Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.
Aging; Brahma rasayana; chromosomal aberrations; genotoxicity; sperm abnormalities
Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free-radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular dietary sources of antioxidants, many traditional herbal medicines demonstrate a potential to boost antioxidant activity. Rasayana chikitsa that deals with rejuvenation and revitalization is a branch of the Indian traditional medical system of ayurveda. We review some select herbs described in rasayana chikitsa that have been assessed by modern means for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses in humans. A critical evaluation of rasayana chikitsa will likely provide urgently needed, actual stimulants of our physiological antioxidant responses and not just more passive antioxidants to add to an already large catalog.
antioxidants; central nervous system; reactive oxygen species; traditional medicine; ayurveda; rasayana chikitsa; aging; herbs
Although the Comet assay, a procedure for quantitating DNA damage in mammalian cells, is considered sensitive, it has never been ascertained that its sensitivity is higher than the sensitivity of other genotoxicity assays in mammalian cells. To determine whether the power of the Comet assay to detect a low level of genotoxic potential is superior to those of other genotoxicity assays in mammalian cells, we compared the results of Comet assay with those of micronucleus test (MN test). WTK1 human lymphoblastoid cells were exposed to methyl nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl nitrosourea (ENU), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), bleomycin (BLM), or UVC. In Comet assay, cells were exposed to each mutagen with (Comet assay/araC) and without (Comet assay) DNA repair inhibitors (araC and hydroxyurea). Furthermore, acellular Comet assay (acellular assay) was performed to determine how single-strand breaks (SSBs) as the initial damage contributes to DNA migration and/or to micronucleus formation. The lowest genotoxic dose (LGD), which is defined as the lowest dose at which each mutagen causes a positive response on each genotoxicity assay, was used to compare the power of the Comet assay to detect a low level of genotoxic potential and that of MN test; that is, a low LGD indicates a high power. Results are summarized as follows: (1) for all mutagens studied, LGDs were MN test ≦ Comet assay; (2) except for BLM, LGDs were Comet assay/araC ≦ MN test; (3) except for UVC and MNU, LGDs were acellular assay ≦ Comet assay/araC ≦ MN test ≦ Comet assay. The following is suggested by the present findings: (1) LGD in the Comet assay is higher than that in MN test, which suggests that the power of the MN test to detect a low level of genotoxic potential is superior to that of the Comet assay; (2) for the studied mutagens, all assays were able to detect all mutagens correctly, which suggests that the sensitivity of the Comet assay and that of the MN test were exactly identical; (3) the power of the Comet assay to detect a low level of genotoxic potential can be elevated to a level higher than that of MN test by using DNA resynthesis inhibitors, such as araC and HU.
Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) synthesis and turnover is critical to determining cell fate after genotoxic stress. Hyperactivation of PAR synthesis by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) occurs when cells deficient in DNA repair are exposed to genotoxic agents; however, the function of this hyperactivation has not been adequately explained. Here, we examine PAR synthesis in mouse fibroblasts deficient in the base excision repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β). The extent and duration of PARP-1 activation was measured after exposure to either the DNA alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), or to low energy laser-induced DNA damage. There was strong DNA damage-induced hyperactivation of PARP-1 in pol β nullcells, but not in wild-type cells. In the case of MMS treatment, PAR synthesis did not lead to cell death in the pol β null cells, but instead resulted in increased PARylation of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein Ku70 and increased association of Ku70 with PARP-1. Inhibition of the NHEJ factor DNA-PK, under conditions of MMS-induced PARP-1 hyperactivation, enhanced necrotic cell death. These data suggest that PARP-1 hyperactivation is a protective mechanism triggering the classical-NHEJ DNA repair pathway when the primary alkylated base damage repair pathway is compromised.
Homologous recombinational repair (HRR) restores chromatid breaks arising during DNA replication and prevents chromosomal rearrangements that can occur from the misrepair of such breaks. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs are identified that contribute in a nonessential but critical manner to HRR proficiency. We constructed and characterized a knockout of the paralog Rad51D in widely studied CHO cells. The rad51d mutant (clone 51D1) displays sensitivity to a diverse spectrum of induced DNA damage including γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV)-C radiation, and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), indicating the broad relevance of HRR to genotoxicity. Spontaneous chromatid breaks/gaps and isochromatid breaks are elevated 3- to 12-fold, but the chromosome number distribution remains unchanged. Most importantly, 51D1 cells exhibit a 12-fold-increased rate of hprt mutation, as well as 4- to 10-fold increased rates of gene amplification at the dhfr and CAD loci, respectively. Xrcc3 irs1SF cells from the same parental CHO line show similarly elevated mutagenesis at these three loci. Collectively, these results confirm the a priori expectation that HRR acts in an error-free manner to repress three classes of genetic alterations (chromosomal aberrations, loss of gene function and increased gene expression), all of which are associated with carcinogenesis.
