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1.  Health-care associated infections rates, length of stay, and bacterial resistance in an intensive care unit of Morocco: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) 
Background
Most studies related to healthcare-associated infection (HAI) were conducted in the developed countries. We sought to determine healthcare-associated infection rates, microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, length of stay (LOS), and extra mortality in one ICU of a hospital member of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in Morocco.
Methods
We conducted prospective surveillance from 11/2004 to 4/2008 of HAI and determined monthly rates of central vascular catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CVC-BSI), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). CDC-NNIS definitions were applied. device-utilization rates were calculated by dividing the total number of device-days by the total number of patient-days. Rates of VAP, CVC-BSI, and CAUTI per 1000 Device-days were calculated by dividing the total number of HAI by the total number of specific Device-days and multiplying the result by 1000.
Results
1,731 patients hospitalized for 11,297 days acquired 251 HAIs, an overall rate of 14.5%, and 22.22 HAIs per 1,000 ICU-days. The central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) rate found was 15.7 per 1000 catheter-days; the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate found was 43.2 per 1,000 ventilator-days; and the catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) rate found was 11.7 per 1,000 catheter-days.
Overall 25.5% of all Staphylococcus aureus HAIs were caused by methicillin-resistant strains, 78.3% of Coagulase-negative-staphylococci were methicillin resistant as well. 75.0% of Klebsiella were resistant to ceftriaxone and 69.5% to ceftazidime. 31.9% of E. Coli were resistant to ceftriaxone and 21.7% to ceftazidime. 68.4% of Enterobacter sp were resistant to ceftriaxone, 55.6% to ceftazidime, and 10% to imipenem; 35.6% of Pseudomonas sp were resistant to ceftazidime and 13.5% to imipenem.
LOS of patients was 5.1 days for those without HAI, 9.0 days for those with CVC-BSI, 10.6 days for those with VAP, and 13.7 days for those with CAUTI.
Extra mortality was 56.7% (RR, 3.28; P =< 0.001) for VAP, 75.1% (RR, 4.02; P = 0.0027) for CVC-BSI, and 18.7% (RR, 1.75; P = 0.0218) for CAUTI.
Conclusion
HAI rates, LOS, mortality, and bacterial resistance were high. Even if data may not reflect accurately the clinical setting of the country, programs including surveillance, infection control, and antibiotic policy are a priority in Morocco.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-2-29
PMCID: PMC2765432  PMID: 19811636
2.  Nosocomial infections and risk factors in the intensive care unit of a teaching and research hospital: A prospecive cohort study 
Summary
Background
To evaluate the incidence, risk factors and etiology of nosocomial infections (NIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital in order to improve our infection control policies.
Material/Methods
A 1-year prospective cohort study of nosocomial infection (NI) surveillance was conducted in our ICU in 2008.
Results
Out of 1134 patients hospitalized in the ICU for a period of 6257 days, 115 patients acquired a total of 135 NIs distributed as follows: 36.3% bacteremia, 30.4% ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), 18.5% catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 7.4% central-line infection, 5.9% cutaneous infection, and 1.3% meningitis. The incidence rate of NI was 21.6 in 1000 patient-days, and the rate of NI was 25.6%. Length of ICU stay, central venous catheterisation, mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy were statistically significant risk factors for NI. Of all NI, 112 (83%) were microbiologically-confirmed and 68.8% of the isolates were Gram-negative, 27.6% were Gram-positive, and 3.6% were fungi. 23 (17%) were clinically-defined infections. The most frequently isolated organism was P. aeruginosa (25%), followed by S. aureus (21.4%), E. coli (18.7%) and A. baumannii (16.9%).
Conclusions
The bloodstream was the most common site and Gram-negatives were the most commonly reported causes of ICU infections.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881750
PMCID: PMC3539590  PMID: 21525819
intensive care unit; infection; risk factors
3.  A risk factor analysis of healthcare-associated fungal infections in an intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU.
Methods
Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from “sterile” objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive). Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality.
Results
There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P < 0.001). A total of 516 episodes of ICU fungal HAIs were identified; the rates of various infections were urinary tract infection (UTI) (54.8%), blood stream infection (BSI) (30.6%), surgical site infection (SSI) (6.6%), pneumonia (4.5%), other sites (3.5%). The fungi identified were: yeasts (54.8%), Candida albicans (27.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), Candida glabrata (6.6%), Candida parapsilosis (1.9%), Candida species (0.8%), and other fungi (1.9%). Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P < 0.05) of developing ICU fungal HAIs from all sites were TPN use, sepsis, surgical patients, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal UTI included TPN use, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal BSI included TPN use, sepsis, and higher APACHE II score. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal pneumonia included TPN use, surgical patients. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal SSI included surgical patients, and TPN use. The odds ratios of TPN use in various infection types ranged from 3.51 to 8.82. The risk of mortality in patients with ICU fungal HAIs was over 2 times that of patients without ICU HAIs in the multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
There was a secular trend of an increasing number of fungal HAIs in our ICU over the past decade. Patients with ICU fungal HAIs had a significantly higher mortality rate than did patients without ICU HAIs. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor for all types of ICU fungal HAIs, and its use should be monitored closely.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-10
PMCID: PMC3548709  PMID: 23298156
Intensive care unit; Fungal infection; Outbreak surveillance; Candida; Total parenteral nutrition
4.  Impact of intensive care unit-acquired infection on hospital mortality in Japan: A multicenter cohort study 
Objectives
To elucidate factors associated with hospital mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to evaluate the impact of ICU-acquired infection on hospital mortality in the context of the drug resistance of pathogens.
