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1.  A Tunable Strain Sensor Using Nanogranular Metals 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(11):9847-9856.
This paper introduces a new methodology for the fabrication of strain-sensor elements for MEMS and NEMS applications based on the tunneling effect in nano-granular metals. The strain-sensor elements are prepared by the maskless lithography technique of focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) employing the precursor trimethylmethylcyclopentadienyl platinum [MeCpPt(Me)3]. We use a cantilever-based deflection technique to determine the sensitivity (gauge factor) of the sensor element. We find that its sensitivity depends on the electrical conductivity and can be continuously tuned, either by the thickness of the deposit or by electron-beam irradiation leading to a distinct maximum in the sensitivity. This maximum finds a theoretical rationale in recent advances in the understanding of electronic charge transport in nano-granular metals.
PMCID: PMC3231023  PMID: 22163443
cantilevers; electron beam induced deposition; granular metals; strain sensors
2.  Low-dose patterning of platinum nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition as studied by TEM 
Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is used as a direct-write approach to decorate ultrasmall Pt nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes at selected sites in a straightforward maskless manner. The as-deposited nanostructures are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 2D and 3D, demonstrating that the Pt nanoclusters are well-dispersed, covering the selected areas of the CNT surface completely. The ability of FEBID to graft nanoclusters on multiple sides, through an electron-transparent target within one step, is unique as a physical deposition method. Using high-resolution TEM we have shown that the CNT structure can be well preserved thanks to the low dose used in FEBID. By tuning the electron-beam parameters, the density and distribution of the nanoclusters can be controlled. The purity of as-deposited nanoclusters can be improved by low-energy electron irradiation at room temperature.
PMCID: PMC3566795  PMID: 23399584
carbon nanotubes; FEBID; nanocluster; platinum; patterning; radiation-induced nanostructures; TEM
3.  In situ growth optimization in focused electron-beam induced deposition 
We present the application of an evolutionary genetic algorithm for the in situ optimization of nanostructures that are prepared by focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID). It allows us to tune the properties of the deposits towards the highest conductivity by using the time gradient of the measured in situ rate of change of conductance as the fitness parameter for the algorithm. The effectiveness of the procedure is presented for the precursor W(CO)6 as well as for post-treatment of Pt–C deposits, which were obtained by the dissociation of MeCpPt(Me)3. For W(CO)6-based structures an increase of conductivity by one order of magnitude can be achieved, whereas the effect for MeCpPt(Me)3 is largely suppressed. The presented technique can be applied to all beam-induced deposition processes and has great potential for a further optimization or tuning of parameters for nanostructures that are prepared by FEBID or related techniques.
PMCID: PMC3869208  PMID: 24367761
electron beam induced deposition; genetic algorithm; nanotechnology; tungsten
4.  Electron beam-assisted healing of nanopores in magnesium alloys 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1920.
Nanopore-based sensing has emerged as a promising candidate for affordable and powerful DNA sequencing technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that nanopores can be successfully fabricated in Mg alloys via focused electron beam (e-beam) technology. Employing in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques, we obtained unambiguous evidence that layer-by-layer growth of atomic planes at the nanopore periphery occurs when the e-beam is spread out, leading to the shrinkage and eventual disappearance of nanopores. The proposed healing process was attributed to the e-beam-induced anisotropic diffusion of Mg atoms in the vicinity of nanopore edges. A plausible diffusion mechanism that describes the observed phenomena is discussed. Our results constitute the first experimental investigation of nanopores in Mg alloys. Direct evidence of the healing process has advanced our fundamental understanding of surface science, which is of great practical importance for many technological applications, including thin film deposition and surface nanopatterning.
PMCID: PMC3667491  PMID: 23719630
5.  Simulation of electron transport during electron-beam-induced deposition of nanostructures 
We present a numerical investigation of energy and charge distributions during electron-beam-induced growth of tungsten nanostructures on SiO2 substrates by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the electron transport. This study gives a quantitative insight into the deposition of energy and charge in the substrate and in the already existing metallic nanostructures in the presence of the electron beam. We analyze electron trajectories, inelastic mean free paths, and the distribution of backscattered electrons in different compositions and at different depths of the deposit. We find that, while in the early stages of the nanostructure growth a significant fraction of electron trajectories still interacts with the substrate, when the nanostructure becomes thicker the transport takes place almost exclusively in the nanostructure. In particular, a larger deposit density leads to enhanced electron backscattering. This work shows how mesoscopic radiation-transport techniques can contribute to a model that addresses the multi-scale nature of the electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) process. Furthermore, similar simulations can help to understand the role that is played by backscattered electrons and emitted secondary electrons in the change of structural properties of nanostructured materials during post-growth electron-beam treatments.
