To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI); 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire.
Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day) for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index.
Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
liraglutide; glucagon-like peptide-1; obesity; eating behavior
The authors discuss the strategy of use of incretin hormones in type 2 diabetes treatment in the context of cardiovascular complications. The results of the phase III study on human GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide-1) analogue-liraglutide have been presented under common acronym LEAD (Liraglutide-Effect and Action In Diabetes). The liraglutide therapy improved glycemic control with low hypoglycemia risk and decreased glycated hemoglobin by an average 1,13%. Decreases in systolic pressure and significant body weight loss were observed. Not only did the index describing beta cells function HOMA-B improve but also did the ratio of insulin to proinsulin. Summing up, incretin hormones beneficially influence blood glucose level, moreover, their use decreases blood pressure and body weight which might indicate their positive influence on cardiovascular system in diabetic patients.
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for once-daily administration approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trial data from large, controlled studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of liraglutide in terms of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction, reductions in body weight, and the drug’s low risk for hypoglycemic events when used as monotherapy. Liraglutide has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, glimepiride, and rosiglitazone for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, comparative data with insulin glargine and exenatide therapy are available from Phase III trials. Once-daily administration may provide a therapeutic advantage for liraglutide over twice-daily exenatide, with similar improvements in HbA1c and body weight observed when liraglutide was compared with exenatide. The glucose-dependent mechanism of insulin release with incretin analog therapy holds potential clinical significance in the management of postprandial hyperglycemic excursions, with minimal risk of hypoglycemia when used with non-secretagogue medications. Data to date on patient-reported outcomes with liraglutide treatment are encouraging. The most common adverse events associated with liraglutide therapy are dose-dependent nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Diligent postmarketing surveillance to elucidate the risk of pancreatitis and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a heterogeneous population are likely warranted.
incretin analog; incretin effect; liraglutide; diabetes
In phase 3 trials, the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide provided effective glycemic control with low rates of hypoglycemia, weight loss, and reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Through a retrospective clinical audit, the authors aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of liraglutide, from initiation to first hospital visit, when prescribed at a center in Northern Ireland.
Patients attending Ulster Hospital who were prescribed liraglutide (June 2009–September 2010) and assessed both at baseline and first post-initiation visit were included in the analysis. The primary endpoint was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline. Weight, blood pressure, and frequency of hypoglycemic events were also assessed.
Data from 193 patients are reported (baseline HbA1c 9.0%, mean age 55.8 years, diabetes duration 8.8 years, 66.8% male). Average time to first visit after initiation was 13.5 weeks, at which point 174 patients (90.2%) were prescribed 1.2 mg liraglutide. Mean change in HbA1c from initiation to first visit was −0.9%, while mean body weight change was −2.4 kg and change in SBP was −2.0 mmHg. Transient gastrointestinal side effects were experienced by 11.9% of patients. The number of patients experiencing minor hypoglycemic events was low (5.7%) and no major events were reported.
Data from clinical studies translate into clinical practice: liraglutide provided improved glycemic control after 13.5 weeks of treatment, accompanied by weight loss and low incidence of hypoglycemia.
Audit; Glucagon-like peptide-1; Glycemic control; Liraglutide; Type 2 diabetes
The efficacy of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, to prevent or delay diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats, a model of polygenic obese type 2 diabetes, was investigated.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
At 2 months of age, male rats were divided into three groups: control, food-restricted, and liraglutide. Animals received liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle injections twice daily. Restricted rats were food restricted to equalize body weights to liraglutide-treated rats. Half of the animals were followed until diabetes onset, whereas the other half of the animals were killed at 6.5 months of age for tissue collection.
