mechanism that involves increased levels of p53. The goal of this study was to delineate the regulatory mechanism whereby p53 expression is regulated by APF. Two APF-responsive cell lines (T24 bladder carcinoma cells and the immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line, TRT-HU1) were treated with asialo-APF (as-APF), a chemically synthesized form of APF. Biochemical analysis revealed that as-APF increased p53 levels in two ways: by decreasing ubiquitin specific protease 2a (USP2a) expression leading to enhanced ubiquitination of murine double minute 2 E3 ubiquitin ligase (MDM2), and by suppressing association of p53 with MDM2, thus impairing p53 ubiquitination. Biological responses to as-APF were suppressed by increased expression of wild type, but not mutant USP2a, which enhanced cell growth via upregulation of a cell cycle mediator, cyclin D1, at both transcription and protein levels. Consistent with this, gene silencing of USP2a with siRNA arrested cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that APF upregulates cellular p53 levels via functional attenuation of the USP2a-MDM2 pathway, resulting in p53 accumulation and growth arrest. These data also imply that targeting USP2a, MDM2, p53 and/or complex formation by these molecules may be relevant in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to IC/PBS.
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CNN2) is a novel APF target gene. A novel mechanism is described by which the APF cellular receptor, cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4), mediates APF-induced CTGF transcription.
Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide elevated in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC)—a chronic, painful bladder disease of unknown etiology. APF inhibits the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial and T24 bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by binding to cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) and altering the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, cellular adhesion, and tumorigenesis; however, specific molecular mechanisms and effector genes that control APF's antiproliferative effects are unknown. In this study, we found that there was a 7.5-fold up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells treated with APF. Western blot revealed a dose-dependent increase in CCN2 protein levels, with secretion into the culture medium after APF treatment. CCN2 overexpression enhanced APF's antiproliferative activity, whereas CCN2 knockdown diminished APF-induced p53 expression. Using a luciferase reporter construct, we found that APF treatment resulted in fivefold activation of the CCN2 proximal promoter and, of importance, that small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CKAP4 inhibited CCN2 upregulation. In addition, we demonstrate that CKAP4 translocates to the nucleus and binds to the CCN2 proximal promoter in an APF-dependent manner, providing evidence that CCN2 regulation by APF involves CKAP4 nuclear translocation and binding to the CCN2 promoter.
A unique glycopeptide, antiproliferative factor (APF), has been suggested as a urinary biomarker and potential mediator of long-term bladder disorder Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. There is no known cause for this disease. Several mechanistic approaches have been employed to address the underlying mechanism whereby APF regulates cellular responses in the bladder epithelium. A summary of recent literature is provided, and is focused on signal transduction pathways and networks that are responsive to APF.
Human antiproliferative factor APF; Interstitial Cystitis; Signal transduction
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder of unknown etiology. Antiproliferative factor (APF), a peptide found in the urine of IC patients, has previously been shown to decrease incorporation of thymidine by normal bladder epithelial cells. This study was performed to determine the effect of APF on the cell cycle of bladder epithelial cells so as to better understand its antiproliferative activity.
Explant cultures from normal bladder biopsy specimens were exposed to APF or mock control. DNA cytometry was performed using an automated image analysis system. Cell cycle phase fractions were calculated from the DNA frequency distributions and compared by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
APF exposure produced statistically significant increases in the proportion of tetraploid and hypertetraploid cells compared to mock control preparations, suggesting a G2 and/or M phase cell cycle block and the production of polyploidy.
APF has a specific effect on cell cycle distributions. The presence of a peptide with this activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis through disruption of normal urothelial proliferation and repair processes.
Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide elevated in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis, a urinary bladder disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by chronic pelvic pain. The present study was directed toward uncovering a pathway through which APF signals. Treatment of human urothelial cells with native APF resulted in growth inhibition accompanied by blockade of cell cycle transit and increased p53. Reduced expression of p53 by RNA interference diminished, while ectopic expression of p53 mimicked, the effects of APF. These are the first findings implicating the network of p53 target genes in urothelial defects associated with interstitial cystitis.
