During the past decade, a trend toward increasing cases of Bordetella pertussis in older children and adults has been witnessed in Canada. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization now recommends that the adult formulation of the acellular pertussis (adult dTap) vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids be substituted for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids alone for the 14- to 16-year-old booster dose. In October 2000, the government of the Northwest Territories was one of the first to adopt adult dTap into their territorial immunization program free of charge.
To evaluate the effect of the acellular pertussis vaccine in children and adolescents on the epidemiology of pertussis in the Northwest Territories.
Pertussis is a reportable disease in the Northwest Territories, and data on the incidence rates of pertussis are available from 1989 to 2004. The present study reviews pertussis cases during three four-year periods: the whole-cell vaccine era (1993 to 1996); the preadult dTap era (1997 to 2000); and the postadult dTap era (2001 to 2004).
The incidence of pertussis decreased from 18.0 cases per 10,000 population in 1993 to 0.2 cases per 10,000 population in 2004. The number of cases decreased from 186 to 129 to 19 cases in the three chronological time periods (ie, whole-cell vaccine era, preadult dTap era and postadult dTap era, respectively), with the most substantial reduction coming with the introduction of postadult dTap.
There appears to be a decrease in the incidence of pertussis with the targeted introduction of adult dTap in the Northwest Territories
Acellular pertussis; Adolescent; Targeted; Vaccine
In Lithuania, the vaccination coverage against pertussis is high. Nevertheless, there is a significant increase in pertussis cases in fully immunized children. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of classical symptoms of laboratory confirmed pertussis and describe its epidemiology in children fully vaccinated against pertussis.
From May to December 2001, 70 children aged 1 month to 15 years, suffering from prolonged cough were investigated in the Centre of Paediatrics, Vilnius University Children's Hospital. The collected information included personal data, vaccination history, clinical symptoms of the current illness, and treatment before hospitalization. At the admission to the hospital blood samples were taken from all studied children for Bordetella pertussis IgM and IgA.
A total of 53 (75.7%) of the 70 recruited patients with prolonged cough showed laboratory evidence of pertussis. 32 of them were fully vaccinated with whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP). The age of fully vaccinated patients varied from 4 to 15 years (average 10.9 ± 3.1; median 11). The time period between the last vaccination dose (fourth) and the clinical manifestation of pertussis was 2.6–13 years (average 8.9 ± 3.0; median 9). More than half of the children before the beginning of pertussis were in contact with persons suffering from long lasting cough illness in the family, school or day-care center. The mean duration from onset of pertussis symptoms until hospitalization was 61.4 ± 68.3 days (range, 7 to 270 days; median 30). For 11 patients who had had two episodes (waves) of coughing, the median duration of cough was 90 days, and for 21 with one episode 30 days (p < 0.0002). Most of the children (84.4%) had paroxysmal cough, 31.3% had post-tussive vomiting, 28.1% typical whoop, and 3.1% apnea. Only 15.6% children had atypical symptoms of pertussis.
Fully vaccinated children fell ill with pertussis at the median of 11 years old, 9 years following pertussis vaccination. More than half of the children could catch pertussis at home, at school or day-care center. Clinical picture of pertussis in previously immunized children is usually characterized by such classical symptoms as prolonged and paroxysmal cough, rarely by whopping and post-tussive vomiting, and very rarely by apnea.
Whooping cough, caused by B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, has increased in incidence throughout much of the developed world since the 1980s despite high vaccine coverage, causing an increased risk of infection in infants who have substantial disease-induced mortality. Duration of immunity and epidemically significant routes of transmission across age groups remain unclear and deserve further investigation to inform vaccination strategies to better control pertussis burden. The authors analyze age- and species-specific whooping cough tests and vaccine histories in Massachusetts from 1990–2008. On average, the disease-free duration is 10.5 years. However, it has been decreasing over time, possibly due to a rising force of infection through increased circulation. Despite the importance of teenage cases during epidemics, wavelet analyses suggest that they are not the most important source of transmission to infants. In addition, the data indicate that the B. pertussis vaccine is not protective against disease induced by B. parapertussis.