PMCID: PMC3869256  PMID: 24367747
electron backscattering; electron transport; (F)EBID; Monte Carlo simulation; PENELOPE
6.  Subtractive 3D Printing of Optically Active Diamond Structures 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5022.
Controlled fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures is an essential step in engineering of high performance photonic and optoelectronic devices. Diamond in particular has recently attracted considerable attention as a promising platform for quantum technologies, photonics and high resolution sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of optically active, functional diamond structures using gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE). The technique achieves dry chemical etching at room temperature through the dissociation of surface-adsorbed H2O molecules by energetic electrons in a water vapor environment. Parallel processing is possible by electron flood exposure and the use of an etch mask, while high resolution, mask-free, iterative editing is demonstrated by direct write etching of inclined facets of diamond microparticles. The realized structures demonstrate the potential of EBIE for the fabrication of optically active structures in diamond.
PMCID: PMC4028895  PMID: 24846633
7.  On the alignment for precession electron diffraction 
Ultramicroscopy  2012;117:1-6.
Precession electron diffraction has seen a fast increase in its adoption as a technique for solving crystallographic structures as well as an alternative to conventional selected-area and converged-beam diffraction methods. One of the key issues of precession is the pivot point alignment, as a stationary apparent beam does not guarantee a fixed pivot point. A large precession tilt angle, along with pre-field and post-field misalignment, induces shift in the image plane. We point out here that the beam should be aligned to the pre-field optic axis to keep the electron illumination stationary during the rocking process. A practical alignment procedure is suggested with the focus placed on minimizing the beam wandering on the specimen, and is demonstrated for a (110)-oriented silicon single crystal and for a carbide phase (~20 nm in size) within a cast cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy.
PMCID: PMC3593050  PMID: 22634134
Precession electron diffraction; CoCrMo alloy; M23C6 carbide; Alignment
8.  Nanoscale chemical and structural study of Co-based FEBID structures by STEM-EELS and HRTEM 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):592.
Nanolithography techniques in a scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam are very attractive tools for a number of synthetic processes, including the fabrication of ferromagnetic nano-objects, with potential applications in magnetic storage or magnetic sensing. One of the most versatile techniques is the focused electron beam induced deposition, an efficient method for the production of magnetic structures highly resolved at the nanometric scale. In this work, this method has been applied to the controlled growth of magnetic nanostructures using Co2(CO)8. The chemical and structural properties of these deposits have been studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy at the nanometric scale. The obtained results allow us to correlate the chemical and structural properties with the functionality of these magnetic nanostructures.
PMCID: PMC3237113  PMID: 22085532
Co deposits; FEBID; EELS; HRTEM
9.  Berkovich Nanoindentation on AlN Thin Films 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(6):935-940.
Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of AlN thin films have been investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) techniques. AlN thin films are deposited on the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) derived Si-doped (2 × 1017 cm−3) GaN template by using the helicon sputtering system. The XTEM samples were prepared by means of focused ion beam (FIB) milling to accurately position the cross-section of the nanoindented area. The hardness and Young’s modulus of AlN thin films were measured by a Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurements (CSM) option. The obtained values of the hardness and Young’s modulus are 22 and 332 GPa, respectively. The XTEM images taken in the vicinity regions just underneath the indenter tip revealed that the multiple “pop-ins” observed in the load–displacement curve during loading are due primarily to the activities of dislocation nucleation and propagation. The absence of discontinuities in the unloading segments of load–displacement curve suggests that no pressure-induced phase transition was involved. Results obtained in this study may also have technological implications for estimating possible mechanical damages induced by the fabrication processes of making the AlN-based devices.
PMCID: PMC2894076  PMID: 20672096
AlN; Nanoindentation; Focused ion beam; Transmission electron microscopy
10.  Berkovich Nanoindentation on AlN Thin Films 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(6):935-940.
Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of AlN thin films have been investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) techniques. AlN thin films are deposited on the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) derived Si-doped (2 × 1017 cm−3) GaN template by using the helicon sputtering system. The XTEM samples were prepared by means of focused ion beam (FIB) milling to accurately position the cross-section of the nanoindented area. The hardness and Young’s modulus of AlN thin films were measured by a Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurements (CSM) option. The obtained values of the hardness and Young’s modulus are 22 and 332 GPa, respectively. The XTEM images taken in the vicinity regions just underneath the indenter tip revealed that the multiple “pop-ins” observed in the load–displacement curve during loading are due primarily to the activities of dislocation nucleation and propagation. The absence of discontinuities in the unloading segments of load–displacement curve suggests that no pressure-induced phase transition was involved. Results obtained in this study may also have technological implications for estimating possible mechanical damages induced by the fabrication processes of making the AlN-based devices.