Antiproliferative factor; Interstitial cystitis; Human urothelial cell; p53; p21Cip1/Waf1
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder, with symptoms including pelvic and or perineal pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. The etiology of IC is unknown, but sensitive and specific biomarkers have been described, including antiproliferative factor (APF), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). However, the relative sensitivity of these biomarkers in ulcerative vs. nonulcerative IC is unknown, and these markers have yet to be validated in another laboratory. We therefore measured these markers in urine from patients with or without Hunner's ulcer, as well as normal controls, patients with bladder cancer, and patients with bacterial cystitis, at the First Hospital of China Medical University.
Urine specimens were collected from two groups of Chinese IC patients (38 IC patients with Hunner's ulcers, 26 IC patients without Hunner's ulcers), 30 normal controls, 10 bacterial cystitis patients and 10 bladder cancer patients. APF activity was determined by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation in vitro, and HB-EGF and EGF levels were determined by ELISA.
APF activity (inhibition of thymidine incorporation) was significantly greater in all IC patient urine specimens than in normal control specimens or in specimens from patients with bacterial cystitis or bladder cancer (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Urine HB-EGF levels were also significantly lower and EGF levels significantly higher in both groups of IC patients than in the three control groups (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Although APF and HB-EGF levels were similar in ulcerative and nonulcerative IC patients, EGF levels were significantly higher in IC patients with vs. without ulcers (p < 0.004).
These findings indicate that APF, HB-EGF and EGF are good biomarkers for both ulcerative and nonulcerative IC and validate their measurement as biomarkers for IC in Chinese patients.
New animal models are greatly needed in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) research. We recently developed a novel transgenic cystitis model (URO-OVA mice) that mimics certain key aspects of IC/PBS pathophysiology. This paper aimed to determine whether URO-OVA cystitis model was responsive to intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and if so identify the mechanisms of DMSO action. URO-OVA mice developed acute cystitis upon adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-I splenocytes. Compared to PBS-treated bladders, the bladders treated with 50% DMSO exhibited markedly reduced bladder histopathology and expression of various inflammatory factor mRNAs. Intravesical DMSO treatment also effectively inhibited bladder inflammation in a spontaneous chronic cystitis model (URO-OVA/OT-I mice). Studies further revealed that DMSO could impair effector T cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that intravesical DMSO improves the bladder histopathology of IC/PBS patients because of its ability to interfere with multiple inflammatory and bladder cell types.
Previously, we identified cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) as a major substrate of the palmitoyl acyltransferase, DHHC2, using a novel proteomic method called palmitoyl-cysteine identification, capture and analysis (PICA). CKAP4 is a reversibly palmitoylated and phosphorylated protein that links the ER to the cytoskeleton. It is also a high-affinity receptor for antiproliferative factor (APF), a small sialoglycopeptide secreted from bladder epithelial cells of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). The role of DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in the antiproliferative response of HeLa and normal bladder epithelial cells to APF was investigated. Our data show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 and consequent suppression of CKAP4 palmitoylation inhibited the ability of APF to regulate cellular proliferation and blocked APF-induced changes in the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and ZO-1 (genes known to play a role in cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis). Immunocytochemistry revealed that CKAP4 palmitoylation by DHHC2 is required for its trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane and for its nuclear localization. These data suggest an important role for DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in IC and in opposing cancer-related cellular behaviors and support the idea that DHHC2 is a tumor suppressor.
Cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) is a reversibly palmitoylated and phosphorylated transmembrane protein that functions as a high-affinity receptor for antiproliferative factor (APF)—a sialoglycopeptide secreted from bladder epithelial cells of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). Palmitoylation of CKAP4 by the palmitoyl acyltransferase, DHHC2, is required for its cell surface localization and subsequent APF signal transduction; however, the mechanism for APF signal transduction by CKAP4 is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that APF treatment induces serine phosphorylation of residues S3, S17, and S19 of CKAP4 and nuclear translocation of CKAP4. Additionally, we demonstrate that CKAP4 binds gDNA in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in response to APF treatment, and that a phosphomimicking, constitutively nonpalmitoylated form of CKAP4 localizes to the nucleus, binds DNA, and mimics the inhibitory effects of APF on cellular proliferation. These results reveal a novel role for CKAP4 as a downstream effecter for APF signal transduction.