Before diabetes onset energy intake, body weight, adiposity, and liver triglyceride content were higher in control animals compared with restricted and liraglutide-treated rats. Energy-restricted animals had lower food intake than liraglutide-treated animals to maintain the same body weights, suggesting that liraglutide increases energy expenditure. Liraglutide treatment delayed diabetes onset by 4.1 ± 0.8 months compared with control (P < 0.0001) and by 1.3 ± 0.8 months compared with restricted animals (P < 0.05). Up to 6 months of age, energy restriction and liraglutide treatment lowered fasting plasma glucose and A1C concentrations compared with control animals. In contrast, liraglutide-treated animals exhibited lower fasting plasma insulin, glucagon, and triglycerides compared with both control and restricted animals. Furthermore, energy-restricted and liraglutide-treated animals exhibited more normal islet morphology.
Liraglutide treatment delays the development of diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats by reducing energy intake and body weight, and by improving insulin sensitivity, improving lipid profiles, and maintaining islet morphology.
Background. Liraglutide leading to improve not only glycaemic control but also liver inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Aims. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effectiveness of liraglutide in NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to sitagliptin and pioglitazone. Methods. We retrospectively enrolled 82 Japanese NAFLD patients with T2DM and divided into three groups (liraglutide: N = 26, sitagliptin; N = 36, pioglitazone; N = 20). We compared the baseline characteristics, changes of laboratory data and body weight. Results. At the end of follow-up, ALT, fast blood glucose, and HbA1c level significantly improved among the three groups. AST to platelet ratio significantly decreased in liraglutide group and pioglitazone group. The body weight significantly decreased in liraglutide group (81.8 kg to 78.0 kg, P < 0.01). On the other hands, the body weight significantly increased in pioglitazone group and did not change in sitagliptin group. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that administration of liraglutide as an independent factor of body weight reduction for more than 5% (OR 9.04; 95% CI 1.12–73.1, P = 0.04). Conclusions. Administration of liraglutide improved T2DM but also improvement of liver inflammation, alteration of liver fibrosis, and reduction of body weight.
This study assessed the endocrine pancreatic responses to liraglutide (0.9 mg once a day) during normal living conditions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 14 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. Meal tests were performed after improvement of glycemic control achieved by two weeks of multiple insulin injection therapy and after approximately two weeks of liraglutide treatment. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed to compare daily variation in glycemic control between multiple insulin injection therapy and liraglutide treatment. Liraglutide reduced plasma glucose levels after the test meals (60–180 min; p<0.05), as a result of significant increases in insulin secretion (0–180 min; p<0.05) and decreases in the incremental ratio of plasma glucagon (15–60 min; p<0.05). Continuous glucose monitoring showed that liraglutide treatment was also associated with a decrease in glucose variability. We also demonstrated that optimal glycemic control seen as a reduction in 24-h mean glucose levels and variability was obtained only with liraglutide monotherapy. In conclusion, liraglutide treatment increases insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon secretion in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under normal living conditions. The main therapeutic advantages of liraglutide are its use as monotherapy and its ability to decrease glucose variability.
liraglutide; insulin; glucagon; test meal; continuous glucose monitoring
To assess the efficacy and safety of adding liraglutide to established insulin therapy in poorly controlled Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity compared with increasing insulin dose.
A 12-week, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out. A total of 84 patients completed the trial who had been randomly assigned to either the liraglutide-added group or the insulin-increasing group while continuing current insulin based treatment. Insulin dose was reduced by 0-30% upon the initiation of liraglutide. Insulin doses were subsequently adjusted to optimized glycemic control. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, blood glucose, total daily insulin dose, body weight, waist circumference, and the number of hypoglycemic events and adverse events were evaluated.
At the end of study, the mean reduction in HbA1c between the liraglutide-added group and the insulin-increasing group was not significantly different (1.9% vs. 1.77%, p>0.05). However, the percentage of subjects reaching the composite endpoint of HbA1c ≤ 7.0% with no weight gain and no hypoglycemia, was significantly higher in the liraglutide-added group than in the insulin-increasing group (67% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Add-on liraglutide treatment significantly reduced mean body weight (5.62 kg, p<0.01), waist circumference (5.70 cm, p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (1.93 kg/m2, p<0.01) and daily total insulin dose (dropped by 66%) during 12-week treatment period, while all of these significantly increased with insulin increasing treatment. Add-on liraglutide treated patients had lower rate of hypoglycemic events and greater insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs discontinuation. Gastrointestinal disorders were the most common adverse events in the liraglutide added treatment, but were transient.