Bordetella; Immunity; Transmission
Despite high vaccination coverage, over the last fifteen years there has been a worldwide resurgence of B. pertussis infection. While classical pertussis in the prevaccine era was primarily a childhood disease, today with widespread vaccination, there has been a shift in the incidence of disease to adolescents and adults. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data from 2004 reveal a nearly 19-fold increase in the number of cases in individuals 10–19 years and a 16-fold increase in persons over 20 years. Indeed adolescent and adults play a significant role in the transmission of pertussis to neonates and infants who are vulnerable to substantial morbidity and mortality from pertussis infection. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the increasing incidence of disease, with waning immunity after natural infection or immunization being widely cited as a significant factor. Improving molecular biology diagnostic techniques, namely PCR assays, also accounts for the increasing laboratory diagnosis of pertussis. Expanding vaccination strategies including universal immunization of adolescents, targeted immunization of adults, and in particular, healthcare workers, childcare providers and parents of newborns, will likely improve pertussis control. With pertussis continuing to pose a serious threat to infants, and greatly affecting adolescents and adults, there remains a need to: (a) increase the awareness of physicians as to the growing pertussis problem, (b) standardize diagnostic techniques, and (c) implement various new vaccine strategies to enhance its control.
Bordetella pertussis; Polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Review; Immunization strategies
Current and past pertussis epidemiology in the two parts of Germany is compared in the context of different histories of vaccination recommendations and coverage to better understand patterns of disease transmission.
Available regional pertussis surveillance and vaccination coverage data, supplemented by a literature search for published surveys as well as official national hospital and mortality statistics, were analyzed in the context of respective vaccination recommendations from 1964 onwards.
Routine childhood pertussis vaccination was recommended in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from 1964 and in former West German states (FWG) from 1969, but withdrawn from 1974–1991 in FWG. Pertussis incidence declined to <1 case/100.000 inhabitants in GDR prior to reunification in 1991, while in FWG, where pertussis was not notifiable after 1961, incidence was estimated at 160–180 cases/100.000 inhabitants in the 1970s-1980s. Despite recommendations for universal childhood immunization in 1991, vaccination coverage decreased in former East German States (FEG) and increased only slowly in FWG. After introduction of acellular pertussis vaccines in 1995, vaccination coverage increased markedly among younger children, but remains low in adolescents, especially in FWG, despite introduction of a booster vaccination for 9–17 year olds in 2000. Reported pertussis incidence increased in FEG to 39.3 cases/100.000 inhabitants in 2007, with the proportion of adults increasing from 20% in 1995 to 68% in 2007. From 2004–2007, incidence was highest among 5–14 year-old children, with a high proportion fully vaccinated according to official recommendations, which did not include a preschool booster until 2006. Hospital discharge statistics revealed a ~2-fold higher pertussis morbidity among infants in FWG than FEG.
The shift in pertussis morbidity to older age groups observed in FEG is similar to reports from other countries with longstanding vaccination programs and suggests that additional booster vaccination may be necessary beyond adolescence. The high proportion of fully vaccinated cases in older children in FEG suggests waning immunity 5–10 years after primary immunisation in infancy. The higher incidence of pertussis hospitalisations in infants suggests a stronger force of infection in FWG than FEG. Nationwide pertussis reporting is required for better evaluation of transmission patterns and vaccination policy in both parts of Germany.
Pertussis is a severe epidemic disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in unimmunized children. It is now clear, however, that adults with atypical disease account for many of the cases and are often responsible for transmission to susceptible infants. Because of the extent of unrecognized pertussis in the adult population, mass pediatric immunization has been successful in controlling the disease in children but not in reducing the presence of the organism in the United States. Pertussis immunization of children is associated with a high rate of side reactions and is temporally related to severe neurologic disease and death in infants. These events are often considered to be reactions, but available scientific evidence indicates that few, if any, are actually caused by pertussis immunization. Pertussis vaccine reactogenicity in adults is anecdotally considered to be worse than in children, but direct studies do not support that. In the context of current programs emphasizing adult immunization, consideration should be given to booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis in adults, using component pertussis vaccines when they become available.
