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1.  CAM-Type Impingement in the Ankle 
Anterior ankle impingement with and without ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition. Bony impingement between the distal tibia and talus aggravated by dorsiflexion has been well described. The etiology of these impingement lesions remains controversial. This study describes a cam-type impingement of the ankle, in which the sagittal contour of the talar dome is a non-circular arc, causing pathologic contact with the anterior aspect of the tibial plafond during dorsiflexion, leading to abnormal ankle joint mechanics by limiting dorsiflexion.
A group of 269 consecutive adult patients from the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics who were treated for anterior bony impingement syndrome were evaluated as the study population. As a control group, 41 patients without any evidence of impingement or arthrosis were evaluated. Standardized standing lateral ankle radiographs were evaluated to determine the contour of the head/neck relationship in the talus. Two investigators made all the radiographic measurements and intra- and inter-observer reliability were measured.
34% of patients were found to have some anterior extension of the talar dome creating a loss of the normal concavity at the dorsal medial talar neck. A group of 36 patients (13%) were identified as having the most severe cam deformity in order to assess any correlation with coexisting radiographic abnormalities. In these patients, a cavo-varus foot type was more commonly observed. Comparison with a control group showed much lower rates of anterior-medial cam-type deformity of the talus.
Cam type impingement of the ankle is likely a distinct form of bony impingement of the ankle secondary to a morphological talar bony abnormality. Based on the findings of this study, this form of impingement may be related to a cavovarus foot type. In addition, there may be long term implications in the development of ankle OA.
Level of Evidence
Level III
PMCID: PMC3565388  PMID: 23576914
2.  Intra-articular Lesions in Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability: Comparison of Arthroscopy with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(4):293-299.
Chronic lateral ankle instability often accompanies intra-articular lesions, and arthroscopy is often useful in diagnosis and treatment of intra-articular lesions.
Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and arthroscopic findings were reviewed retrospectively and compared in 65 patients who underwent surgery for chronic lateral ankle instability from January 2006 to January 2010. MR images obtained were assessed by two radiologists, and the inter- and intra-observer reliability was calculated. American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were evaluated.
Abnormalities of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) were found in all 65 (100%) cases. In arthroscopy examinations, 33 (51%) cases had talar cartilage lesions, and 3 (5%) cases had 'tram-track' cartilage lesion. Additionally, 39 (60%) cases of synovitis, 9 (14%) cases of anterior impingement syndrome caused by osteophyte, 14 (22%) cases of impingement syndrome caused by fibrotic band and tissue were found. Sensitivity of MRI examination for each abnormality was: ATFL, 60%; osteochondral lesion of talus (OLT), 46%; syndesmosis injury, 21%; synovitis, 21%; anterior impingement syndrome caused by osteophyte, 22%. Paired intra-observer reliability was measured by a kappa statistic of 0.787 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.641 to 0.864) for ATFL injury, 0.818 (95% CI, 0.743 to 0.908) for OLT, 0.713 (95% CI, 0.605 to 0.821) for synovitis, and 0.739 (95% CI, 0.642 to 0.817) for impingement. Paired inter-observer reliability was measured by a kappa statistic of 0.381 (95% CI, 0.241 to 0.463) for ATFL injury, 0.613 (95% CI, 0.541 to 0.721) for OLT, 0.324 (95% CI, 0.217 to 0.441) for synovitis, and 0.394 (95% CI, 0.249 to 0.471) for impingement. Mean AOFAS score increased from 64.5 to 87.92 (p < 0.001) when there was no intra-articular lesion, from 61.07 to 89.04 (p < 0.001) in patients who had one intra-articular lesion, and from 61.12 to 87.6 (p < 0.001) in patients who had more than two intra-articular lesions.