Methods
By using the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS) database, 7,374 patients who were admitted to the 34 participating ICUs between July 2000 and May 2002, were aged 16 years or older, and who stayed in the ICU for 48 to 1,000 hours, did not transfer to another ICU, and did not become infected within 2 days after ICU admission, were followed up until hospital discharge or to Day 180 after ICU discharge. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hospital mortality were calculated using Cox’s proportional hazard model.
Results
After adjusting for sex, age, and severity-of-illness (APACHE II score), a significantly higher HR for hospital mortality was found in ventilator use, central venous catheter use, and ICU-acquired drug-resistant infection, with a significantly lower HR in elective or urgent operations and urinary catheter use. The impact of ICU-acquired infection on hospital mortality was different between drug-susceptible pathogens (HR 1.11,95% CI:0.94–1.31) and drug-resistant pathogens (HR 1.42,95% CI: 1.15–1.77).
Conclusions
The use of a ventilator or a central venous catheter, and ICU-acquired drug-resistant infection were associated with a high risk of hospital mortality in ICU patients. The potential impact on hospital mortality emphasizes the importance of preventive measures against ICU-acquired infections, especially those caused by drug-resistant pathogens.
doi:10.1007/BF02897932
PMCID: PMC2723393  PMID: 21432299
multicenter cohort study; hospital mortality; ICU; nosocomial infection; drug resistance
5.  Dramatic increase of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in German intensive care units: secular trends in antibiotic drug use and bacterial resistance, 2001 to 2008 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):R113.
Introduction
The objective of the present study was to analyse secular trends in antibiotic consumption and resistance data from a network of 53 intensive care units (ICUs).
Methods
The study involved prospective unit and laboratory-based surveillance in 53 German ICUs from 2001 through 2008. Data were calculated on the basis of proportions of nonduplicate resistant isolates, resistance densities (that is, the number of resistant isolates of a species per 1,000 patient-days) and an antimicrobial usage density (AD) expressed as daily defined doses (DDD) and normalised per 1,000 patient-days.
Results
Total mean antibiotic use remained stable over time and amounted to 1,172 DDD/1,000 patient-days (range 531 to 2,471). Carbapenem use almost doubled to an AD of 151 in 2008. Significant increases were also calculated for quinolone (AD of 163 in 2008) and third-generation and fourth-generation cephalosporin use (AD of 117 in 2008). Aminoglycoside consumption decreased substantially (AD of 86 in 2001 and 24 in 2008). Resistance proportions were as follows in 2001 and 2008, respectively: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 26% and 20% (P = 0.006; trend test showed a significant decrease), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) faecium 2.3% and 8.2% (P = 0.008), third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia. coli 1.2% and 19.7% (P < 0.001), 3GC-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae 3.8% and 25.5% (P < 0.001), imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 1.1% and 4.5% (P = 0.002), and imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae 0.4% and 1.1%. The resistance densities did not change for MRSA but increased significantly for VRE faecium and 3GC-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae. In 2008, the resistance density for MRSA was 3.73, 0.48 for VRE, 1.39 for 3GC-resistant E. coli and 0.82 for K. pneumoniae.
Conclusions
Although total antibiotic use did not change over time in German ICUs, carbapenem use doubled. This is probably due to the rise in 3GC-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Increased carbapenem consumption was associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria and imipenem-resistant A. baumannii.
doi:10.1186/cc9062
PMCID: PMC2911759  PMID: 20546564
6.  Health-care-associated infections: Risk factors and epidemiology from an intensive care unit in Northern India 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2014;58(1):30-35.
Background and Aims:
Health-care-associated infection is a key factor determining the clinical outcome among patients admitted in critical care areas. The objective of the study was to ascertain the epidemiology and risk factors of health-care-associated infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in a tertiary care hospital.
Methods:
This prospective, observational clinical study included patients admitted in ICU over a period of one and a half years. Routine surveillance of various health-care-associated infections such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), central-line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) was done by the Department of Microbiology through specific Infection Surveillance Proforma.
Results:
Out of 679 patients, 166 suffered 198 episodes of device-associated infections. The infections included CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP. The number of urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes was found to be 73 (10.75%) among the ICU patients who had indwelling urinary catheter. In addition, for 1 year CAUTI was calculated as 9.08/1000 catheter days. The number of episodes of blood stream infection was 86 (13.50%) among ICU patients having central line catheters. Also, CLABSI was found to be 13.86/1000 central line days. A total of 39 episodes (6.15%) of VAP was found in ICU patients over 18 months and VAP present for 6.04/1000 ventilator days.