Addition of liraglutide to abdominally obese, insulin-treated patients led to improvement in glycemic control similar to that achieved by increasing insulin dosage, but with a lower daily dose of insulin and fewer hypoglycemic events. Adding liraglutide to insulin also induced a significant reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Liraglutide combined with insulin may be the best treatment option for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and abdominal obesity.
Liraglutide; Abdominal obesity; Insulin therapy; Weight reduction
Liraglutide is an analog of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and acts as a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Liraglutide is presently used in the treatment of selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
To assess efficacy and safety of liraglutide in, overweight and obese Indian patients with T2DM.
A single center, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational study for 24 weeks in a real-world setting. Fourteen overweight and obese patients with T2DM who were clinically suitable for liraglutide therapy received liraglutide injections. The starting dose of liraglutide (Victoza) injection was 0.6 mg/day for 3 days followed by 1.2 mg for next 10 days and finally 1.8 mg/day for 22 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Adverse events (AE) noted during course of therapy were recorded. A repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to assess statistical significance.
Fourteen patients were studied for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of liraglutide therapy, mean fasting and postprandial plasma glucose decreased by 48.5 mg/dL and 66.71 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0004 over 24 weeks, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.26% of glycosylated hemoglobin was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks). Mean decrease in body weight of 8.65 kg and mean decrease in body mass index of 3.26 kg/m2 was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks for each parameter). Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 15.15 mm of Hg (P = 0.004). Significant improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and serum creatinine was noted. Nine patients reported AEs. The AEs noticed were nausea (n = 6), feeling of satiety (n = 3), and vomiting (n = 1). No serious AE or hypoglycemic episodes were observed.
Liraglutide once a day improved overall glycemic control and was well tolerated. Clinically significant reduction in body weight, systolic blood pressure and improvement in lipid profile were noticed with liraglutide therapy in addition to glycemic control.
liraglutide; weight loss; type 2 diabetes; obesity; GLP-1 analog; lipid profile; blood pressure; India
Incretin-based therapies have been gaining much attention recently as a new class of therapeutics for type 2 diabetes worldwide. Among them, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide has been rapidly increasing its global usage. Once daily injection of liraglutide significantly ameliorates glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by enhancing insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon secretion glucose-dependently. Liraglutide delays gastric emptying and suppresses food intakes, both of which contribute to glucose lowering and weight reduction. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide in management of type 2 diabetes have been well documented in several key clinical trials such as series of phase 3 Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) trials, and the liraglutide-versus-sitagliptin trial. Recent two trials dealing with monotherapy and sulfonylurea combination therapy on Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes furthermore indicate liraglutide’s effectiveness in non-obese diabetes. In this review, we summarize results from such clinical trials, and discuss efficacy and safety of liraglutide in management of type 2 diabetes in various countries, along with a pitfall of liraglutide usage in real clinical setting.
liraglutide; type 2 diabetes; incretin
Liraglutide is a long-acting analog of GLP-1, being developed by Novo Nordisk and currently undergoing regulatory review for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Upon injection, liraglutide binds non-covalently to albumin, giving it a pharmacokinetic profile suitable for once-daily administration. In clinical trials of up to 1 year duration, liraglutide has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on islet cell function, leading to improvements in glycemic control. Both fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations are lowered, and are associated with lasting reductions in HbA1c levels. Liraglutide is effective as monotherapy and in combination therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs, and reduces HbA1c by up to ∼1.5% from baseline (8.2%–8.4%). Because of the glucose-dependency of its action, there is a low incidence of hypoglycemia. Liraglutide is associated with body weight loss, and reductions in systolic blood pressure have been observed throughout the clinical trials. The most common adverse events reported with liraglutide are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting and diarrhea). These tend to be most pronounced during the initial period of therapy and decline with time. Further clinical experience with liraglutide will reveal its long-term durability, safety and efficacy.