PMCID: PMC2894076  PMID: 20672096
AlN; Nanoindentation; Focused ion beam; Transmission electron microscopy
11.  Mechanical Deformation Induced in Si and GaN Under Berkovich Nanoindentation 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2007;3(1):6-13.
Details of Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of single-crystal Si(100) and the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) derived GaN thin films have been systematic investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) techniques. The XTEM samples were prepared by using focused ion beam (FIB) milling to accurately position the cross-section of the nanoindented area. The behaviors of the discontinuities displayed in the loading and unloading segments of the load-displacement curves of Si and GaN thin films performed with a Berkovich diamond indenter tip were explained by the observed microstructure features obtained from XTEM analyses. According to the observations of micro-Raman and XTEM, the nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation is due primarily to the generation and propagation of dislocations gliding along the pyramidal and basal planes specific to the hexagonal structure of GaN thin films rather than by indentation-induced phase transformations displayed in Si.
PMCID: PMC3244777
Si; GaN; Nanoindentation; Micro-Raman spectroscopy; Focused ion beam; Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy
12.  Cathodoluminescence and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies for Deformation Behaviors of GaN Thin Films Under Berkovich Nanoindentation 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2008;3(4):158-163.
In this study, details of Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition-derived GaN thin films have been systematic investigated with the aid of the cathodoluminescence (CL) and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) techniques. The multiple “pop-in” events were observed in the load-displacement (P–h) curve and appeared to occur randomly by increasing the indentation load. These instabilities are attributed to the dislocation nucleation and propagation. The CL images of nanoindentation show very well-defined rosette structures with the hexagonal system and, clearly display the distribution of deformation-induced extended defects/dislocations which affect CL emission. By using focused ion beam milling to accurately position the cross-section of an indented area, XTEM results demonstrate that the major plastic deformation is taking place through the propagation of dislocations. The present observations are in support to the massive dislocations activities occurring underneath the indenter during the loading cycle. No evidence of either phase transformation or formation of micro-cracking was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy and XTEM observations. We also discuss how these features correlate with Berkovich nanoindentation produced defects/dislocations structures.
PMCID: PMC3244797
GaN; MOCVD; Nanoindentation; Cathodoluminescence; Focused ion beam; Transmission electron microscopy
13.  Metallic conduction and large electron-phonon-impurity interference effect in single TiSi nanowires 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2012;7(1):500.
We report on the first electrical characterizations of single-crystalline TiSi nanowires (NWs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition reactions. By utilizing the focused-ion-beam-induced deposition technique, we have delicately made four-probe contacts onto individual NWs. The NW resistivities have been measured between 2 and 300 K, which reveal overall metallic conduction with small residual resistivity ratios in the NWs. Surprisingly, we find that the effect due to the interference processes between the elastic electron scattering and the electron-phonon scattering largely dominates over the usual Boltzmann transport even at room temperature. Such prominent electron-phonon-impurity interference effect is ascribed to the presence of large amounts of disorder and high Debye temperatures in TiSi NWs.
PMCID: PMC3506485  PMID: 22950781
Chemical vapor deposition reaction; TiSi nanowire; Silicide; Electron-phonon scattering; Electron-phonon-impurity interference; Focused-ion-beam-induced deposition
14.  Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:5357.
Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels.
PMCID: PMC4062900  PMID: 24942329
15.  A Monochromatic, Aberration-Corrected, Dual-Beam Low Energy Electron Microscope 
Ultramicroscopy  2013;130:13-28.
The monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscope (MAD-LEEM) is a novel instrument aimed at imaging of nanostructures and surfaces at sub-nanometer resolution that includes a monochromator, aberration corrector and dual beam illumination. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. The aberration corrector utilizes an electron mirror with negative aberrations that can be used to compensate the aberrations of the LEEM objective lens for a range of electron energies. Dual flood illumination eliminates charging generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. MAD-LEEM is designed for the purpose of imaging biological and insulating specimens, which are difficult to image with conventional LEEM, Low-Voltage SEM, and TEM instruments. The MAD-LEEM instrument can also be used as a general purpose LEEM with significantly improved resolution. The low impact energy of the electrons is critical for avoiding beam damage, as high energy electrons with keV kinetic energies used in SEMs and TEMs cause irreversible change to many specimens, in particular biological materials. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which demands imaging techniques that enable DNA sequencing at high resolution and speed, and at low cost. The key advantages of the MAD-LEEM approach for this application are the low electron impact energies, the long read lengths, and the absence of heavy-atom DNA labeling. Image contrast simulations of the detectability of individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed in order to refine the optics blur and DNA base contrast requirements for this application.