Although intra-articular lesion in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability is usually diagnosed with MRI, its sensitivity and inter-observer reliability are low. Therefore, arthroscopic examination is strongly recommended because it improved patients' residual symptoms and significantly increased patient satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC3504694  PMID: 23205239
Chronic lateral ankle instability; Arthroscopy; Magnetic resonance imaging
3.  The distal fascicle of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament as a cause of tibiotalar impingement syndrome: a current concepts review 
Impingement syndromes of the ankle involve either osseous or soft tissue impingement and can be anterior, anterolateral, or posterior. Ankle impingement syndromes are painful conditions caused by the friction of joint tissues, which are both the cause and the effect of altered joint biomechanics. The distal fascicle of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) is possible cause of anterior impingement. The objective of this article was to review the literature concerning the anatomy, pathogenesis, symptoms and treatment of the AITFL impingement and finally to formulate treatment recommendations. The AITFL starts from the distal tibia, 5 mm in average above the articular surface, and descends obliquely between the adjacent margins of the tibia and fibula, anterior to the syndesmosis to the anterior aspect of the lateral malleolus. The incidence of the accessory fascicle differs very widely in the several studies. The presence of the distal fascicle of the AITFL and also the contact with the anterolateral talus is probably a normal finding. It may become pathological, due to anatomical variations and/or anterolateral instability of the ankle resulting from an anterior talofibular ligament injury. When observed during an ankle arthroscopy, the surgeon should look for the criteria described to decide whether it is pathological and considering resection of the distal fascicle. The presence of the AITFL and the contact with the talus is a normal finding. An impingement of the AITFL can result from an anatomical variant or anteroposterior instability of the ankle. The diagnosis of ligamentous impingement in the anterior aspect of the ankle should be considered in patients who have chronic ankle pain in the anterolateral aspect of the ankle after an inversion injury and have a stable ankle, normal plain radiographs, and isolated point tenderness on the anterolateral aspect of the talar dome and in the anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament. The impingement syndrome can be treated arthroscopically.
PMCID: PMC1915597  PMID: 17237964
Ankle; Impingement syndrome; Anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament; Accessory fascicle
4.  The importance of early arthroscopy in athletes with painful cartilage lesions of the ankle: a prospective study of 61 consecutive cases 
Ankle sprains are common in sports and can sometimes result in a persistent pain condition.
Primarily to evaluate clinical symptoms, signs, diagnostics and outcomes of surgery for symptomatic chondral injuries of the talo crural joint in athletes. Secondly, in applicable cases, to evaluate the accuracy of MRI in detecting these injuries. Type of study: Prospective consecutive series.
Over around 4 years we studied 61 consecutive athletes with symptomatic chondral lesions to the talocrural joint causing persistent exertion ankle pain.
43% were professional full time athletes and 67% were semi-professional, elite or amateur athletes, main sports being soccer (49%) and rugby (14%). The main subjective complaint was exertion ankle pain (93%). Effusion (75%) and joint line tenderness on palpation (92%) were the most common clinical findings. The duration from injury to arthroscopy for 58/61 cases was 7 months (5.7–7.9). 3/61 cases were referred within 3 weeks from injury. There were in total 75 cartilage lesions. Of these, 52 were located on the Talus dome, 17 on the medial malleolus and 6 on the Tibia plafond. Of the Talus dome injuries 18 were anteromedial, 14 anterolateral, 9 posteromedial, 3 posterolateral and 8 affecting mid talus. 50% were grade 4 lesions, 13.3% grade 3, 16.7% grade 2 and 20% grade 1. MRI had been performed pre operatively in 26/61 (39%) and 59% of these had been interpreted as normal. Detection rate of cartilage lesions was only 19%, but subchondral oedema was present in 55%. At clinical follow up average 24 months after surgery (10–48 months), 73% were playing at pre-injury level. The average return to that level of sports after surgery was 16 weeks (3–32 weeks). However 43% still suffered minor symptoms.
Arthroscopy should be considered early when an athlete presents with exertion ankle pain, effusion and joint line tenderness on palpation after a previous sprain. Conventional MRI is not reliable for detecting isolated cartilage lesions, but the presence of subchondral oedema should raise such suspicion.