The number of reported pertussis has increased in the last two decades. However, many cases of pertussis may be underreported or not diagnosed. The World Health Organization estimates that pertussis causes 200.000 – 400.000 deaths each year, most deaths are in infants and in developing countries. Infants with pertussis can indicate an undetected source cases in the community.
At a University Hospital in Brazil individuals that had frequent contacts with a child with confirmed pertussis (the index case) and had recent history of cough were enrolled into the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from every contact that had cough within the last 21 days. Cases confirmation followed the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention – Atlanta, U.S.A.
Pertussis diagnosis was confirmed in 51 children, (considered the index cases). Among the index cases, 72.5% (37/51) were under 6 months of age; culture for Bordetella pertussis was positive in 78.4% (40/51). Pertussis was confirmed in 39% (107/276) of the contacts of 51 index cases. Among these contacts identified as a pertussis case, 40.2% (43/107) were between 6 months and 111/2 years of age and 59.8% (64/107) were older than 111/2 years of age. Pertussis was confirmed by culture in 11.2% (12/107) of them and by epidemiologic linkage in 88.8% (95/107). Each index case allowed identifying two new cases of pertussis.
Public health authorities should consider implementing early recognition of pertussis index cases and searching for pertussis cases among the contacts. Treatment of the cases and prophylaxis of the contacts is fundamental to control outbreaks in the community.
Florida, the fourth most populous state in the nation, has had historically low incidence rates of pertussis, the only vaccine-preventable disease with increasing numbers of reported cases. We compared the epidemiology and incidence rates of pertussis in Florida with other states and the United States.
We used Florida and federal surveillance data from 2000 through 2006.
Reported incidence of pertussis in Florida, numbers of cases, and proportions of adolescents and adults all increased during the seven-year study period. Florida incidence rates increased from 0.44 to 1.28, but the state's incidence was always ranked 45th or lower among the states. Reported pertussis cases and those among adolescents and adults in Florida increased during the study period. Ten counties, containing 60% of Florida's population, reported two-thirds of the state's cases.
Pertussis reported from Florida mirrored national trends with increasing incidence, numbers of cases, and proportions of adolescent and adult cases. Despite the increases, Florida maintained its historic pattern of pertussis incidence rates that are consistently lower than national figures. Limited laboratory diagnostics and a focus on the pediatric population likely contributed to the lower rates of pertussis in Florida. More emphasis on surveillance of adolescent and adult cases is needed.
Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time.
We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy), or adults of various ages.
In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1) a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2) a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years). These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between −77% and −80% including additional vaccination costs). The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run.
By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.
Pertussis (whooping cough) is a potentially fatal respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite effective vaccination programs, there has been concern in some developed countries that pertussis cases are on the increase. We characterized 703 clinical B. pertussis isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1920 and 2006 using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), pertactin (prnA) and pertussis toxin (ptxA) genotyping, and serotyping. The results showed that the genetic diversity of the bacterial population decreased during periods of high vaccine coverage. However, it was elevated between 1977 and 1986, when vaccine coverage in the United Kingdom was low and epidemics occurred. A high proportion of MLVA types during this epidemic period were novel, and the prnA(2) and prnA(3) alleles were seen for the first time in the United Kingdom. MLVA-27 appeared in 1982, was codominant during the 1998-to-2001 period, and comprised ∼70% of isolates during both the 2002-to-2004 and the 2005-to-2006 periods. The United Kingdom is dominated currently by an MLVA-27 prnA(2) ptxA(1) serotype Fim3 clonal type. Even during recent periods dominated by MLVA-27, many novel types were found at low frequencies, suggesting that either there are a large number of uncommon MLVA types circulating at low frequencies or new types are constantly arising. This supports a hypothesis that MLVA-27 is under some form of positive selection conferring increased survival in a highly vaccinated population. There has been no significant change to the bacterial population in the first 2 years since the United Kingdom switched from a whole-cell to an acellular vaccine.
Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, has remained endemic in The Netherlands despite extensive nationwide vaccination since 1953. In the 1990s, several epidemic periods have resulted in many cases of pertussis. We have proposed that strain variation has played a major role in the upsurges of this disease in The Netherlands. Therefore, molecular characterization of strains is important in identifying the causes of pertussis epidemiology. For this reason, we have developed a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing system for B. pertussis. By combining the MLVA profile with the allelic profile based on multiple-antigen sequence typing, we were able to further differentiate strains. The relationships between the various genotypes were visualized by constructing a minimum spanning tree. MLVA of Dutch strains of B. pertussis revealed that the genotypes of the strains isolated in the prevaccination period were diverse and clearly distinct from the strains isolated in the 1990s. Furthermore, there was a decrease in diversity in the strains from the late 1990s, with a remarkable clonal expansion that coincided with the epidemic periods. Using this genotyping, we have been able to show that B. pertussis is much more dynamic than expected.
Resurgence of pertussis in the post-vaccination era has been reported in Western countries. A shift of cases from school-age children to adolescents, adults and children under 1 year of age has been described in the last decade, and mortality rates in infants are still sustained. We aimed to review and discuss the possible vaccination strategies which can be adopted in order to improve the pertussis control, by searches of Pubmed, and websites of US and European Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1st January 2002, and 1st March 2013.
The following vaccination strategies have been retrieved and analysed: the cocooning strategy, the immunization of pregnant women and newborns, vaccination programs for preschool children, adolescents, adults and health-care workers. Cost-effectiveness studies provide some contrasting data, mainly supporting both maternal vaccination and cocooning. Adolescent and/or adult vaccination seems to be cost-effective, however data from observational studies suggest that this vaccination strategy, used alone, leads to a reduced pertussis burden globally, but does not affect the disease incidence in infants. Moreover, substantial logistical and economic difficulties have to be overcome to vaccinate the largest number of individuals.
The simultaneous use of more than one strategy, including cocooning strategy plus vaccination of adolescents and adults, seems to be the most reasonable preventive measure. The development of new highly immunogenic and efficacious pertussis vaccines continues to be a primary objective for the control of pertussis.
Children; Pertussis; Vaccine
Pertussis, an acute respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, classically manifests as a protracted cough illness. The incidence of pertussis in the United States has been increasing in recent years. Immunity wanes after childhood vaccination, leaving adolescents and adults susceptible to infection. The transmission of pertussis in health care settings has important medical and economic consequences. Acellular pertussis booster vaccines are now available for use and have been recommended for all adolescents and adults. These vaccines are safe, immunogenic, and effective. Health care workers are a priority group for vaccination because of their increased risk of acquiring infection and the potential to transmit pertussis to high-risk patients. Health care worker vaccination programs are likely to be cost-effective, but further research is needed to determine the acceptability of pertussis vaccines among health care workers, the duration of immunity after booster doses, and the impact of vaccination on the management of pertussis exposures in health care settings.
To describe an outbreak of Bordetella pertussis and to assess which factors were associated with the development of clinical pertussis in children and adults during the outbreak.
A case series was described to define the epidemiology of the pertussis outbreak. A school-based survey of children was used to measure the incidence of clinical pertussis over the previous six months. Vaccination records from the local public health facility were used to look at the relationship between age and vaccination parameters, and susceptibility to clinically diagnosed pertussis. A cross-sectional survey of teachers, parents and some hospital workers was used to assess these associations in adults.
An outbreak of pertussis in an isolated northern community in British Columbia.
All children in the community who attend daycare, kindergarten or school, and their parents were surveyed. In addition, some health care workers and mothers of preschool children were surveyed.
A total of 31 suspected cases of pertussis were identified over a three-month period. Ninety per cent of the affected children who had available vaccination records had received four or five doses of pertussis vaccine. Sixty per cent of the town's 209 children returned completed surveys. Of these, 69% had available vaccination records. Thirty-six children (28%) reported symptoms that fit the case definition for pertussis over the previous three months. Attack rates were highest for the group of children aged 10 to 14 years. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, receiving prophylactic medication and an increased number of years from the last vaccine dose were found to be significant predictors for developing pertussis. Thirty-four per cent of the estimated 291 adults in the community returned completed surveys. The attack rate of pertussis in the adults was only 9%. Being a member of the school staff and/or having a household contact with pertussis were significant predictors of developing pertussis.