Studies of the urothelium, the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, are critical for understanding diseases affecting the lower urinary tract, including interstitial cystitis, urinary tract infections and cancer. However, our understanding of urothelial pathophysiology has been hampered by a lack of appropriate model systems. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a non-transformed urothelial cell line (TRT-HU1), originally explanted from normal tissue and immortalized with hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. We demonstrate responsiveness of the cells to anti-proliferative factor (APF), a glycopeptide implicated in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. TRT-HU1 carries a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 9, an early genetic lesion in development of bladder cancer. TRT-HU1 urothelial cells displayed growth and migration characteristics similar to the low-grade papilloma cell line RT4. In contrast, we observed marked differences in both phenotype and gene expression profiles between TRT-HU1 and the highly malignant T24 cell line. Together, these findings provide the first demonstration of a non-transformed, continuous urothelial cell line that responds to APF. This cell line will be valuable for studies of both benign and malignant urothelial cell biology.
TRT-HU1; Bladder; Urothelium; APF
Bladder pain syndrome is a chronic disease that manifests as bladder pain, frequency, nocturia, and urgency. Gabapentin, amitriptyline, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are efficacious treatments for bladder pain syndrome. Here, we assessed the effect of triple therapy with these drugs in women with bladder pain syndrome.
Between May 2007 and May 2010, we conducted a prospective nonrandomized study on 74 patients with bladder pain syndrome. Of these patients, 38 (11 men and 27 women; mean age, 55.9 years; range, 25 to 77 years; mean follow-up, 12.6 months) were administered the interstitial cystitis (IC) symptom scales (O'Leary-Sant Symptom Index) and visual analog scale (VAS) 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment to assess the efficacy of triple therapy.
The pretreatment O'Leary-Sant IC symptom score was 11.7, and the post-treatment scores were 4.4, 3.8, and 4.0 at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively; the pretreatment problem index score was 10.5, and the post-treatment scores were 3.7, 2.7, and 2.9 at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The pretreatment VAS score was 6.7, and the post-treatment scores were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.7 at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The O'Leary-Sant IC symptom index and problem index and VAS scores improved considerably 1 month after treatment (P<0.05). However, the results at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment were not significantly different (P>0.05).
Triple therapy was sufficiently effective in patients with bladder pain syndrome and caused no significant adverse effects. However, large-scale studies should be performed to verify our findings.
Bladder pain syndrome; Interstitial cystitis; Visual analog scale
Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome (PBS) is a painful debilitating chronic visceral pain disorder of unknown etiology that affects an estimated 1 million people in the, United States alone. It is characterized by inflammation of the bladder that results in chronic pelvic pain associated with bladder symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency. Regardless of the etiology, IC/PBS involves either increased and/or abnormal activity in afferent nociceptive sensory neurons. Pain-related symptoms in patients with IC/PBS are often very difficult to treat. Both medical and surgical therapies have had limited clinical utility in this debilitating disease and numerous drug treatments, such as heparin, dimethylsulfoxide and amitriptyline, have proven to be palliative at best, and in some IC/PBS patients provide no relief whatsoever. Although opiate narcotics have been employed to help alleviate IC/PBS pain, this strategy is fraught with problems as systemic narcotic administration causes multiple unwanted side effects including mental status change and constipation. Moreover, chronic systemic narcotic use leads to dependency and need for dose escalation due to tolerance: therefore, new therapies are desperately needed to treat refractory IC/PBS. This has led our group to develop a gene therapy strategy that could potentially alleviate chronic pelvic pain using the herpes simplex virus-directed delivery of analgesic proteins to the bladder.
interstitial cystitis; painful bladder syndrome; visceral pain; dorsal root ganglia; herpes simplex virus
No standard case definition exists for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome for patient screening or epidemiological studies. As part of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study, we developed a case definition for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with known sensitivity and specificity. We compared this definition with others used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epidemiological studies.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the literature and performed a structured, expert panel process to arrive at an interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definition. We developed a questionnaire to assess interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome symptoms using this case definition and others used in the literature. We administered the questionnaire to 599 women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, overactive bladder, endometriosis or vulvodynia. The sensitivity and specificity of each definition was calculated using physician assigned diagnoses as the reference standard.
No single epidemiological definition had high sensitivity and high specificity. Thus, 2 definitions were developed. One had high sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (54%), and the other had the converse (48% sensitivity and 83% specificity). These values were comparable or superior to those of other epidemiological definitions used in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome prevalence studies.