The Mre11 complex is a central component of the DNA damage response, with roles in damage sensing, molecular bridging, and end resection. We have previously shown that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ku70 (yKu70) deficiency reduces the ionizing radiation sensitivity of mre11Δ mutants. In this study, we show that yKu70 deficiency suppressed the camptothecin (CPT) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) sensitivity of nuclease-deficient mre11-3 and sae2Δ mutants in an Exo1-dependent manner. CPT-induced G2/M arrest, γ-H2AX persistence, and chromosome breaks were elevated in mre11-3 mutants. These outcomes were reduced by yKu70 deficiency. Given that the genotoxic effects of CPT are manifest during DNA replication, these data suggest that Ku limits Exo1-dependent double-strand break (DSB) resection during DNA replication, inhibiting the initial processing steps required for homology-directed repair. We propose that Mre11 nuclease- and Sae2-dependent DNA end processing, which initiates DSB resection prevents Ku from engaging DSBs, thus promoting Exo1-dependent resection. In agreement with this idea, we show that Ku affinity for binding to short single-stranded overhangs is much lower than for blunt DNA ends. Collectively, the data define a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-independent, S-phase-specific function of the Ku heterodimer.
The distribution of methyl methanesulfonate induced DNA repair was measured in mouse mammary cell chromatin by digestion of "repair labeled" nuclei with micrococcal nuclease. The results indicate that there is a nonuniform distribution of DNA repair in chromatin. The chromatin fraction digested during the first 5 minutes of incubation with micrococcal nuclease appears to be a primary site of DNA repair after methyl methanesulfoante treatment. The observed nonuniform distribution of DNA repair in chromatin may be due to 1)a nonrandom alkylation of DNA in chromatin by methyl methanesulfonate or 2)areas in chromatin of increased accessibility for the repair enzymes to the DNA lesions.
Many bacterial or mammalian cell-based test systems, such as the Ames test, chromosomal aberration assays, or gene mutation assays, are commonly used in developed countries to detect the genotoxicity of industrial chemicals. However, the specificity is generally limited and the sensitivity is not sufficiently high. In addition, most assays cannot provide information on mechanisms of genotoxicity of a given chemical.
We aimed to establish a sensitive and fast screening method that is also capable of characterizing mechanisms of genotoxicity.
We developed a novel bioassay employing gene-disrupted clones of the chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte line, which are designed to be deficient in several specific DNA repair pathways. Genotoxic chemicals can delay cellular proliferation in DNA-repair–deficient clones more significantly than in wild-type cells by interfering with DNA replication, thereby inducing DNA damage. In addition, we verified the validity of this assay by analyzing the genotoxicity of γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV) light, and sodium metaarsenite (NaAsO2). We also characterized DNA lesions induced by NaAsO2.
Genotoxicity of given stressors was successfully screened based on a comparison of proliferation kinetics between wild-type and DNA-repair–deficient mutants in 48 hr. We also found that NaAsO2 apparently induces at least two types of damage: chromosomal breaks and UV photoproduct-like DNA lesions.
This bioassay is a reliable and sensitive screening tool for environmental mutagens as well as for further characterizing the nature of detected genotoxicity.
alternative test methods development; arsenic; DNA repair; genotoxicity; high-throughput testing; UV radiation
Bloom's syndrome (BS), which is caused by mutations in the BLM gene, is characterized by a predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. BS cells exhibit elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), interchanges between homologous chromosomes (mitotic chiasmata), and sensitivity to several DNA-damaging agents. To address the mechanism that confers these phenotypes in BS cells, we characterize a series of double and triple mutants with mutations in BLM and in other genes involved in repair pathways. We found that XRCC3 activity generates substrates that cause the elevated SCE in blm cells and that BLM with DNA topoisomerase IIIα suppresses the formation of SCE. In addition, XRCC3 activity also generates the ultraviolet (UV)- and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)–induced mitotic chiasmata. Moreover, disruption of XRCC3 suppresses MMS and UV sensitivity and the MMS- and UV-induced chromosomal aberrations of blm cells, indicating that BLM acts downstream of XRCC3.