Immunity to pertussis appears to wane during childhood. Peak susceptibility appears to be during early adolescence. Adults do not seem to be at greater risk than adolescents for developing the disease, but it seems unlikely that this is due to better immunity. Rather, it is probably related to a lower risk of exposure to pertussis and a lower rate of progression to symptomatic disease when adults are infected.
Immunity; Pertussis; Vaccination
Pertussis, a highly contagious respiratory illness, affects people of all ages and can have serious clinical consequences. It has been reported that from 1997–2000, 20% of all pertussis cases required hospitalization in the US. This analysis examined demographics, case fatality rate, resource use and costs of hospital care related to pertussis by age.
ICD-9 codes (033.0, 033.9) were used to identify cases of pertussis in hospital discharge databases from roughly 1,000 US hospitals in 4 states (California, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts). Data from 1996–1999 were examined by age group. Separate analyses were done for infants (<1 year) and children (1–11 years); however, adolescent and adult cases were combined into one group (12+ years), due to the small number of cases. Databases were used to determine demographics, health service utilization and care costs. Cost estimates include accommodations, ancillary and physician services, reported in 2002 US$.
Of the 2,518 cases identified, 90% were infants. The inpatient case fatality rate was <1%. Of survivors, 99% were discharged home (6% with home health care); 1% required further sub-acute inpatient care. For the 2,266 infants, the mean LOS was 6 days at a cost of $9,586 per stay. Children (n = 191) had a mean LOS of 3.7 and cost of $4,729; adolescents/adults (n = 61, mean age 40 years) stayed on average 3.4 days with a cost of $5,683 per hospitalization.
Infants are responsible for the bulk of hospitalizations and generate higher inpatient costs. Costly hospital care occurs, however, in patients with pertussis at all ages.
A national assessment of the efficacy of pertussis vaccination was made in 21 area health authorities in England. Notification rates for children given either three doses of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine or diphtheria/tetanus vaccine were studied during the two and a half-year period January 1978-June 1980. A survey of home circumstances showed that the two vaccine groups could be validly compared. Home visits were made to assess the severity of the illness, the attack rates in home contacts, and to take pernasal swabs. Pertussis vaccination was found to be of outstanding value in preventing serious disease. Nevertheless, its effect in controlling whooping cough is limited by the fact that protection for home contacts is less satisfactory, and by the occurrence of mild cases in vaccinated children which may contribute to the spread of the disease.
A segment of chiropractic has historically opposed the practice of immunization. This opposition has been based on historical and philosophical precedent, but with little support from the scientific literature.
Pertussis immunization has successfully controlled a disease with a prior history of high childhood morbidity. An evaluation of the literature fails to find supporting evidence that whole-cell pertussis vaccine causes SIDS, asthma, or encephalopathy. Countries who discontinued pertussis immunization experienced a return of the disease, and in every case pertussis immunization has been reinstated.
The recent successful clinical trials and subsequent approval of an acellular pertussis vaccine should reduce the local reactions and discomfort sometimes experienced with the whole-cell product.
In view of the considerable scientific evidence for the desirability and efficacy of pertussis immunization, chiropractic should encourage patient participation in this worthwhile public health service.
chiropractic; immunization; pertussis
Despite widespread immunization programs, a clear increase in pertussis incidence is apparent in many developed countries during the last decades. Consequently, additional immunization strategies are considered to reduce the burden of disease. The aim of this study is to design an individual-based stochastic dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in the population in order to predict the epidemiologic and economic consequences of the implementation of universal booster vaccination programs. Using this framework, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal adolescent pertussis booster vaccination at the age of 12 years in the Netherlands.