Conclusions:
The organisms most commonly associated with health-care-associated infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The risk factors identified as being significantly associated with device associated infections in our ICU were diabetes, COPD and ICU stay for ≥8 days (P < 0.05).
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.126785
PMCID: PMC3968648
Epidemiology; health-care-associated infection; risk factors
7.  A program for sustained improvement in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia in an intensive care setting 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:234.
Background
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and associated with a high mortality.
Methods
A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a medical-surgical ICU. Multiple interventions to optimize VAP prevention were performed from October 2008 to December 2010. All of these processes, including the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) ventilator bundle plus oral decontamination with chlorhexidine and continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (CASS), were adopted for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.
Results
We evaluated a total of 21,984 patient-days, and a total of 6,052 ventilator-days (ventilator utilization rate of 0.27). We found VAP rates of 1.3 and 2.0 per 1,000 ventilator days respectively in 2009 and 2010, achieving zero incidence of VAP several times during 12 months, whenever VAP bundle compliance was over 90%.
Conclusion
These results suggest that it is possible to reduce VAP rates to near zero and sustain these rates, but it requires a complex process involving multiple performance measures and interventions that must be permanently monitored.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-234
PMCID: PMC3521195  PMID: 23020101
Ventilator associated pneumonia; Prevention; Intensive care; VAP bundle
8.  Sustaining reductions in catheter related bloodstream infections in Michigan intensive care units: observational study 
Objectives To evaluate the extent to which intensive care units participating in the initial Keystone ICU project sustained reductions in rates of catheter related bloodstream infections.
Design Collaborative cohort study to implement and evaluate interventions to improve patients’ safety.
Setting Intensive care units predominantly in Michigan, USA.
Intervention Conceptual model aimed at improving clinicians’ use of five evidence based recommendations to reduce rates of catheter related bloodstream infections rates, with measurement and feedback of infection rates. During the sustainability period, intensive care unit teams were instructed to integrate this intervention into staff orientation, collect monthly data from hospital infection control staff, and report infection rates to appropriate stakeholders.
Main outcome measures Quarterly rate of catheter related bloodstream infections per 1000 catheter days during the sustainability period (19-36 months after implementation of the intervention).
Results Ninety (87%) of the original 103 intensive care units participated, reporting 1532 intensive care unit months of data and 300 310 catheter days during the sustainability period. The mean and median rates of catheter related bloodstream infection decreased from 7.7 and 2.7 (interquartile range 0.6-4.8) at baseline to 1.3 and 0 (0-2.4) at 16-18 months and to 1.1 and 0 (0.0-1.2) at 34-36 months post-implementation. Multilevel regression analysis showed that incidence rate ratios decreased from 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.88) at 0-3 months to 0.38 (0.26 to 0.56) at 16-18 months and 0.34 (0.24-0.48) at 34-36 months post-implementation. During the sustainability period, the mean bloodstream infection rate did not significantly change from the initial 18 month post-implementation period (−1%, 95% confidence interval −9% to 7%).
Conclusions The reduced rates of catheter related bloodstream infection achieved in the initial 18 month post-implementation period were sustained for an additional 18 months as participating intensive care units integrated the intervention into practice. Broad use of this intervention with achievement of similar results could substantially reduce the morbidity and costs associated with catheter related bloodstream infections.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c309
PMCID: PMC2816728  PMID: 20133365
9.  Variations in catheter-related bloodstream infections rates based on local practices 
Background
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) surveillance serves as a quality improvement measure that is often used to assess performance. We reviewed the total number of microbiological samples collected in three Belgian intensive care units (ICU) in 2009–2010, and we described variations in CRBSI rates based on two factors: microbiological documentation rate and CRBSI definition which includes clinical criterion for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) episode.
Findings
CRBSI rates were 2.95, 1.13 and 1.26 per 1,000 estimated catheter-days in ICUs A, B and C, respectively. ICU B cultured fewer microbiological samples and reported the lowest CRBSI rate. ICU C had the highest documentation rate but was assisted by support available from the laboratory for processing single CNS positive blood cultures. With the exclusion of clinical criterion, CRBSI rates would be reduced by 19%, 45% and 0% in ICUs A, B and C, respectively.
Conclusion
CRBSI rates may be biased by differences of blood culture sampling and CRBSI definition. These observations suggest that comparisons of CRBSI rates in different ICUs remain difficult to interpret without knowledge of local practices.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-2-10
PMCID: PMC3621101  PMID: 23551847
Catheter-related bloodstream infection; Surveillance; Intensive care unit
10.  Epidemiology and impact of a multifaceted approach in controlling central venous catheter associated blood stream infections outside the intensive care unit 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:445.
Background
Outside ICUs, CVC-ABSIs epidemiology and the results of strategies for their prevention are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and the impact of a multifaceted “bundle” approach in controlling CVC-ABSIs outside ICU.