liraglutide; GLP-1; incretin mimetic; type 2 diabetes
To assess the efficacy and safety of switching from sitagliptin to liraglutide in metformin-treated adults with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In an open-label trial, participants randomized to receive either liraglutide (1.2 or 1.8 mg/day) or sitagliptin (100 mg/day), each added to metformin, continued treatment for 52 weeks. In a 26-week extension, sitagliptin-treated participants were randomly allocated to receive instead liraglutide at either 1.2 or 1.8 mg/day, while participants originally randomized to receive liraglutide continued unchanged.
Although 52 weeks of sitagliptin changed glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by −0.9% from baseline, additional decreases occurred after switching to liraglutide (1.2 mg/day, −0.2%, P = 0.006; 1.8 mg/day, −0.5%, P = 0.0001). Conversion to liraglutide was associated with reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (1.2 mg/day, −0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.0004; 1.8 mg/day, −1.4 mmol/L, P < 0.0001) and body weight (1.2 mg/day, −1.6 kg; 1.8 mg/day, −2.5 kg; both P < 0.0001) and with an increased proportion of patients reaching HbA1c <7% (from ∼30% to ∼50%). Overall treatment satisfaction, assessed by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire, improved after switching to liraglutide (pooled 1.2 and 1.8 mg/day, 1.3; P = 0.0189). After switching, mostly transient nausea occurred in 21% of participants, and minor hypoglycemia remained low (3–4% of participants). Continuing liraglutide treatment at 1.2 mg/day and 1.8 mg/day for 78 weeks reduced HbA1c (baseline 8.3 and 8.4%, respectively) by −0.9 and −1.3%, respectively; FPG by −1.3 and −1.7 mmol/L, respectively; and weight by −2.6 and −3.1 kg, respectively, with 9–10% of participants reporting minor hypoglycemia.
Glycemic control, weight, and treatment satisfaction improved after switching from sitagliptin to liraglutide, albeit with a transient increase in gastrointestinal reactions.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, each added to metformin, over 52 weeks in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
In an open-label, parallel-group trial, metformin-treated participants were randomised to liraglutide 1.2 mg/day (n= 225), liraglutide 1.8 mg/day (n= 221) or sitagliptin 100 mg/day (n= 219) for 26 weeks (main phase). Participants continued the same treatment in a 26-week extension.
Liraglutide (1.2 or 1.8 mg) was superior to sitagliptin for reducing HbA1c from baseline (8.4–8.5%) to 52 weeks: −1.29% and −1.51% vs. −0.88% respectively. Estimated mean treatment differences between liraglutide and sitagliptin were as follows: −0.40% (95% confidence interval −0.59 to −0.22) for 1.2 mg and −0.63% (−0.81 to −0.44) for 1.8 mg (both p < 0.0001). Weight loss was greater with liraglutide 1.2 mg (−2.78 kg) and 1.8 mg (−3.68 kg) than sitagliptin (−1.16 kg) (both p < 0.0001). Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scores increased significantly more with liraglutide 1.8 mg than with sitagliptin (p = 0.03). Proportions of participants reporting adverse events were generally comparable; minor hypoglycaemia was 8.1%, 8.3% and 6.4% for liraglutide 1.2 mg, 1.8 mg and sitagliptin respectively. Gastrointestinal side effects, mainly nausea, initially occurred more frequently with liraglutide, but declined after several weeks.
Liraglutide provides greater sustained glycaemic control and body weight reduction over 52 weeks. Treatment satisfaction was significantly greater with 1.8 mg liraglutide, similar to 26-week results. The safety profiles of liraglutide and sitagliptin are consistent with previous reports.