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) family members Smc5 and Smc6 are both essential in budding and fission yeasts. Yeast smc5/6 mutants are hypersensitive to DNA damage, and Smc5/6 is recruited to HO-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs), facilitating intersister chromatid recombinational repair. To determine the role of the vertebrate Smc5/6 complex during the normal cell cycle, we generated an Smc5-deficient chicken DT40 cell line using gene targeting. Surprisingly, Smc5− cells were viable, although they proliferated more slowly than controls and showed mitotic abnormalities. Smc5-deficient cells were sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate and ionizing radiation (IR) and showed increased chromosome aberration levels upon irradiation. Formation and resolution of Rad51 and gamma-H2AX foci after irradiation were altered in Smc5 mutants, suggesting defects in homologous recombinational (HR) repair of DNA damage. Ku70−/− Smc5− cells were more sensitive to IR than either single mutant, with Rad54−/− Smc5− cells being no more sensitive than Rad54−/− cells, consistent with an HR function for the vertebrate Smc5/6 complex. Although gene targeting occurred at wild-type levels, recombinational repair of induced double-strand breaks was reduced in Smc5− cells. Smc5 loss increased sister chromatid exchanges and sister chromatid separation distances in mitotic chromosomes. We conclude that Smc5/6 regulates recombinational repair by ensuring appropriate sister chromatid cohesion.
High sensitive rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of four carcinogenic alkyl methanesulfonates viz. methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate in doxazosin mesylate has been presented by using selective ion monitoring mode. The optimum separation was achieved between methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate on a DB-5 (30 m×0.32 mm×1.0 μm) capillary column under programming temperature. Acetonitrile, water and ammonia (90:9:1 v/v/v) mixture was used as diluent. Various factors involved in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method development are also presented. This method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The limit of quantitation of methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate is 6 ppm with respect to 30 mg/ml of doxazosin mesylate.
Alkyl methanesulfonate; doxazosin mesylate; genotoxic; method development; validation
Checkpoints, which are integral to the cellular response to DNA damage, coordinate transient cell cycle arrest and the induced expression of DNA repair genes after genotoxic stress. DNA repair ensures cellular survival and genomic stability, utilizing a multipathway network. Here we report evidence that the two systems, DNA damage checkpoint control and DNA repair, are directly connected by demonstrating that the Rad55 double-strand break repair protein of the recombinational repair pathway is a terminal substrate of DNA damage and replication block checkpoints. Rad55p was specifically phosphorylated in response to DNA damage induced by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate, dependent on an active DNA damage checkpoint. Rad55p modification was also observed after gamma ray and UV radiation. The rapid time course of phosphorylation and the recombination defects identified in checkpoint-deficient cells are consistent with a role of the DNA damage checkpoint in activating recombinational repair. Rad55p phosphorylation possibly affects the balance between different competing DNA repair pathways.
DNA damage occurs as a by-product of intrinsic cellular processes, like DNA replication, or as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic agents. Organisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, tolerate, or repair DNA lesions. To gain insight into these processes, we have isolated mutants hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. One mutant, Ble-1, showed decreased survival when it was treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), bleomycin, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but behaved like the wild type when it was exposed to UVC irradiation. Ble-1 carries an extensive chromosomal deletion that includes the gene encoding cytosolic thioredoxin h1 (Trxh1). Transformation of Ble-1 with a wild-type copy of Trxh1 fully corrected the MMS hypersensitivity and partly restored the tolerance to bleomycin. Trxh1 also complemented a defect in the repair of MMS-induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. In addition, a Trxh1-β-glucuronidase fusion protein translocated to the nucleus in response to treatment with MMS. However, somewhat surprisingly, Trxh1 failed to correct the Ble-1 hypersensitivity to H2O2. Moreover, Trxh1 suppression by RNA interference in a wild-type strain resulted in enhanced sensitivity to MMS and DNA repair defects but no increased cytotoxicity to H2O2. Thioredoxins have been implicated in oxidative-stress responses in many organisms. Yet our results indicate a specific role of Chlamydomonas Trxh1 in the repair of MMS-induced DNA damage, whereas it is dispensable for the response to H2O2. These observations also suggest functional specialization among cytosolic thioredoxins since another Chlamydomonas isoform (Trxh2) does not compensate for the lack of Trxh1.