We designed a discrete event simulation (DES) model to predict the epidemiological and economic consequences of implementing universal adolescent booster vaccination. We used national age-specific notification data over the period 1996–2000—corrected for underreporting—to calibrate the model assuming a steady state situation. Subsequently, booster vaccination was introduced. Input parameters of the model were derived from literature, national data sources (e.g. costing data, incidence and hospitalization data) and expert opinions. As there is no consensus on the duration of immunity acquired by natural infection, we considered two scenarios for this duration of protection (i.e. 8 and 15 years). In both scenarios, total pertussis incidence decreased as a result of adolescent vaccination. From a societal perspective, the cost-effectiveness was estimated at €4418/QALY (range: 3205–6364 € per QALY) and €6371/QALY (range: 4139–9549 € per QALY) for the 8- and 15-year protection scenarios, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the outcomes are most sensitive to the quality of life weights used for pertussis disease.
To our knowledge we designed the first individual-based dynamic framework to model pertussis transmission in the population. This study indicates that adolescent pertussis vaccination is likely to be a cost-effective intervention for The Netherlands. The model is suited to investigate further pertussis booster vaccination strategies.
Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory tract disease caused by Bordetella pertussis infection. The clinical manifestation of this infection can be severe enough to cause death. Although pertussis has been supposed to be a vaccine-preventable disease ever since the widespread vaccination of children against pertussis was started, since the 1990s, cases of pertussis and related fatalities are on the rise, especially in countries with high vaccination coverage. In Korea, there have been no deaths due to pertussis since 1990, and the vaccination rate continues to be approximately 94%. However, the number of pertussis cases reported to the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention has tended to increase in the 2000s, and in 2009, there was an obvious increase in the number of pertussis cases reported. This review aims to present the latest information about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pertussis.
Pertussis; Vaccination; Outbreak
Even with high coverage of vaccination programs, Bordetella pertussis is still reported in various countries. It causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in infants while it could be asymptomatic in adults. At the present study, we are going to evaluate the frequency of B. pertussis among received specimens.
This cross-sectional study was performed on 138 children under one year who were suspected to have whooping cough from October 2008 to March in 2011. Nasopharyngeal dacron and rayon swabs and sera were used for PCR and serology respectively.
The mean age of the subjects was 1.9± 0.9 months. PCR was positive in 12 cases; ELISA was in agreement with PCR results except in one case that showed the specific antibody at borderline limit.
The rate of reported positive results showed that pertussis not only is still present in the community, but the number of the asymptomatic cases who are able to transmit the disease may be considerable.
Whooping cough; B. pertussis; PCR; ELISA.
Between 1998 and 2009, Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates were collected during three periods, i.e., 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), and 2007 to 2009 (n = 140), from nine countries with distinct vaccination programs, i.e., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed according to standardized recommendations for epidemiological typing of B. pertussis. There were 81 different PFGE profiles, five of which (BpSR3, BpSR5, BpSR10, BpSR11, and BpSR12) were observed in 61% of the 396 isolates and shown to be predominant in almost all countries. The major profile, BpSR11, showed a decreasing trend from 25% to 30% in 1998 to 2005 to 13% in 2007 to 2009, and there were increases in BpSR3 and BpSR10 from 0% and 8% to 21% and 22%, respectively. One difference between these profiles is that BpSR11 contains isolates harboring the fim3-2 allele and BpSR3 and BpSR10 contain isolates harboring the fim3-1 allele. The total proportion of the five predominant profiles increased from 44% in 1998 to 2001 to 63% in 2004 to 2005 to 70% in 2007 to 2009. In conclusion, common PFGE profiles were identified in B. pertussis populations circulating in European countries with different vaccination programs and different vaccine coverages. These prevalent isolates contain the novel pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3 allele. However, there is evidence for diversifying selection between ptxP3 strains characterized by distinct PFGE profiles. This work shows that, even within a relatively short time span of 10 years, successful isolates which spread through Europe and cause large shifts in B. pertussis populations may emerge.
There is evidence that pertussis is reemerging in vaccinated populations. We have proposed, and provided evidence for, one explanation for this phenomenon in The Netherlands: antigenic divergence between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Finland has a pertussis vaccination history very similar to that of The Netherlands, and yet there is no evidence for an increase in the incidence of pertussis to the extent that it was observed in The Netherlands. A comparison of the Bordetella pertussis strains circulating in the two countries may shed light on the differences in pertussis epidemiology. Here we investigated whether temporal changes had occurred in pertussis toxin and pertactin types produced by the Finnish B. pertussis population. We show that strains isolated before 1964 produced the same pertussis toxin and pertactin variants as the vaccine strains. However, these vaccine types were replaced in later years, and in the 1990s most strains were distinct from the vaccine strains with respect to the two proteins. These trends are similar to those found in the Dutch B. pertussis population. An interesting difference between the contemporary Finnish and Dutch B. pertussis populations was found in the frequencies of pertactin variants, possibly explaining the distinct epidemiology of pertussis in the two countries.