In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the incretin effect is reduced, but the recent advent of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists/analogues has enabled restoration of at least some of the function of the incretin system, with accompanying improvements in glycaemic control. Two GLP-1 receptor agonists/analogues are currently approved for the treatment of T2DM—exenatide (Byetta®, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN, US) and liraglutide (Victoza®, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark); a once-weekly formulation of exenatide (Bydureon®, Eli Lilly & Co.) has also been approved by the European Medicines Agency. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently published guidance on the use of liraglutide in T2DM, based on evidence from the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) Phase III trial programme, which compared liraglutide with existing glucose-lowering therapies, such as exenatide and insulin glargine. The LEAD programme reported HbA1c reductions from 0.8 to 1.5% with liraglutide (1.2 and 1.8 mg), accompanied by low rates of hypoglycaemia and some weight loss; side effects were primarily gastrointestinal in nature (e.g. nausea and diarrhoea). Based on the findings of the LEAD studies and the NICE recommendation, liraglutide now represents an important therapy widely available in the UK for certain patient groups, including those with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, and patients with a BMI <35 kg/m2 who are considered unsuitable for insulin and are failing to meet targets for glycaemic control with oral agents. NICE guidelines still suggest that most patients without considerable obesity (BMI <35 kg/m2) are probably best managed using insulin therapy. Evidence also suggests a future role for GLP-1 mimetics in combination with basal insulin.
basal insulin; GLP-1; glycaemic control; type 2 diabetes; weight loss therapy
To compare the effects of combining liraglutide (0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 mg/day) or rosiglitazone 4 mg/day (all n ≥ 228) or placebo (n = 114) with glimepiride (2–4 mg/day) on glycaemic control, body weight and safety in Type 2 diabetes.
In total, 1041 adults (mean ± sd), age 56 ± 10 years, weight 82 ± 17 kg and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.4 ± 1.0% at 116 sites in 21 countries were stratified based on previous oral glucose-lowering mono : combination therapies (30 : 70%) to participate in a five-arm, 26-week, double-dummy, randomized study.
Liraglutide (1.2 or 1.8 mg) produced greater reductions in HbA1c from baseline, (−1.1%, baseline 8.5%) compared with placebo (+0.2%, P < 0.0001, baseline 8.4%) or rosiglitazone (−0.4%, P < 0.0001, baseline 8.4%) when added to glimepiride. Liraglutide 0.6 mg was less effective (−0.6%, baseline 8.4%). Fasting plasma glucose decreased by week 2, with a 1.6 mmol/l decrease from baseline at week 26 with liraglutide 1.2 mg (baseline 9.8 mmol/l) or 1.8 mg (baseline 9.7 mmol/l) compared with a 0.9 mmol/l increase (placebo, P < 0.0001, baseline 9.5 mmol/l) or 1.0 mmol/l decrease (rosiglitazone, P < 0.006, baseline 9.9 mmol/l). Decreases in postprandial plasma glucose from baseline were greater with liraglutide 1.2 or 1.8 mg [−2.5 to −2.7 mmol/l (baseline 12.9 mmol/l for both)] compared with placebo (−0.4 mmol/l, P < 0.0001, baseline 12.7 mmol/l) or rosiglitazone (−1.8 mmol/l, P < 0.05, baseline 13.0 mmol/l). Changes in body weight with liraglutide 1.8 mg (−0.2 kg, baseline 83.0 kg), 1.2 mg (+0.3 kg, baseline 80.0 kg) or placebo (−0.1 kg, baseline 81.9 kg) were less than with rosiglitazone (+2.1 kg, P < 0.0001, baseline 80.6 kg). Main adverse events for all treatments were minor hypoglycaemia (< 10%), nausea (< 11%), vomiting (< 5%) and diarrhoea (< 8%).
Liraglutide added to glimepiride was well tolerated and provided improved glycaemic control and favourable weight profile.
dipeptidyl peptidase-4; glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; incretin; insulinotropic; thiazolidinedione
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are used to treat type 2 diabetes, and transient GLP-1 administration improved cardiac function in humans after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and percutaneous revascularization. However, the consequences of GLP-1R activation before ischemic myocardial injury remain unclear.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed the pathophysiology and outcome of coronary artery occlusion in normal and diabetic mice pretreated with the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide.