No single case definition of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome provides high sensitivity and high specificity to identify the condition. For prevalence studies of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome the best approach may be to use 2 definitions that would yield a prevalence range. The RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome case definitions, developed through structured consensus and validation, can be used for this purpose.
urinary bladder; cystitis, interstitial; pain; epidemiology; diagnosis
We performed comprehensive structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies on the peptide portion of antiproliferative factor (APF), a sialylated frizzled-8 related glycopeptide that inhibits normal bladder epithelial and urothelial carcinoma cell proliferation. Glycopeptide derivatives were synthesized by solid-phase methods using standard Fmoc chemistry and purified by RP-HPLC; all intermediate and final products were verified by HPLC-MS and NMR analyses. Antiproliferative activity of each derivative was determined by inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation in primary normal human bladder epithelial cells. Structural components of the peptide segment of APF that proved to be important for biological activity included the presence of at least eight of the nine N-terminal amino acids, a negative charge in the C-terminal amino acid, a free amino group at the N-terminus, maintenance of a specific amino acid sequence in the C-terminal tail, and trans conformation for the peptide bonds. These data provide critical guidelines for optimization of structure in design of APF analogues as potential therapeutic agents.
doi:10.1021/jm8002763 CCC: $40.75
Interstitial cystitis (painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis; PBS/IC) is a persistent pain syndrome affecting the urinary bladder with symptoms including urinary frequency, bladder pain and nocturia.(1–6) Various animal models have been studied, most of which mimic some aspect of the human condition of interest to the investigator(s). This review will provide examples of various animal models including those incorporating chronic stress, thought to produce features that share similarities to that of PBS/IC patients, whose symptoms are often exacerbated by various stressors. (7–12)
This review also provides evidence that patients with PBS/IC exhibit abnormalities within the bladder epithelium (or urothelium), even though a consistent relationship of such changes with symptom severity has not been demonstrated. These changes include alterations in urothelial integrity, differentiation and/or proliferation as well as changes in ‘sensory’ function (altered expression or sensitivity of receptors and ion channels).
Establishing a diagnostic ‘indicator’ with a high degree of correlation in this syndrome would be of value in terms of disease status, diagnosis and treatment. There have been reports of a number of factors/mediators altered in PBS/IC. However, the lack of a validated biomarker and a well-defined etiology for this syndrome introduces a number of complications, including diagnostic confidence, choice of appropriate animal models to study basic mechanism with the goal toward treatment, and rational therapies.
It is also becoming increasingly apparent that patients with PBS/IC often overlap or share symptoms commonly associated with other persistent pain disorders. These include (but are not limited to) irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-cardiac chest pain, fibromyalgia and even overactive bladder syndrome (OAB).(13–18) Such types of changes are not limited to the urinary bladder, however, as reports of alterations in epithelial signaling/barrier function have been described in patients diagnosed with a wider variety of syndromes, including functional and inflammatory bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastrointestinal esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma.(19–21) These and other findings suggest that changes within the epithelium (barrier as well as signaling functions) may be a common occurrence that may contribute to peripheral mechanisms of hypersensitivity in a number of disorders.
bladder urothelium; esophageal epithelium; sensor function; hypersensitivity
To determine whether antiproliferative factor (APF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can induce changes in purinergic signaling in normal bladder urothelial cells (BUC) and/or whether antagonizing EGF activity or blocking ATP-purinergic receptors can induce changes in purinergic signaling in interstitial cystitis (IC) cells.
IC and normal BUC were obtained from patients’ bladder biopsies. IC BUC were treated with genistein, which antagonizes EGF’s activity, while normal BUC were treated with EGF, mock APF, or APF. Suramin, which antagonizes ATP activity, was used to treat APF-treated normal BUC. ATP release was determined by stimulating BUC with 30μM ATP and then collecting supernatant over a 3-hour period. ATP quantification was measured by luciferin-luciferase assay. P2X3 expression on BUC was determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).
Genistein treatment of IC BUC resulted in significantly decreased ATP release, thus reverting IC cells to a normal purinergic signaling phenotype. Conversely, normal BUC treated with EGF or APF resulted in significantly increased ATP release and P2X3 expression, converting normal BUC to an IC phenotype. Suramin treatment of APF-treated normal BUC significantly reduced ATP release.