Methods
From 1991 we performed prevalence studies of device and parenteral nutrition use, and prospective surveillance of all episodes of CVC-ABSIs in a 350-bed teaching hospital. CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 inpatient-days was calculated. An estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 catheter-days was calculated based on the prevalence rates of catheter use and the total number of inpatient-days in each year. On november 2008, an education programme was instituted for care of catheter lines: reinforcing instructions in aseptic insertion technique, after care and hand-washing; in order to assess the adherence to these measures the quantity of alcohol-based hand-rub consumption/1,000 patient-days was quoted in litres. From January 2009, a checklist intervention for CVC insertion in ICU was started: hand hygiene, using full barrier precautions, cleaning the skin with alcoholic chlorhexidine, avoiding femoral access and removing unnecessary catheters. Compliance with the central line insertion checklist was measured by real-time audits and was achieved in 80% of cases.
Results
Prevalence of use of CVC and parenteral nutrition was similar throughout the study. We followed-up 309 CVC-ABSIs cases. Estimated CVC-ABSIs rate progressively increased to 15.1/1,000 catheter-days in 2008 (0.36/1,000 inpatient-days). After the intervention, the alcohol-based hand-rub consumption increased slightly and estimated CVC-ABSIs rate fell to 10.1 /1,000 catheter-days in last three years (0.19/1,000 inpatient-days), showing a 32.9% decrease. The infection rates achieved were lower in Internal Medicine wards: decreased from 14.1/1,000 catheter-days (0.17/patient-days) in 2008 to 5.2/1,000 catheter-days (0.05/1,000 inpatient-days) in last three years, showing a 63.1% decrease. In 2009, the estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence rate was significantly lower in the Internal Medicine ward compared to the Surgery ward: rate ratio (RR) = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.03-0.60), and within the Internal Medicine ward, the estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence rate was significantly lower in 2009 compared to 2008 (RR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.04-0.91).
Conclusion
The rate of CVC-ABSIs increased outside-ICU, and the implementation of multifaceted infection control programme decreased their clinical impact.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-445
PMCID: PMC3849631  PMID: 24063563
Catheter; Bloodstreams; Infection control
11.  Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance outside the Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Survey 
Objective
The success of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention programs in intensive care units (ICUs) has led to the expansion of surveillance at many hospitals. We sought to compare non-ICU CLABSI (nCLABSI) rates with national reports and describe methods of surveillance at several participating US institutions.
Design and Setting
An electronic survey of several medical centers about infection surveillance practices and rate data for non-ICU patients.
Participants
Ten tertiary care hospitals.
Methods
In March 2011, a survey was sent to 10 medical centers. The survey consisted of 12 questions regarding demographics and CLABSI surveillance methodology for non-ICU patients at each center. Participants were also asked to provide available rate and device utilization data.
Results
Hospitals ranged in size from 238 to 1,400 total beds (median, 815). All hospitals reported using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Denominators were collected by different means: counting patients with central lines every day (5 hospitals), indirectly estimating on the basis of electronic orders (n = 4), or another automated method (n = 1). Rates of nCLABSI ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 infections per 1,000 catheter-days (median, 2.5). The national rate reported by the CDC using 2009 data from the National Healthcare Surveillance Network was 1.14 infections per 1,000 catheter-days.
Conclusions
Only 2 hospitals were below the pooled CLABSI rate for inpatient wards; all others exceeded this rate. Possible explanations include differences in average central line utilization or hospital size in the impact of certain clinical risk factors notably absent from the definition and in interpretation and reporting practices. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether the national benchmarks are low or whether the hospitals surveyed here represent a selection of outliers.
doi:10.1086/667378
PMCID: PMC3670413  PMID: 22869259
12.  New materials and devices for preventing catheter-related infections 
Catheters are the leading source of bloodstream infections for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Comprehensive unit-based programs have proven to be effective in decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). ICU rates of CR-BSI higher than 2 per 1,000 catheter-days are no longer acceptable. The locally adapted list of preventive measures should include skin antisepsis with an alcoholic preparation, maximal barrier precautions, a strict catheter maintenance policy, and removal of unnecessary catheters. The development of new technologies capable of further decreasing the now low CR-BSI rate is a major challenge. Recently, new materials that decrease the risk of skin-to-vein bacterial migration, such as new antiseptic dressings, were extensively tested. Antimicrobial-coated catheters can prevent CR-BSI but have a theoretical risk of selecting resistant bacteria. An antimicrobial or antiseptic lock may prevent bacterial migration from the hub to the bloodstream. This review discusses the available knowledge about these new technologies.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-34
PMCID: PMC3170570  PMID: 21906266
13.  Beyond the bundle - journey of a tertiary care medical intensive care unit to zero central line-associated bloodstream infections 
Critical Care  2013;17(2):R41.
Introduction
We set a goal to reduce the incidence rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections to rate of <1 per 1,000 central line days in a two-year period.