PMCID: PMC3729636  PMID: 23582636
Low energy electron microscopy; Monochromator; Aberration correction; Dual beam illumination; DNA Sequencing; Contrast
16.  Capability of insulator study by photoemission electron microscopy at SPring-8 
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation  2013;20(Pt 4):620-625.
A photoemission electron microscopy measurement system on insulating samples was established at the BL17SU beamline of SPring-8 by utilizing an Au pattern evaporation technique combined with photon-induced surface modification.
The observation method of photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) on insulating samples has been established in an extremely simple way. Surface conductivity is induced locally on an insulating surface by continuous radiation of soft X-rays, and Au films close to the area of interest allow the accumulated charges on the insulated area to be released to ground level. Magnetic domain observations of a NiZn ferrite, local X-ray absorption spectroscopy of sapphire, high-resolution imaging of a poorly conducting Li0.9CoO2 film surface, and Au pattern evaporation on a fine rock particle are demonstrated. Using this technique, all users’ experiments on poorly conducting samples have been performed successfully at the PEEM experimental station of SPring-8.
PMCID: PMC4032072  PMID: 23765305
PEEM; insulator; ferrite; evaporator; photon-induced surface conductivity
17.  A Strategy to Create Spin-Split Metallic Bands on Silicon Using a Dense Alloy Layer 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4742.
To exploit Rashba effect in a 2D electron gas on silicon surface for spin transport, it is necessary to have surface reconstruction with spin-split metallic surface-state bands. However, metals with strong spin-orbit coupling (e.g., Bi, Tl, Sb, Pt) induce reconstructions on silicon with almost exclusively spin-split insulating bands. We propose a strategy to create spin-split metallic bands using a dense 2D alloy layer containing a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling and another metal to modify the surface reconstruction. Here we report two examples, i.e., alloying reconstruction with Na and Tl/Si(111)1 × 1 reconstruction with Pb. The strategy provides a new paradigm for creating metallic surface state bands with various spin textures on silicon and therefore enhances the possibility to integrate fascinating and promising capabilities of spintronics with current semiconductor technology.
PMCID: PMC3994439  PMID: 24752038
18.  The atomic force microscope as a mechano–electrochemical pen 
We demonstrate a method that allows the controlled writing of metallic patterns on the nanometer scale using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a “mechano–electrochemical pen”. In contrast to previous experiments, no voltage is applied between the AFM tip and the sample surface. Instead, a passivated sample surface is activated locally due to lateral forces between the AFM tip and the sample surface. In this way, the area of tip–sample interaction is narrowly limited by the mechanical contact between tip and sample, and well-defined metallic patterns can be written reproducibly. Nanoscale structures and lines of copper were deposited, and the line widths ranged between 5 nm and 80 nm, depending on the deposition parameters. A procedure for the sequential writing of metallic nanostructures is introduced, based on the understanding of the passivation process. The mechanism of this mechano–electrochemical writing technique is investigated, and the processes of site-selective surface depassivation, deposition, dissolution and repassivation of electrochemically deposited nanoscale metallic islands are studied in detail.
PMCID: PMC3201618  PMID: 22043454
atomic force microscopy; deposition; electrochemistry; nanoelectronics; nanofabrication; nanolithography; nanotechnology; NEMS and MEMS; scanning probe lithography
19.  Spontaneous dissociation of Co2(CO)8 and autocatalytic growth of Co on SiO2: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation 
We present experimental results and theoretical simulations of the adsorption behavior of the metal–organic precursor Co2(CO)8 on SiO2 surfaces after application of two different pretreatment steps, namely by air plasma cleaning or a focused electron beam pre-irradiation. We observe a spontaneous dissociation of the precursor molecules as well as autodeposition of cobalt on the pretreated SiO2 surfaces. We also find that the differences in metal content and relative stability of these deposits depend on the pretreatment conditions of the substrate. Transport measurements of these deposits are also presented. We are led to assume that the degree of passivation of the SiO2 surface by hydroxyl groups is an important controlling factor in the dissociation process. Our calculations of various slab settings, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, support this assumption. We observe physisorption of the precursor molecule on a fully hydroxylated SiO2 surface (untreated surface) and chemisorption on a partially hydroxylated SiO2 surface (pretreated surface) with a spontaneous dissociation of the precursor molecule. In view of these calculations, we discuss the origin of this dissociation and the subsequent autocatalysis.