Genistein and suramin reversed the augmented ATP release in IC BUC and APF-treated normal BUC respectively, suggesting the possibility of intravesical use of these agents in IC treatment. EGF and APF induced augmented purinergic signaling in normal BUC as determined by increased ATP release and increased P2X3 expression. These data suggest an association between cytokines and purinergic signaling in human BUC that should be explored further.
anti-proliferative factor (APF); adenosine triphosphate (ATP); Bladder urothelial cells (BUC); epidermal growth factor (EGF); heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF); interstitial cystitis (IC)
Recent efforts in the generation of large genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other types of 'omics' data sets have provided an unprecedentedly detailed view of certain diseases, however to date most of this literature has been focused on malignancy and other lethal pathological conditions. Very little intensive work on global profiles has been performed to understand the molecular mechanism of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS/BPS), a chronic lower urinary tract disorder characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, which can lead to long lasting adverse effects on quality of life. A lack of understanding of molecular mechanism has been a challenge and dilemma for diagnosis and treatment, and has also led to a delay in basic and translational research focused on biomarker and drug discovery, clinical therapy, and preventive strategies against IC/PBS/BPS. This review describes the current state of 'omics' studies and available data sets relevant to IC/PBS/BPS, and presents opportunities for new research directed at understanding the pathogenesis of this complex condition.
Interstitial cystitis; Omics; Medical informatics; Physiopathology
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder with a strong autoimmune component. Currently, the major challenge in IC treatment is the development of effective therapies. RDP58 is a novel D-amino acid decapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity. In this study, we investigated whether RDP58 was effective as an intravesical agent for treating bladder autoimmune inflammation in a transgenic mouse model (URO-OVA mice). URO-OVA mice were adoptively transferred with syngeneic activated splenocytes of OT-I mice transgenic for the OVA-specific CD8+ TCR for cystitis induction and treated intravesically with RDP58 at days 0 and 3. Compared with controls, the RDP58-treated bladders showed markedly reduced histopathology and expressions of mRNAs and proteins of TNF-α, NGF and substance P. To determine whether the inhibition of bladder inflammation by RDP58 was due to the interference with effector T cells, we treated the cells with RDP58 in vitro. Cells treated with RDP58 showed reduced production of TNF-α and IFN-γ as well as apoptotic death. Collectively, these results indicate that RDP58 is effective on treating T cell-mediated experimental autoimmune cystitis and may serve as a useful intravesical agent for the treatment of autoimmune-associated bladder inflammation such as IC.
Autoimmunity; Cystitis; Inflammation; RDP58; Urinary Bladder
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a major challenge to treat. We studied the effect of targeted and localized expression of enkephalin in afferent nerves that innervate the bladder by gene transfer using replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors in a rat model of bladder hyperactivity and pain. Replication-deficient HSV vectors encoding preproenkephalin, which is a precursor for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, or control vector encoding the lacZ reporter gene, were injected into the bladder wall of female rats. After viral vector injection, quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed high preproenkephalin transgene levels in bladder and dorsal root ganglia innervating the bladder in enkephalin vector-treated animals. Functionally, enkephalin vector-treated animals showed reductions in bladder hyperactivity and nociceptive behavior induced by intravesical application of capsaicin; however, vector-mediated expression of enkephalin did not alter normal voiding. This antinociceptive effect of enkephalin gene therapy was antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride administration. Together, our results with HSV vectors encoding preproenkephalin demonstrated physiological improvement in visceral pain induced by bladder irritation. Thus, gene therapy may represent a potentially useful treatment modality for bladder hypersensitive disorders such as IC/PBS.
Sexual dysfunction can contribute to reduced quality of life among women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). We examined prevalence and correlates of general and BPS/IC-specific sexual dysfunction among women in the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology Study (RICE) based on a probability sample survey of U.S. households.
We telephoned 146,231 households to identify women who reported bladder symptoms or a BPS/IC diagnosis. Those who reported either were subject to a second-stage screening using RICE high-specificity symptom criteria (pain, pressure, or discomfort in pelvic area; daytime urinary frequency 10+ times or urgency due to pain, pressure, or discomfort (not fear of wetting); pain worsens as the bladder fills; bladder symptoms did not resolve after antibiotic treatment; and never treated with hormone injections for endometriosis). Women who met RICE criteria (n = 1,469) completed measures of BPS/IC-specific and general sexual dysfunction symptoms, bladder symptom severity, general physical health, depression, medical care-seeking, and socio-demographic characteristics.