Methods
This is an observational cohort study with historical controls in a 25-bed intensive care unit at a tertiary academic hospital. All patients admitted to the unit from January 2008 to December 2011 (31,931 patient days) were included. A multidisciplinary team consisting of hospital epidemiologist/infectious diseases physician, infection preventionist, unit physician and nursing leadership was convened. Interventions included: central line insertion checklist, demonstration of competencies for line maintenance and access, daily line necessity checklist, and quality rounds by nursing leadership, heightened staff accountability, follow-up surveillance by epidemiology with timely unit feedback and case reviews, and identification of noncompliance with evidence-based guidelines. Molecular epidemiologic investigation of a cluster of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) was undertaken resulting in staff education for proper acquisition of blood cultures, environmental decontamination and daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing for patients.
Results
Center for Disease Control/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definition was used to measure central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) rates during the following time periods: baseline (January 2008 to December 2009), intervention year (IY) 1 (January to December 2010), and IY 2 (January to December 2011). Infection rates were as follows: baseline: 2.65 infections per 1,000 catheter days; IY1: 1.97 per 1,000 catheter days; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.65, P = 0.398); residual seven CLA-BSIs during IY1 were VRE faecium blood cultures positive from central line alone in the setting of findings explicable by noninfectious conditions. Following staff education, environmental decontamination and CHG bathing (IY2): 0.53 per 1,000 catheter days; the IRR was 0.20 (95% CI = 0.06 to 0.65, P = 0.008) with 80% reduction compared to the baseline. Over the two-year intervention period, the overall rate decreased by 53% to 1.24 per 1,000 catheter-days (IRR of 0.47 (95% CI = 0.25 to 0.88, P = 0.019) with zero CLA-BSI for a total of 15 months.
Conclusions
Residual CLA-BSIs, despite strict adherence to central line bundle, may be related to blood culture contamination categorized as CLA-BSIs per CDC/NHSN definition. Efforts to reduce residual CLA-BSIs require a strategic multidisciplinary team approach focused on epidemiologic investigations of practitioner- or unit-specific etiologies.
doi:10.1186/cc12551
PMCID: PMC3733431  PMID: 23497591
14.  Incidence of healthcare associated infection in the surgical ICU of a tertiary care hospital 
Background
Healthcare associated infections (HAI) have taken on a new dimension with outbreaks of increasingly resistant organisms becoming common. Protocol-based infection control practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are extremely important. Moreover, baseline information of the incidence of HAI helps in planning-specific interventions at infection control.
Methods
This hospital-based observational study was carried out from Dec 2009 to May 2010 in the 10-bedded surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. CDC HAI definitions were used to diagnose HAI.
Results
A total of 293 patients were admitted in the ICU. 204 of these were included in the study. 36 of these patients developed HAI with a frequency of 17.6%. The incidence rate (IR) of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) was 16/1000 Central Venous Catheter (CVC) days [95% C.I. 9–26]. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) 9/1000 urinary catheter days [95% C.I. 4–18] and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) 32/1000 ventilator days [95% confidence interval 22–45].
Conclusion
The HAI rates in our ICU are less than other hospitals in developing countries. The incidence of VAP is comparable to other studies. Institution of an independent formal infection control monitoring and surveillance team to monitor & undertake infection control practices is an inescapable need in service hospitals.
doi:10.1016/j.mjafi.2012.08.028
PMCID: PMC3862707  PMID: 24600084
Hospital acquired infections; ICU care; Infection control
15.  Trends in Severity of Illness on ICU Admission and Mortality among the Elderly 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93234.
Background
There is an increase in admission rate for elderly patients to the ICU. Mortality rates are lower when more liberal ICU admission threshold are compared to more restrictive threshold. We sought to describe the temporal trends in elderly admissions and outcomes in a tertiary hospital before and after the addition of an 8-bed medical ICU.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of a comprehensive longitudinal ICU database, from a large tertiary medical center, examining trends in patients’ characteristics, severity of illness, intensity of care and mortality rates over the years 2001–2008. The study population consisted of elderly patients and the primary endpoints were 28 day and one year mortality from ICU admission.
Results
Between the years 2001 and 2008, 7,265 elderly patients had 8,916 admissions to ICU. The rate of admission to the ICU increased by 5.6% per year. After an eight bed MICU was added, the severity of disease on ICU admission dropped significantly and crude mortality rates decreased thereafter. Adjusting for severity of disease on presentation, there was a decreased mortality at 28- days but no improvement in one- year survival rates for elderly patient admitted to the ICU over the years of observation. Hospital mortality rates have been unchanged from 2001 through 2008.
Conclusion
In a high capacity ICU bed hospital, there was a temporal decrease in severity of disease on ICU admission, more so after the addition of additional medical ICU beds. While crude mortality rates decreased over the study period, adjusted one-year survival in ICU survivors did not change with the addition of ICU beds. These findings suggest that outcome in critically ill elderly patients may not be influenced by ICU admission. Adding additional ICU beds to deal with the increasing age of the population may therefore not be effective.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093234
PMCID: PMC3974713  PMID: 24699251
16.  Accidental catheter removal in critically ill patients: a prospective and observational study 
Critical Care  2004;8(4):R229-R233.