A cloned gene, designated nfo, caused overproduction of an EDTA-resistant endonuclease specific for apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in DNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme was similar to that of endonuclease IV. An insertion mutation was constructed in vitro and transferred from a plasmid to the Escherichia coli chromosome. nfo mutants had an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C and to the oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bleomycin. The nfo mutation enhanced the killing of xth (exonuclease III) mutants by methyl methanesulfonate, H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and gamma rays, and it enhanced their mutability by methyl methanesulfonate. It also increased the temperature sensitivity of an xth dut (dUTPase) mutant that is defective in the repair of uracil-containing DNA. These results are consistent with earlier findings that endonuclease IV and exonuclease III both cleave DNA 5' to an apurinic-apyrimidinic site and that exonuclease III is more active. However, nfo mutants were more sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and to bleomycin than were xth mutants, suggesting that endonuclease IV might recognize some lesions that exonuclease III does not. The mutants displayed no marked increase in sensitivity to 254-nm UV radiation, and the addition of an nth (endonuclease III) mutation to nfo or nfo xth mutants did not significantly increase their sensitivity to any of the agents tested.
Although genotoxic agents are powerful inducers of stress kinases (SAPK/JNK), the contribution of DNA damage itself to this response is unknown. Therefore, SAPK/JNK activation of cells harboring specific defects in DNA damage-recognition mechanisms was studied. Dual phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK by the genotoxin methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) occurred in two waves. The early response (≤2 h after exposure) was similar in cells knockout for ATM, PARP, p53, and CSB or defective in DNA-PKcs compared with wild-type cells. The late response however (≥4 h), was drastically reduced in DNA-PKcs and Cockayne's syndrome B (CSB)-deficient cells. Similar results were obtained with human cells lacking DNA-PKcs and CSB. Activation of SAPK/JNK by MMS was not affected upon inhibition of base excision repair (BER), indicating base damage itself does not signal to SAPK/JNK. Because SAPK/JNK activation was attenuated in nongrowing cells, DNA replication-dependent processing of lesions, involving DNA-PKcs and CSB, appears to be required. DNA-PKcs coprecipitates with SEK1/MKK4 and SAPK/JNK, supporting a role of DNA-PKcs in SAPK/JNK activation. In this process, Rho GTPases are involved since inhibition of Rho impairs MMS-induced signaling to SAPK/JNK. The data show that sensing of DNA damage by DNA-PKcs and CSB causes a delayed SEK1/MKK4-mediated dual phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK.
The molecular mechanisms of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced reversion in mammalian cells were studied by using as a target a gpt gene that was integrated chromosomally as part of a shuttle vector. Murine cells containing mutant gpt genes with single base changes were mutagenized with ethyl methanesulfonate, and revertant colonies were isolated. Ethyl methanesulfonate failed to increase the frequency of revertants for cell lines with mutant gpt genes carrying GC----AT transitions or AT----TA transversions, whereas it increased the frequency 50-fold to greater than 800-fold for cell lines with mutant gpt genes carrying AT----GC transitions and for one cell line with a GC----CG transversion. The gpt genes of 15 independent revertants derived from the ethyl methanesulfonate-revertible cell lines were recovered and sequenced. All revertants derived from cell lines with AT----GC transitions had mutated back to the wild-type gpt sequence via GC----AT transitions at their original sites of mutation. Five of six revertants derived from the cell line carrying a gpt gene with a GC----CG transversion had mutated via GC----AT transition at the site of the original mutation or at the adjacent base in the same triplet; these changes generated non-wild-type DNA sequences that code for non-wild-type amino acids that are apparently compatible with xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. The sixth revertant had mutated via CG----GC transversion back to the wild-type sequence. The results of this study define certain amino acid substitutions in the xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase polypeptide that are compatible with enzyme activity. These results also establish mutagen-induced reversion analysis as a sensitive and specific assay for mutagenesis in mammalian cells.
The lethal and mutagenic effects of various mutagens on Neisseria gonorrhoeae were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae was relatively sensitive to ethyl methanesulfonate, UV light, and methyl methanesulfonate. Although N. gonorrhoeae was readily mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for the three genetic markers assayed, no increase in the mutation frequency was observed for any of the selective markers after UV irradiation or methyl methanesulfonate treatment. These results suggest that N. gonorrhoeae lacks an error-prone repair mechanism.