PMCID: PMC1635006  PMID: 17150124
5.  Update on anterior ankle impingement 
Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingement, which is based on clinical findings. MR imaging and MR arthrography are helpful in doubtful diagnoses and the identification of associated injuries. Recommended methods for initial management include rest, physical therapy, and shoe modification. If nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic bony or soft tissue debridement both offer significant symptomatic relief with long-term positive outcomes in cases that have no significant arthritic change, associated ligament laxity, and chondral lesion.
PMCID: PMC3535150  PMID: 22403038
Ankle; Impingement; Bony; Soft Tissue; Anterior; Ankle Pain; Chronic; Sport; Arthroscopy; Foot and Ankle; Musculoskeletal
The Iowa Orthopaedic Journal  2011;31:231-235.
Injury to the saphenous nerve at the ankle has been described as a complication resulting from incision and dissection over the distal tibia and medial malleolus. However, the exact course and location of the distal saphenous nerve is not well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the distal limit of the saphenous nerve and its anatomic relationship to commonly identified orthopaedic landmarks and surgical incisions.
Sixteen cadaveric ankles were examined at the level of the distal tibia medial malleolus. An incision was made along the medial aspect of the lower extremity from the knee to the hallux to follow the course and branches of the saphenous nerve under direct visualization. We recorded the shortest distance from the most distal visualized portion of the saphenous nerve to the tip of the medial malleolus, to the antero-medial arthroscopic portal site, and to the tibialis anterior tendon.
The saphenous nerve runs posterior to the greater saphenous vein in the leg and divides into an anterior and posterior branch approximately 3 cm proximal to the tip of the medial malleolus. These branches terminate in the integument proximal to the tip of the medial malleolus, while the vein continues into the foot. The anterior branch ends at the anterior aspect of the medial malleolus near the posterior edge of the greater saphenous vein. The posterior branch ends near the posterior aspect of the medial malleolus.
The average distance from the distal-most visualized aspect of the saphenous nerve to the tip of the medial malleolus measured 8mm +/−; 5mm; from the nerve to the medial arthroscopic portal measured 14mm +/−;2mm; and from the nerve to the tibialis anterior measured 16mm +/−;3mm. In only one case (of 16) was there an identifiable branch of the saphenous nerve extending to the foot and in this specimen it extended to the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The first metatarsophalangeal joint was innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve in all cases. Small variations were also noted.
Discussion and Conclusions
This study highlights the proximity of the distal saphenous nerve to common landmarks in orthopaedic surgery. This has important clinical implications in ankle arthroscopy, tarsal tunnel syndrome, fixation of distal tibia medial malleolar fractures, and other procedures centered about the medial malleolus. While the distal course of the saphenous nerve is generally predictable, variations exist and thus the orthopaedic surgeon must operate cautiously to prevent iatrogenic injury. To avoid saphenous nerve injury, incisions should stay distal to the tip of the medial malleolus. The medial arthroscopic portal should be more than one centimeter from the anterior aspect of the medial malleolus which will also avoid the greater saphenous vein. Incision over the anterior tibialis tendon should stay within one centimeter of the medial edge of the tendon.
PMCID: PMC3215141  PMID: 22096447
Background and Purpose:
The ankle is the most commonly injured joint during athletic activity. While ankle sprains are certainly the most common injury, ankle fractures can occur frequently. One type of ankle fracture with a reportedly low incidence is the isolated posterior malleolar fracture. Because of the low incidence, isolated posterior malleolar fractures can present a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnostic process used for this rare injury that occurred in a physically active college-aged female who injured her ankle when landing from a fall during performance on a military obstacle course.
Case Description:
A 19 year old female United States Military Academy cadet presented to a direct access physical therapy clinic. She was limping, not using any assistive device, and was wearing an ace bandage around her right ankle/foot. Two days earlier she fell from a “10 foot high” structure while performing the military obstacle course. She did not recall details of impact, but she was told by several bystanders that it appeared that she landed on her right foot followed immediately by a transition to her buttocks and then to her back.
Ottawa Ankle Rules and ligamentous testing were negative; however, she was tender to palpation just anterior to the achilles tendon and lateral to the posterior edge of the medial malleolus. Based on mechanism of injury and tenderness of the posterior ankle, a potential posterior ankle fracture was suspected and subsequently confirmed by radiographic studies of the ankle including standard radiographs and computerized tomography.