Male C57BL/6 mice were treated twice daily for 7 days with liraglutide or saline followed by induction of MI. Survival was significantly higher in liraglutide-treated mice. Liraglutide reduced cardiac rupture (12 of 60 versus 46 of 60; P = 0.0001) and infarct size (21 ± 2% versus 29 ± 3%, P = 0.02) and improved cardiac output (12.4 ± 0.6 versus 9.7 ± 0.6 ml/min; P = 0.002). Liraglutide also modulated the expression and activity of cardioprotective genes in the mouse heart, including Akt, GSK3β, PPARβ-δ, Nrf-2, and HO-1. The effects of liraglutide on survival were independent of weight loss. Moreover, liraglutide conferred cardioprotection and survival advantages over metformin, despite equivalent glycemic control, in diabetic mice with experimental MI. The cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remained detectable 4 days after cessation of therapy and may be partly direct, because liraglutide increased cyclic AMP formation and reduced the extent of caspase-3 activation in cardiomyocytes in a GLP-1R–dependent manner in vitro.
These findings demonstrate that GLP-1R activation engages prosurvival pathways in the normal and diabetic mouse heart, leading to improved outcomes and enhanced survival after MI in vivo.
Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes?
Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insulin therapy are conflicting. Insulin detemir provides weight control along with glycemic control.
Weight gain is considered an inevitable part of good glycemic control using conventional modalities of treatment such as sulfonylureas.1Use of metformin, weight-sparing insulin analogs such as insulin detemir, and liraglutide, should be encouraged as monotherapy, or in combination with other drugs.
weight control; diabetes
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes has been attributed to the classic triad of decreased insulin secretion, increased insulin resistance, and elevated hepatic glucose production. Research has shown additional mechanisms, including incretin deficiency or resistance in the gastrointestinal tract. Liraglutide is a modified form of human glucagon-like peptide-1. Liraglutide was obtained by substitution of lysine 34 for arginine near the NH2 terminus, and by addition of a C16 fatty acid at the ɛ-amino group of lysine (at position 26) using a γ-glutamic acid spacer. Liraglutide has demonstrated glucose-dependent insulin secretion, improvements in β-cell function, deceleration of gastric emptying, and promotion of early satiety leading to weight loss. Liraglutide has the potential to acquire an important role, not only in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but also in preservation of β-cell function, weight loss, and prevention of chronic diabetic complications.
diabetes mellitus; incretin; glucagon-like peptide; insulin resistance
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Even though progress have been accomplished in the management of type 2 diabetes, current treatment preferences for patients with this disease still fall short to address disease progression. With the present therapy, glycaemic control remains suboptimal and are often associated with weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted from the small intestine that lowers fasting and postprandial glucose through multiple mechanisms including glucose-dependent insulin secretion, reduction of glucagon secretion, delaying gastric emptying and increased satiety. Liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue is a treatment for T2DM that is administered as a once-daily subcutaneous injection. The efficacy and tolerability of liraglutide at doses of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg for T2DM, in combination with, and compared with, other T2DM treatments were investigated in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) Phase III clinical trial program. In the LEAD trial, treatment with liraglutide was associated with substantial improvements in glycaemic control and low risk of hypoglycaemia. In addition liraglutide significantly improved β-cell function, reduced systolic blood pressure (BP) and induced weight loss. Overall, liraglutide was well tolerated. Recent data on safety and efficacy of liraglutide from real-life clinical practice settings also reiterate the better therapeutic profile of this molecule. Based on results from the LEAD programme, and real-life clinical experience, liraglutide has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic intervention even at the early stage of diabetes regardless of with what, it has been used.
Diabetes; GLP-1 analog; liraglutide
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogues are promising new treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes, but may have both potentially beneficial and harmful cardiovascular effects. This may also be the case for the analogues of GLP1 for clinical use. The present study examined the effect of treatment with Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP1 analogue, on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in a porcine model.