Introduction
The importance of accidental catheter removal (ACR) lies in the complications caused by the removal itself and by catheter reinsertion. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have analyzed accidental removal of various types of catheters in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objective of the present study was to analyze the incidence of ACR for all types of catheters in the ICU.
Methods
This was a prospective and observational study, conducted in a 24-bed medical/surgical ICU in a university hospital. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the ICU over 18 months (1 May 2000 to 31 October 2001). The incidences of ACR for all types of catheters (both per 100 catheters and per 100 catheter-days) were determined.
Results
A total of 988 patients were included. There were no significant differences in ACR incidence between the four central venous access sites (peripheral, jugular, subclavian and femoral) or between the four arterial access sites (radial, femoral, pedal and humeral). However, the incidence of ACR was higher for arterial than for central venous catheters (1.12/100 catheter-days versus 2.02/100 catheter-days; P < 0.001). The incidences of ACR/100 nonvascular catheter-days were as follows: endotracheal tube 0.79; nasogastric tube 4.48; urinary catheter 0.32; thoracic drain 0.56; abdominal drain 0.67; and intraventricular brain drain 0.66.
Conclusion
We found ACR incidences for central venous catheter, arterial catheter, endotracheal tube, nasogastric tube and urinary catheter that are similar to those reported in previous studies. We could not find studies that analyzed the ACR for thoracic, abdominal, intraventricular brain and cardiac surgical drains, but we believe that our rates are acceptable. To minimize ACR, it is necessary to monitor its incidence carefully and to implement preventive measures. In our view, according to establish quality standards, findings should be reported as ACR incidence per 100 catheters and per 100 catheter-days, for all types of catheters.
doi:10.1186/cc2874
PMCID: PMC522842  PMID: 15312222
accidental catheter removal; arterial catheter; central venous catheter; nonvascular catheter; quality standards
17.  An Agent-Based Model for Evaluating Surveillance Methods for Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection 
Surveillance for catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) is hindered by the fact that clinical case criteria are complex and subjective. Simplified objective criteria, based only on microbiologic data, may be a less valid, but potentially more reliable system for estimating and comparing institutional infection rates. We developed an agent-based simulation model to examine the impact of these two different criteria on the measurement of CRBSI in a simulated 12-bed hospital intensive care unit (ICU). We found that, on average, the clinical criteria was more accurate at estimating the true CRBSI rate than the simple criteria (3.36+/−1.11 vs. 5.41+/−1.36 infections/1000 catheter-days, compared with a true rate of 3.54+/−1.60). However, ecologic correlation (i.e., the accurate ranking of CRBSI rates across institutions) was higher for simple criteria than clinical criteria. Thus, simplified objective criteria are potentially superior to clinical criteria in identifying the true differences in CRBSI rates between institutions.
PMCID: PMC2655959  PMID: 18999291
18.  Decreasing healthcare-associated infections (HAI) is an efficient method to decrease healthcare-associated Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) infections Antimicrobial resistance data from the German national nosocomial surveillance system KISS 
Background
By analysing the data of the intensive care unit (ICU) component of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) during the last ten years, we have observed a steady increase in the MRSA rates (proportions) from 2001 to 2005 and only a slight decrease from 2006 to 2010. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the incidence density of nosocomial MRSA infections because this is the crucial outcome for patients.
Findings
Data from 103 ICUs with ongoing participation during the observation period were included. The pooled incidence density of nosocomial MRSA infections decreased significantly from 0.37 per 1000 patient days in 2001 to 0.15 per 1000 patient days in 2010 (RR = 0.40; CI95 0.29-0.55). This decrease was proportional to the significant decrease of all HCAI during the same time period (RR = 0.61; CI95 0.58-0.65).
Conclusions
The results underline the need to concentrate infection control activities on measures to control HCAI in general rather than focusing too much on specific MRSA prevention measures. MRSA rates (proportions) are not a very useful indicator of the situation.
doi:10.1186/2047-2994-1-3
PMCID: PMC3415117  PMID: 22958746
Surveillance; MRSA; epidemiology; Staphylococcus aureus
19.  Factors That Affect Nosocomial Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Units: 2-Year Experience at a Single Center 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(1):59-65.
Purpose
This study took a retrospective approach to investigate patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) over 2 years at a single hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) to identify meaningful risk factors and causative organisms.
Materials and Methods
A retrograde analysis was performed on patients with indwelling catheters between January 2009 and December 2010 in Yeouido St. Mary Hospital medical and surgical ICU. CAUTI was defined as isolated bacterial growth of 100,000 colony-forming units or more either 48 hours after transfer to the ICU if a urinary catheter was placed before the transfer or 48 hours after insertion if the catheter was inserted in the ICU. Only the patients whose culture results were negative before ICU admission were included.