PMCID: PMC3458600  PMID: 23019550
Co2(CO)8; deposition; dissociation; EBID; FEBID; precursor; radiation-induced nanostructures
Nano letters  2005;5(6):1157-1160.
Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid phase condensed gasses of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be amongst the most useful.
PMCID: PMC1432218  PMID: 15943460
21.  Sub-15-nm patterning of asymmetric metal electrodes and devices by adhesion lithography 
Nature Communications  2014;5:3933.
Coplanar electrodes formed from asymmetric metals separated on the nanometre length scale are essential elements of nanoscale photonic and electronic devices. Existing fabrication methods typically involve electron-beam lithography—a technique that enables high fidelity patterning but suffers from significant limitations in terms of low throughput, poor scalability to large areas and restrictive choice of substrate and electrode materials. Here, we describe a versatile method for the rapid fabrication of asymmetric nanogap electrodes that exploits the ability of selected self-assembled monolayers to attach conformally to a prepatterned metal layer and thereby weaken adhesion to a subsequently deposited metal film. The method may be carried out under ambient conditions using simple equipment and a minimum of processing steps, enabling the rapid fabrication of nanogap electrodes and optoelectronic devices with aspect ratios in excess of 100,000.
Electron-beam lithography is often used for patterning of asymmetric metal electrodes for nanoscale devices, but suffers from several limitations. Here, the authors report a new adhesion lithography process, which allows for high-throughput and simple fabrication of nanogap metal electrodes.
PMCID: PMC4050269  PMID: 24861953
22.  Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(12):17433-17445.
Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.
PMCID: PMC3571846  PMID: 23242276
electron beam welding; electron beam oscillation; plasma charge current; beam focus control; keyhole
23.  Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene 
Nanotechnology  2012;23(18):185302.
We demonstrate that a low energy focused electron beam can locally pattern graphene coated with a thin ice layer. The irradiated ice plays a crucial role in the process by providing activated species that locally remove graphene from a silicon dioxide substrate. After patterning the graphene, the ice resist is easily removed by sublimation to leave behind a clean surface with no further processing. More generally, our findings demonstrate that ice-assisted e-beam lithography can be used to pattern very thin materials deposited on substrate surfaces. The procedure is performed in situ in a modified scanning electron microscope. Desirable structures such as nanoribbons are created using the method. Defects in graphene from electrons backscattered from the bulk substrate are identified. They extend several microns from the e-beam writing location. We demonstrate that these defects can be greatly reduced and localised by using thinner substrates and/or gentle thermal annealing.
PMCID: PMC3350975  PMID: 22498712
24.  Kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires growth through electron beam evaporation 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2011;6(1):162.
Si and Ge have the same crystalline structure, and although Si-Au and Ge-Au binary alloys are thermodynamically similar (same phase diagram, with the eutectic temperature of about 360°C), in this study, it is proved that Si and Ge nanowires (NWs) growth by electron beam evaporation occurs in very different temperature ranges and fluence regimes. In particular, it is demonstrated that Ge growth occurs just above the eutectic temperature, while Si NWs growth occurs at temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, at about 450°C. Moreover, Si NWs growth requires a higher evaporated fluence before the NWs become to be visible. These differences arise in the different kinetics behaviors of these systems. The authors investigate the microscopic growth mechanisms elucidating the contribution of the adatoms diffusion as a function of the evaporated atoms direct impingement, demonstrating that adatoms play a key role in physical vapor deposition (PVD) NWs growth. The concept of incubation fluence, which is necessary for an interpretation of NWs growth in PVD growth conditions, is highlighted.
PMCID: PMC3211214  PMID: 21711696
25.  Fabrication of cobalt-nickel binary nanowires in a highly ordered alumina template via AC electrodeposition 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):352.
Cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni) binary alloy nanowires of different compositions were co-deposited in the nanopores of highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates from a single sulfate bath using alternating current (AC) electrodeposition. AC electrodeposition was accomplished without modifying or removing the barrier layer. Field emission scanning electron microscope was used to study the morphology of templates and alloy nanowires. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the deposition of Co-Ni alloy nanowires in the AAO templates. Average diameter of the alloy nanowires was approximately 40 nm which is equal to the diameter of nanopore. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the alloy nanowires consisted of both hexagonal close-packed and face-centered cubic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the easy x-axis of magnetization is parallel to the nanowires with coercivity of approximately 706 Oe. AC electrodeposition is very simple, fast, and is useful for the homogenous deposition of various secondary nanostuctured materials into the nanopores of AAO.
PMCID: PMC3751235  PMID: 23941234
Electrochemistry; Anodization; Template; Electrodeposition; Magnetic; Nanowires

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