This laboratory has developed a flow cytometric approach for scoring in vitro micronuclei (In Vitro MicroFlow®) whose characteristics are expected to benefit studies designed to comprehensively investigate genotoxicity dose-response relationships. In particular, new experimental designs become possible when automated scoring is combined with treatment, processing and sampling that all occur in microtiter plates. To test this premise, experiments described herein investigated micronucleus (MN) formation in TK6 cells treated with genotoxic agents applied at 22 closely-spaced concentrations in quadruplicate, with 10,000 cells analyzed per replicate. The genotoxicants colchicine, vinblastine sulfate, ethyl methanesulfonate, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, methyl nitrosourea, and bleomycin were applied continuously for 24 – 30 hrs. Following treatment, all cell processing, sampling and data acquisition steps were accomplished in the same 96-well plate. Data acquisition occurred in a walk-away mode via the use of a high throughput sampling device. The resulting flow cytometric MN values were evaluated with a statistical model that indicated non-linear relationships describe the data better than linear fits. The one exception was bleomycin, where MN induction was consistently best described by a linear dose-response relationship. Collectively, these results suggest that flow cytometry represents a practical and efficient approach for thoroughly examining the dose-response relationship, and clearly benefits studies that seek to characterize no observable genotoxic effect levels, lowest observable genotoxic effect levels, and/or benchmark doses.
micronuclei; flow cytometry; genotoxicity; threshold; risk assessment; TK6 cells
Three mutant strains exhibiting hyper-sensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, but not to methyl methanesulfonate, were selected by a replica method from mutagenized spores of Bacillus subtilis. All three were totally deficient in the adaptive response to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine with regard to both lethality and mutagenesis. The activity to destroy O6-methylguanine residues in the methylated DNA was not elevated in the mutant cells by the pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. This deficiency corresponded to the persistence of O6-methylguanine residues in the DNA of both control and pretreated mutant cells challenged with the drug. The lethal and mutagenic sensitivity of the mutant strains were observed only for methyl- or ethyl-nitroso compounds that are thought to be active as inducers and are also active in O-alkylation. Except for the insensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, the phenotypes of these mutants look very similar to those of ada mutants isolated previously in Escherichia coli.
Monofunctional alkylating agents like methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are potent inducers of cellular stress leading to chromosomal aberrations, point mutations, and cell killing. We show that these agents induce a specific cellular stress response program which includes the activation of Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the upstream kinase SEK1/MKK4 and which depends on the reaction mechanism of the alkylating agent in question. Similar to another inducer of cellular stress, UV irradiation, damage of nuclear DNA by alkylation is not involved in the MMS-induced response. However, in contrast to UV and other inducers of the JNK/SAPKs and p38 pathways, activation of growth factor and G-protein-coupled receptors does not play a role in the MMS response. We identified the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level as critical for JNK/SAPK activation by MMS: enhancing the GSH level by pretreatment of the cells with GSH or N-acetylcysteine inhibits, whereas depletion of the cellular GSH pool causes hyperinduction of JNK/SAPK activity by MMS. In light of the JNK/SAPK-dependent induction of c-jun and c-fos transcription, and the Jun/Fos-induced transcription of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, these data provide a potential critical role of JNK/SAPK and p38 in the induction of a cellular defense program against cytotoxic xenobiotics such as MMS.
Variants of the mouse embryo fibroblast X melanoma hybrid clone 100A have been isolated by a procedure that selects against cells that are able to grow in medium containing low concentrations of serum plus insulin. Three variant clones derived from this selection were found to have a much higher serum requirement than the parental clone 100A cells, as evidenced by a very low rate of DNA synthesis and growth in medium containing low concentrations of serum. Two of the variants had approximately double the number of chromosomes as the parental cell line, while one had approximately the same number of chromosomes as the parental cells. One of the variants was very strongly reverted by 5- azacytidine but not by ethyl methanesulfonate, suggesting that it reverted by a nonmutational mechanism such as a stable change in DNA methylation. Analysis of the growth requirements in hormone- supplemented serum-free media of the 100A parent, the INS 471 variant, and revertants of the variant indicated that the variant had a specific deficiency in its growth response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF dose-response curves obtained with the variant cells were shifted approximately an order of magnitude toward higher PDGF concentrations relative to PDGF dose-response curves obtained with the parental 100A cells. This quantitative increase in PDGF requirement of the INS 471 variant appears to explain the increased serum requirement of this variant. Equilibrium binding experiments performed with 125I- PDGF suggest that the variant does not have a decreased number of PDGF receptors.