Results
There were a total of 1,315 patients with indwelling urinary catheters in our hospital's medical and surgical ICU between January 2009 and December 2010. Of these patients, 241 had positive urine culture results, and 61 had CAUTI. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, those with diabetes were 4.55 (p<0.001) times as likely to have occurrences of CAUTI than were those without and also had a 1.10-fold (p<0.01) longer duration of an indwelling catheter. Upon urine culture, among the 61 patients with CAUTI, Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium grown; it was identified in 24 patients (38.7%).
Conclusions
The factors and causative organisms contributing to the development of CAUTI in the management of ICU patients must be considered to prevent the occurrence of UTIs in this setting.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.1.59
PMCID: PMC3556556  PMID: 23362450
Catheters; Intensive care units; Urinary tract infections
20.  Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections occurring in Canadian intensive care units: A six-month cohort study 
Objective
To determine the rate and risk factors associated with central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs).
Design
A prospective, active six-month cohort with a nested case-control study.
Setting
Forty-one ICUs located in 19 Canadian hospitals.
Methods
Data were collected using a standardized format on all CVCs and patients when a CVC was inserted for more than 48 h. Results of microbiological studies and therapeutic interventions were recorded when a BSI occurred.
Results
There were 182 BSIs from 3696 CVC insertions in 2531 patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were responsible for 73% of the BSIs. Mean rates of CVC-associated BSIs per 1000 CVC days were 6.9, 6.8 and 5.0 in adult, neonatal and pediatric ICUs, respectively. Significant factors associated with BSI included duration of CVC insertion (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), receiving total parenteral nutrition (OR=4.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.3) and having one or more CVCs (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5). In the case-control study, 80% of the variance in a backward elimination logistic regression analysis was explained by duration of CVC insertion (OR=1.2 per day), receiving chemotherapy (OR=6.1), more than one CVC insertion during the study (OR=3.5), insertion of a CVC with two or more lumens (OR=2.3), using the CVC to administer total parenteral nutrition (OR=1.6) and having a surgical wound other than a clean wound (OR=1.6).
Conclusion
The present study identified risk factors explaining 80% of the variance associated with BSIs and is one of the largest reports on the rate of CVC-associated BSIs occurring in the ICU setting.
PMCID: PMC2095065  PMID: 18418495
Bacteremia; Central venous catheter; Intensive care unit; Risk factor
21.  Infections Caused by Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms Are Not Associated with Overall, All-Cause Mortality in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit: The 20,000 Foot View 
Background
Resistant pathogens are increasingly common in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with controversy regarding their relationship to outcomes. We hypothesized that an increasing number of infections with resistant pathogens in our surgical ICU would not be associated with increased overall mortality.
Study Design
All ICU-acquired infections were prospectively identified between January 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2009 in a single surgical ICU. Crude in-hospital, all-cause mortality data was obtained using a prospectively collected ICU database. Trends in rates were compared using linear regression.
Results
A total of 799 resistant pathogens were identified (257 gram-positive, 542 gram-negative) from a total of 3024 isolated pathogens associated with 2439 ICU-acquired infections. The most frequently identified resistant gram-positive and -negative pathogens (defined as resistant to at least one major class of antimicrobials) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Pathogens were most commonly isolated from the lung, blood, and urine. Crude mortality rate declined steadily from 2000–2009 (9.4% to 5.4%; equation for trend y= −0.11x +8.26). Linear regression analysis of quarterly rates revealed a significant divergence in trends between increasing total resistant infections (equation for trend y=0.34x + 13.02) and percentage resistant infections (equation for trend y=0.36x + 18.66) when compared to a decreasing mortality (p = 0.0003, p = <0.0001, respectively).
Conclusions
Despite a steady rise in the proportion of resistant bacterial infections in the ICU, crude mortality rates have decreased over time. The rates of resistant infections do not appear to be a significant factor in overall mortality in our surgical ICU patients.
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.01.040
PMCID: PMC3334453  PMID: 22421258
22.  Decline in ICU adverse events, nosocomial infections and cost through a quality improvement initiative focusing on teamwork and culture change 
Quality & Safety in Health Care  2006;15(4):235-239.
Background
Nosocomial infections occur in approximately 10% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Several studies have shown that a quality improvement initiative can reduce nosocomial infections, mortality, and cost.
Context
Our hospital is located in Northern Mississippi and has a 28 bed Medical‐Surgical ICU unit with 95% occupancy. We joined the ICU collaborative with the IMPACT initiative of the Institute of Healthcare Improvement (IHI) in October 2002. A preliminary prospective before (fiscal year (FY) 2001–2) and after (FY 2003) hypothesis generating study was conducted of outcomes resulting from small tests of change in the management of ICU patients.
Key measures for improvement
Nosocomial infection rates, adverse events per ICU day, average length of stay, and average cost per ICU episode.
Strategy for change
Four changes were implemented: (1) physician led multidisciplinary rounds; (2) daily “flow” meeting to assess bed availability; (3) “bundles” (sets of evidence based best practices); and (4) culture changes with a focus on the team decision making process.