Of those with a current sexual partner (75%), 88% reported ≥1 general sexual dysfunction symptom and 90% reported ≥1 BPS/IC-specific sexual dysfunction symptom in the past 4 weeks. In multivariate models, BPS/IC-specific sexual dysfunction was significantly associated with more severe BPS/IC symptoms, younger age, worse depression symptoms, and worse perceived general health. Multivariate correlates of general sexual dysfunction included non-Latino race/ethnicity, being married, and having depression symptoms.
Women with BPS/IC symptoms experience very high levels of sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction covaries with symptoms.
Painful Bladder Syndrome; Interstitial Cystitis; sexual dysfunction; women
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin, and IC/PBS symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. Similar to IC/PBS patients, pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in mice induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with bladder lamina propria mast cell accumulation and pelvic pain. We evaluated several drugs to determine the effectiveness of reducing PRV-induced pelvic pain.
Neurogenic cystitis was induced by the injection of Bartha's strain of PRV into the abductor caudalis dorsalis tail base muscle of female C57BL/6 mice. Therapeutic modulation of pelvic pain was assessed daily for five days using von Frey filament stimulation to the pelvic region to quantify tactile allodynia.
Significant reduction of PRV-induced pelvic pain was observed for animals treated with antagonists of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R) and histamine receptors. In contrast, the H1R antagonist hydroxyzine, proton pump inhibitors, a histamine receptor 3 agonist, and gabapentin had little or no effect on PRV-induced pelvic pain.
These data demonstrate that bladder-associated pelvic pain is attenuated by antagonists of NK1R and H2R. Therefore, NK1R and H2Rrepresent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC/PBS and potentially other chronic pain conditions.
Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC.
Methods and Findings
Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV) induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology.
These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.
Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder
function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder
pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs
in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a
diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or
subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be
responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of
inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis.
Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy
to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who
develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which
is usually reserved for refractory cases.
bladder; inflammation; interstitial cystitis; management; painful bladder syndrome
The urothelium, or epithelial lining of the lower urinary tract (LUT), is likely to play an important role in bladder function by actively communicating with bladder nerves, smooth muscle, and cells of the immune and inflammatory systems. Recent evidence supports the importance of non-neuronal cells that may extend to both the peripheral and central processes of the neurons that transmit normal and nociceptive signals from the urinary bladder. Using cats diagnosed with a naturally occurring syndrome termed feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), we investigated whether changes in physiologic parameters occur within 3 cell types associated with sensory transduction in the urinary bladder: 1) the urothelium, 2) identified bladder dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and 3) grey matter astrocytes in the lumbosacral (S1) spinal cord. As estrogen fluctuations may modulate the severity of many chronic pelvic pain syndromes, we also examined whether 17β-estradiol (E2) alters cell signaling in rat urothelial cells.
We have identified an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) and substance P (SP) in urothelium from FIC cats over that seen in urothelium from unaffected (control) bladders. The elevated NGF expression by FIC urothelium is a possible cause for the increased cell body size of DRG neurons from cats with FIC, reported in this study. At the level of the spinal cord, astrocytic GFAP immuno-intensity was significantly elevated and there was evidence for co-expression of the primitive intermediate filament, nestin (both indicative of a reactive state) in regions of the FIC S1 cord (superficial and deep dorsal horn, central canal and laminae V-VIl) that receive input from pelvic afferents. Finally, we find that E2 triggers an estrus-modifiable activation of p38 MAPK in rat urothelial cells. There were cyclic variations with E2-mediated elevation of p38 MAPK at both diestrus and estrus, and inhibition of p38 MAPK in proestrous urothelial cells.
Though urothelial cells are often viewed as bystanders in the processing of visceral sensation, these and other findings support the view that these cells function as primary transducers of some physical and chemical stimuli. In addition, the pronounced activation of spinal cord astrocytes in an animal model for bladder pain syndrome (BPS) may play an important role in the pain syndrome and open up new potential approaches for drug intervention.
bladder epithelium; nerve growth hormone; sensor function; spinal cord astrocytes