Danish Landrace Pigs (70–80 kg) were randomly assigned to Liraglutide (10 μg/kg) or control treatment given daily for three days before ischemia-reperfusion. Ischemia was induced by balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 40 minutes followed by 2.5 hours of reperfusion. The primary outcome parameter was infarct size in relation to the ischemic region at risk. Secondary endpoints were the hemodynamic parameters mean pulmonary pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as measured by a Swan-Ganz catheter as well as arterial pressure and heart rate.
The infarct size in relation to ischemic risk region in the control versus the Liraglutide group did not differ significantly: 0.46 ± 0.14 and 0.54 ± 0.12) (mean and standard deviation (SD), p = 0.21). Heart rate was significantly higher in the Liraglutide group during the experiment, while the other hemodynamic parameters did not differ significantly.
Liraglutide has a neutral effect on myocardial infarct size in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion model.
To determine the efficacy and safety of liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) when added to metformin and rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial randomized 533 subjects (1:1:1) to once-daily liraglutide (1.2 or 1.8 mg) or liraglutide placebo in combination with metformin (1 g twice daily) and rosiglitazone (4 mg twice daily). Subjects had type 2 diabetes, A1C 7–11% (previous oral antidiabetes drug [OAD] monotherapy ≥3 months) or 7–10% (previous OAD combination therapy ≥3 months), and BMI ≤45 kg/m2.
Mean A1C values decreased significantly more in the liraglutide groups versus placebo (mean ± SE −1.5 ± 0.1% for both 1.2 and 1.8 mg liraglutide and −0.5 ± 0.1% for placebo). Fasting plasma glucose decreased by 40, 44, and 8 mg/dl for 1.2 and 1.8 mg and placebo, respectively, and 90-min postprandial glucose decreased by 47, 49, and 14 mg/dl, respectively (P < 0.001 for all liraglutide groups vs. placebo). Dose-dependent weight loss occurred with 1.2 and 1.8 mg liraglutide (1.0 ± 0.3 and 2.0 ± 0.3 kg, respectively) (P < 0.0001) compared with weight gain with placebo (0.6 ± 0.3 kg). Systolic blood pressure decreased by 6.7, 5.6, and 1.1 mmHg with 1.2 and 1.8 mg liraglutide and placebo, respectively. Significant increases in C-peptide and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and significant decreases in the proinsulin-to-insulin ratio occurred with liraglutide versus placebo. Minor hypoglycemia occurred more frequently with liraglutide, but there was no major hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with liraglutide, but most occurred early and were transient.
Liraglutide combined with metformin and a thiazolidinedione is a well-tolerated combination therapy for type 2 diabetes, providing significant improvements in glycemic control.
We investigated the molecular mechanism by which the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide preserves pancreatic beta cells in diabetic db/db mice.
Male db/db and m/m mice aged 10 weeks received liraglutide or vehicle for 2 days or 2 weeks. In addition to morphological and biochemical analysis of pancreatic islets, gene expression profiles in the islet core area were investigated by laser capture microdissection and real-time RT-PCR.
Liraglutide treatment for 2 weeks improved metabolic variables and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Liraglutide also increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and islet insulin content in both mouse strains and reduced triacylglycerol content in db/db mice. Expression of genes involved in cell differentiation and proliferation in both mouse strains was regulated by liraglutide, which, in db/db mice, downregulated genes involved in pro-apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid synthesis, and upregulated genes related to anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative stress. In the 2 day experiment, liraglutide slightly improved metabolic variables in db/db mice, but GSIS, insulin and triacylglycerol content were not affected. In db/db mice, liraglutide increased gene expression associated with cell differentiation, proliferation and anti-apoptosis, and suppressed gene expression involved in pro-apoptosis; it had no effect on genes related to oxidative stress or ER stress. Morphometric results for cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in db/db mice islets were consistent with the results of the gene expression analysis.
Liraglutide increases beta cell mass not only by directly regulating cell kinetics, but also by suppressing oxidative and ER stress, secondary to amelioration of glucolipotoxicity.