While the Ottawa Ankle Rules are generally effective in detecting many types of ankle fractures, clinicians should not rely solely on such prediction rules. This case highlights the importance of completing a thorough history and performing a thorough physical examination. This case report focuses on differential diagnosis. It is important to consider all aspects of the patient evaluation process collectively instead of examination pieces individually.
PMCID: PMC3325632  PMID: 22530191
Direct access; Ottawa Ankle Rules; posterior malleolus fracture
8.  Snowboarder's fracture caused by a wakeboarding injury: a case report 
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine  2010;9(4):174-178.
The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation of a patient who had a lateral talar process fracture due to a wakeboarding injury.
Clinical Features
A 29-year-old male patient sustained a left ankle injury when the front edge of his wakeboard became immersed in the water. As he fell forward, his foot remained attached to the board, leading to inversion and dorsiflexion stress of the ankle. He presented to a chiropractic clinic with diffuse ankle swelling, tenderness, and pain at the distal aspect of the lateral malleolus. Mild ligamentous laxity of the lateral supporting structures was observed during the physical examination.
Intervention and Outcome
Static and stress radiographs of the left ankle demonstrated a small (McCrory-Bladin type 1) lateral talar process fracture without evidence of gross instability. The patient was referred to a local orthopedic medical specialist for immobilization of the ankle. The patient was treated conservatively with an air cast walking boot for 2 weeks (non–weight-bearing) followed by a 2-week period of partial weight-bearing. At 6 weeks following the injury, a repeated radiographic examination demonstrated complete healing of the fracture. The patient reported minimal tenderness and normal ankle function.
Because of the similar mechanism of injury to those sustained in snowboarding, this case demonstrates the need for increased awareness of lateral process fractures in wakeboarders.
PMCID: PMC3206565  PMID: 22027109
Chiropractic; Athletic injuries; Diagnostic imaging; Radiology; Talus; Snowboarding
9.  Management and prevention of acute and chronic lateral ankle instability in athletic patient populations 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2015;6(2):161-171.
Acute and chronic lateral ankle instability are common in high-demand patient populations. If not managed appropriately, patients may experience recurrent instability, chronic pain, osteochondral lesions of the talus, premature osteoarthritis, and other significant long-term disability. Certain populations, including young athletes, military personnel and those involved in frequent running, jumping, and cutting motions, are at increased risk. Proposed risk factors include prior ankle sprain, elevated body weight or body mass index, female gender, neuromuscular deficits, postural imbalance, foot/ankle malalignment, and exposure to at-risk athletic activity. Prompt, accurate diagnosis is crucial, and evidence-based, functional rehabilitation regimens have a proven track record in returning active patients to work and sport. When patients fail to improve with physical therapy and external bracing, multiple surgical techniques have been described with reliable results, including both anatomic and non-anatomic reconstructive methods. Anatomic repair of the lateral ligamentous complex remains the gold standard for recurrent ankle instability, and it effectively restores native ankle anatomy and joint kinematics while preserving physiologic ankle and subtalar motion. Further preventative measures may minimize the risk of ankle instability in athletic cohorts, including prophylactic bracing and combined neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs. These interventions have demonstrated benefit in patients at heightened risk for lateral ankle sprain and allow active cohorts to return to full activity without adversely affecting athletic performance.
PMCID: PMC4363799  PMID: 25793157
Ankle instability; Athlete; Treatment; Epidemiology; Prevention; Lateral; Sprain
10.  Arthroscopic Excision of Bone Fragments in a Neglected Fracture of the Lateral Process of the Talus in a Junior Soccer Player 
Arthroscopy Techniques  2014;3(3):e331-e334.