Existing clinical case definitions of pertussis are decades old and based largely on clinical presentation in infants and children, yet an increasing burden is borne by adolescents and adults who may manifest distinct signs/symptoms. Therefore, a “one-size-fits-all” clinical case definition is no longer appropriate. Seeking to improve pertussis diagnosis, the Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) developed an algorithm that delineates the signs/symptoms of pertussis most common to 3 age groups: 0–3 months, 4 months to 9 years, and ≥10 years. These case definitions are based on clinical presentation alone, but do include recommendations on laboratory diagnostics. Until pertussis can be accurately diagnosed, its burden will remain underestimated, making the introduction of epidemiologically appropriate preventive strategies difficult. The proposed definitions are intended to be widely applicable and to encourage the expanded use of laboratory diagnostics. Determination of their utility and their sensitivity and/or specificity versus existing case definitions is required.
Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, Bordetella pertussis has remained endemic in The Netherlands, causing epidemic outbreaks every 3 to 5 years. Strain variation may play a role in the persistence of B. pertussis and was studied by sequencing 15 genes coding for surface proteins, including genes for all five components of acellular pertussis vaccines: pertussis toxin (Ptx), pertactin (Prn), filamentous hemagglutinin, and fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3). A low level of allelic variation was observed, confirming a recent evolutionary origin of B. pertussis. In modern isolates, polymorphism was observed only in prn, ptxS1, ptxS3, and tcfA. Polymorphism in ptxS1, ptxS3, and tcfA was used to categorize isolates in multilocus sequence types (MLSTs). Analysis of Dutch isolates from 1949 to 1999 revealed five MLSTs, which showed a highly dynamic temporal behavior. We observed significant changes in the MLSTs after the introduction of pertussis vaccination in The Netherlands. Epidemic years were found to be associated with the expansion of MLST-4 or MLST-5. MLST-5 showed a remarkable expansion from 10% in 1997 to 80% in 1999. The MLST analysis was extended to a number of widely separated geographic regions: Finland, Italy, Japan, and the United States. MLST-4 and MLST-5 were found to dominate in Italy and the United States. In Finland and Japan, MLST-3 and MLST-2, respectively, were predominant. Thus, although each region showed distinctive MLST frequencies, in three of the five regions MLST-4 and MLST-5 were predominant. These types may represent newly emerged, successful clones. The identification of highly successful clones may shed light on the question of how B. pertussis is able to maintain itself in vaccinated populations.
Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the last three decades, strains of Bordetella pertussis in circulation have shifted from the vaccine-type to the nonvaccine-type in many countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of the strains was performed to identify protein(s) involved in the type shift.
Proteomic analysis identified one differentially expressed protein in the B. pertussis strains: the type III cytotoxic effector protein BteA, which is responsible for host cell death in Bordetella bronchiseptica infections. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the prominent expression of BteA protein in the nonvaccine-type strains but not in the vaccine-type strains. Sequence analysis of the vaccine-type strains revealed an IS481 insertion in the 5′ untranslated region of bteA, −136 bp upstream of the bteA start codon. A high level of bteA transcripts from the IS481 promoter was detected in the vaccine-type strains, indicating that the transcript might be an untranslatable form. Furthermore, BteA mutant studies demonstrated that BteA expression in the vaccine-type strains is down-regulated by the IS481 insertion.
The cytotoxic effector BteA protein is expressed at higher levels in B. pertussis nonvaccine-type strains than in vaccine-type strains. This type-dependent expression is due to an insertion of IS481 in B. pertussis clinical strains, suggesting that augmented expression of BteA protein might play a key role in the type shift of B. pertussis.