Apoptosis; Beta cell mass; Cellular differentiation; Cellular proliferation; ER stress; Glucagon-like peptide-1; Oxidative stress
Aim: As weight gain and hypoglycaemia associated with glimepiride therapy can negatively impact weight perceptions, psychological well-being and overall quality of life in type 2 diabetes, we investigated whether liraglutide treatment could improve these factors.
Methods: Seven hundred and thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes completed a 77-item questionnaire during a randomized, 52-week, double-blind study with liraglutide 1.2 mg (n = 245) or 1.8 mg (n = 242) compared with glimepiride 8 mg (n = 245).
Results: Mean (SE) decreases in glycated haemoglobin levels were greater with liraglutide 1.2 mg [−0.84 (0.08)%] and 1.8 mg [−1.14 (0.08)%] than glimepiride [−0.51 (0.08)%; p = 0.0014 and p < 0.0001, respectively]. Patients gained weight on glimepiride [mean (SE), 1.12 (0.27) kg] but lost weight on liraglutide [1.2 mg: −2.05 (0.28) kg; 1.8 mg: −2.45 (0.28) kg; both p < 0.0001]. Patient weight assessment was more favourable with liraglutide 1.8 mg [mean (SE) score: 40.0 (2.0)] than glimepiride [48.7 (2.0); p = 0.002], and liraglutide 1.8 mg patients were 52% less likely to feel overweight [odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.331–0.696]. Mean (SE) weight concerns were less with liraglutide [1.2 mg: 30.0 (1.2); 1.8 mg: 32.8 (1.2)] than glimepiride [38.8 (1.2); p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively], with liraglutide groups 45% less likely to report weight concern (OR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41–0.73). Mean (SE) mental and emotional health and general perceived health improved more with liraglutide 1.8 mg [476.1 (2.8) and 444.2 (3.2), respectively] than glimepiride [466.3 (2.8) and 434.5 (3.2), respectively; p = 0.012 and p = 0.033, respectively].
Conclusions: Improved glycaemic control and decreased weight with liraglutide 1.8 mg vs. glimepiride can improve psychological and emotional well-being and health perceptions by reducing anxiety and worry associated with weight gain.
GLP-1; new treatments; quality of life; type 2 diabetes; weight issues
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades, both in the US and worldwide. Pharmacotherapy can augment the weight-reducing effects of lifestyle modification and can facilitate long-term weight maintenance. However, there is a paucity of pharmacologic agents approved for the treatment of obesity, and the use of existing weight loss medications is frequently limited by contraindications, drug interactions, adverse effects, limited coverage by third-party payers, and cost. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding and appreciation of the role of gastrointestinal hormones in the control of body weight. One such hormone, GLP-1, also plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as exenatide and liraglutide, have been developed and are already approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. There has also been interest in the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity in nondiabetic patients. This review explores the potential utility and limitations of exenatide and liraglutide as therapeutic agents for obesity.
obesity; GLP-1; exenatide; liraglutide
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), approved as glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to reduce body weight. An extensive Medline, Cochrane database, and Embase search for “exenatide,” “liraglutide,” “albiglutide,” “semaglutide,” and “lixisenatide” was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to December 15, 2011, with a duration of at least 24 weeks, comparing GLP-1 receptor agonists with either placebo or active drugs. Twenty two (7,859 patients) and 7 (2,416 patients) trials with available results on body weight at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were included. When compared with placebo, GLP-1RAs determine a reduction of BMI at 6 months of −1.0 [−1.3; −0.6] kg/m2. Considering the average BMI at baseline (32.4 kg/m2) these data means a weight reduction of about 3% at 6 months. This result could seem modest from a clinical standpoint; however, it could be affected by many factors contributing to an underestimation of the effect of GLP-1RA on body weight, such as non adequate doses, inclusion criteria, efficacy of GLP-1RA on reducing glycosuria, and association to non-pharmacological interventions not specifically aimed to weight reduction.