Effects of change
Between baseline and re‐measurement periods, nosocomial infection rates declined for ventilator associated pneumonia (from 7.5 to 3.2 per 1000 ventilator days, p = 0.04) and bloodstream infections (from 5.9 to 3.1 per 1000 line days, p = 0.03), with a downward trend in the rate of urinary tract infections (from 3.8 to 2.4 per 1000 catheter days, p = 0.17). There was a strong downward trend in the rates of adverse events in the ICU as well as the average length of stay per episode. From FY 2002 to FY 2003 the cost per ICU episode fell from $3406 to $2973.
Lessons learned
A systematic approach through collaboration with IHI's IMPACT initiative may have contributed to significant improvements in care in the ICU setting. Multidisciplinary teams appeared to improve communication, and bundles provided consistency of evidence based practices. The flow meetings allowed for rapid prioritization of activity and a new decision making culture empowered team members. The impact of these changes needs to be assessed more widely using rigorous study designs.
doi:10.1136/qshc.2005.016576
PMCID: PMC2564008  PMID: 16885246
intensive care; nosocomial infections; bundles; quality improvement
23.  Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence in intensive care units: a surveillance-based study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:236.
Background
The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) within the first 48 hours of intensive care unit (ICU) stay has been poorly investigated. The objective was to estimate early-onset VAP occurrence in ICUs within 48 hours after admission.
Methods
We analyzed data from prospective surveillance between 01/01/2001 and 31/12/2009 in 11 ICUs of Lyon hospitals (France). The inclusion criteria were: first ICU admission, not hospitalized before admission, invasive mechanical ventilation during first ICU day, free of antibiotics at admission, and ICU stay ≥ 48 hours. VAP was defined according to a national protocol. Its incidence was the number of events per 1,000 invasive mechanical ventilation-days. The Poisson regression model was fitted from day 2 (D2) to D8 to incident VAP to estimate the expected VAP incidence from D0 to D1 of ICU stay.
Results
Totally, 367 (10.8%) of 3,387 patients in 45,760 patient-days developed VAP within the first 9 days. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence at D0 and D1 was 5.3 (2.6-9.8) and 8.3 (6.1-11.1), respectively. The predicted cumulative VAP incidence was 23.0 (20.8-25.3) at D8. The proportion of missed VAP within 48 hours from admission was 11% (9%-17%).
Conclusions
Our study indicates underestimation of early-onset VAP incidence in ICUs, if only VAP occurring ≥ 48 hours are considered to be hospital-acquired. Clinicians should be encouraged to develop a strategy for early detection after ICU admission.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-236
PMCID: PMC3190374  PMID: 21896188
24.  Association between APACHE II score and nosocomial infections in intensive care unit patients: A multicenter cohort study 
Objective
To examine whether nosocomial infection risk increases with APACHE II score, which is an index of severity-of-illness, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Methods
Using the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance database, 8,587 patients admitted to 34 participating ICUs between July 2000 and May 2002, aged 16 years or older, who had stayed in the ICU for 2 days or longer, had not transferred to another ICU, and had not been infected within 2 days after ICU admission, were followed until ICU discharge, Day 14 after ICU admission, or the development of nosocomial infection. Adjusted odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals for nosocomial infections were calculated using logistic regression models, which incorporated sex, age, operation, ventilator; central venous catheter, and APACHE II score (0–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, 21–25, 26–30, and 31+).
Results
There were 683 patients with nosocomial infections. Adjusted odds ratios for nosocomial infections gradually increased with APACHE II score. Women and elective operation showed significantly low odds ratios, while urgent operation, ventilator, and central venous catheter showed significantly high odds ratios. Age had no significant effect on the development of nosocomial infection.
Conclusions
Nosocomial infection risk increases with APACHE II score. APACHE II score may be a good predictor of nosocomial infections in ICU patients.
doi:10.1007/BF02898140
PMCID: PMC2723611  PMID: 21432312
multicenter cohort study; ICU; APACHE II score; nosocomial infection
25.  Epidemiological approach to nosocomial infection surveillance data: the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System 
Surveillance of nosocomial infection is the foundation of infection control. Nosocomial infection surveillance data ought to be summarized, reported, and fed back to health care personnel for corrective action. Using the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS) data, we determined the incidence of nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICUs) of Japanese hospitals and assessed the impact of nosocomial infections on mortality and length of stay. We also elucidated individual and environmental factors associated with nosocomial infections, examined the benchmarking of infection rates and developed a practical tool for comparing infection rates with case-mix adjustment. The studies carried out to date using the JANIS data have provided valuable information on the epidemiology of nosocomial infections in Japanese ICUs, and this information will contribute to the development of evidence-based infection control programs for Japanese ICUs. We conclude that current surveillance systems provide an inadequate feedback of nosocomial infection surveillance data and, based on our results, suggest a methodology for assessing nosocomial infection surveillance data that will allow infection control professionals to maintain their surveillance systems in good working order.
doi:10.1007/s12199-007-0004-y
PMCID: PMC2698243  PMID: 19568877
Epidemiology; Intensive care units; Japan; Nosocomial infections; Surveillance

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