We have measured DNA repair in mouse satellite and main band DNA as resolved by Ag+-Cs2SO4 centrifugation in response to treatment with the alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. We find that there is a statistically significant lower incorporation of 3H-Tdr into the satellite DNA as compared to the main band at varying periods after treatment with the alkylating agents. This suggests a reduced repair activity in the satellite DNA. We have measured the extent of binding of 14C-methyl methanesulfonate to the satellite, and main band DNA, and no difference in binding was observed, indicating that the reduced repair activity of satellite DNA is not due to a difference in binding of alkylating agents. We believe that the reduced incorporation of 3H-Tdr into satellite DNA may be due to its location in the condensed chromatin fraction.
Genotoxic agents induce chromosomal alterations, such as aberrations, micronuclei, and sister chromatid exchanges as well as mutations both in vivo and in vitro. Ionizing radiation and typical radiomimmetic agents such as bleomycin are very efficient inducers of chromosomal aberrations. The type of aberrations induced by these agents are cell-cycle dependent, i.e., chromosome type in pre-replication stages and chromatid type in post-replication stages of the cell cycle. Under optimal DNA repair conditions, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) appear to be the most important lesion responsible for the production of aberrations. In human lymphocytes, fast-repairing DSBs lead to exchange-type aberrations. The fact that the dose-response curves for induction of exchange aberrations induced by ionizing radiation are similar in vitro and in vivo allows one to use the yield of induced aberrations to estimate absorbed radiation dose in the case of accidents. In this respect, frequencies of translocations detected by the chromosome painting technique appear to be more sensitive. Mutations do not express immediately after exposure and require an expression time before they can be detected. In humans, it is estimated that for the mutations induced in bone marrow, it takes about 2 months for them to express and to be detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Hence, frequency of mutations is of limited value for estimating radiation doses immediately after an accident. This holds true for chemical exposure as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
It has been reported that the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) plays an important role in the recruitment of DNA repair and checkpoint proteins to sites of DNA damage, particularly at double strand breaks (DSBs). Using γH2AX foci formation as an indicator for DNA damage, several chemicals/stress factors were chosen to assess their ability to induce γH2AX foci in a 24 h time frame in a human amnion FL cell line. Two direct-acting genotoxins, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), can induce γH2AX foci formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Similarly, an indirect-acting genotoxin, benzo[a]pyrene (BP), also induced the formation of γH2AX foci in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Another indirect genotoxin, 2-acetyl-aminofluorene (AAF), did not induce γH2AX foci formation in FL cells; however, AAF can induce γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster CHL cells. Neutral comet assays also revealed the induction of DNA strand breaks by these agents. In contrast, epigenetic carcinogens azathioprine and cyclosporine A, as well as non-carcinogen dimethyl sulfoxide, did not induce γH2AX foci formation in FL cells. In addition, heat shock and hypertonic saline did not induce γH2AX foci. Cell survival analyses indicated that the induction of γH2AX is not correlated with the cytotoxic effects of these agents/factors. Taken together, these results suggest that γH2AX foci formation could be used for evaluating DNA damage; however, the different cell types used may play an important role in determining γH2AX foci formation induced by a specific agent.
γH2AX; Genotoxin; Double strand breaks; Cytotoxicity
Strauss, Bernard S. (The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.). Response of Escherichia coli auxotrophs to heat after treatment with mutagenic alkyl methanesulfonates. J. Bacteriol. 83:241–249. 1962.—Heating in buffer at 48 C resulted in a large increase in the frequency of revertants obtained after treatment of restingphase cells of Escherichia coli strain WP-2 (a tryptophan-requiring mutant of strain B/r) with ethyl methanesulfonate. This effect was not obtained with the mutagenic homologue, methyl methanesulfonate. Cells treated with ethyl methanesulfonate lost their sensitivity to heat soon after the start of incubation in growth medium; chloramphenicol added to the growth medium preserved the sensitivity. Cells in the exponential growth phase which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate were rapidly killed by heat treatment. Methyl methanesulfonate was more effective as a killing agent than the ethyl derivative. Heat effects on mutation frequency were obtained with a second tryptophan-requiring mutant of E. coli B/r and with a tryptophan-requiring mutant of E. coli K-12.