Fractures of the lateral process of the talus are uncommon and often overlooked. Typically, they are found in adult snowboarders. We report the case of an 11-year-old male soccer player who complained of lateral ankle pain after an inversion injury 6 months earlier. He did not respond to conservative treatment and thus underwent arthroscopic excision of fragments of the talar lateral process. The ankle was approached through standard medial and anterolateral portals. A 2.7-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope was used. Soft tissues around the talus were cleared with a motorized shaver, and the lateral aspect of the talar process was then visualized. The lateral process presented as an osseous overgrowth, and a loose body was impinged between the talus and the calcaneus. The osseous overgrowth was resected piece by piece with a punch, and the loose body was removed en block. The patient returned to soccer 5 weeks after the operation. This case exemplifies 2 important points: (1) This type of fracture can develop even in children and not only in snowboarders. (2) Arthroscopic excision of talar lateral process fragments can be accomplished easily, and return to sports can be achieved in a relatively short time.
PMCID: PMC4129989  PMID: 25126497
11.  Pulsed electromagnetic fields after arthroscopic treatment for osteochondral defects of the talus: double-blind randomized controlled multicenter trial 
Osteochondral talar defects usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracturing. Although this is mostly successful, early sport resumption is difficult to achieve, and it can take up to one year to obtain clinical improvement. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) may be effective for talar defects after arthroscopic treatment by promoting tissue healing, suppressing inflammation, and relieving pain. We hypothesize that PEMF-treatment compared to sham-treatment after arthroscopy will lead to earlier resumption of sports, and aim at 25% increase in patients that resume sports.
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in five centers throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. 68 patients will be randomized to either active PEMF-treatment or sham-treatment for 60 days, four hours daily. They will be followed-up for one year. The combined primary outcome measures are (a) the percentage of patients that resume and maintain sports, and (b) the time to resumption of sports, defined by the Ankle Activity Score. Secondary outcome measures include resumption of work, subjective and objective scoring systems (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society – Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, Foot Ankle Outcome Score, Numeric Rating Scales of pain and satisfaction, EuroQol-5D), and computed tomography. Time to resumption of sports will be analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests.
This trial will provide level-1 evidence on the effectiveness of PEMFs in the management of osteochondral ankle lesions after arthroscopy.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1636)
PMCID: PMC2714496  PMID: 19591674
12.  The Thrower's Elbow: Arthroscopic Treatment of Valgus Extension Overload Syndrome 
HSS Journal  2006;2(1):83-93.
Injury to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow (MCL) can be a career-threatening injury for an overhead athlete without appropriate diagnosis and treatment. It has been considered separately from other athletic injuries due to the unique constellation of pathology that results from repetitive overhead throwing. The past decade has witnessed tremendous gains in understanding of the complex interplay between the dynamic and static stabilizers of the athlete's elbow. Likewise, the necessity to treat these problems in a minimally invasive manner has driven the development of sophisticated techniques and instrumentation for elbow arthroscopy.
MCL injuries, ulnar neuritis, valgus extension overload with osteophyte formation and posteromedial impingement, flexor pronator strain, medial epicondyle pathology, and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum have all been described as sequelae of the overhead throwing motion. In addition, loose body formation, bony spur formation, and capsular contracture can all be present in conjunction with these problems or as isolated entities. Not all pathology in the thrower's elbow is amenable to arthroscopic treatment; however, the clinician must be familiar with all of these problems in order to form a comprehensive differential diagnosis for an athlete presenting with elbow pain, and he or she must be comfortable with the variety of open and arthroscopic treatments available to best serve the patient.
An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the thrower's elbow is critical to the care of this population. The preoperative evaluation should focus on a thorough history and physical examination, as wellas on specific diagnostic imaging modalities. Arthroscopic setup, including anesthesia, patient positioning, and portal choices will be discussed. Operative techniques in the anterior and posterior compartments will bereviewed, as well as postoperative rehabilitationandsurgical results. Lastly, complications will be reviewed.
PMCID: PMC2504117  PMID: 18751853
13.  Novel metallic implantation technique for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(4):495-502.
Background and purpose
A metallic inlay implant (HemiCAP) with 15 offset sizes has been developed for the treatment of localized osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) a matching offset size is available for each talus, (2) the prosthetic device can be reproducibly implanted slightly recessed in relation to the talar cartilage level, and (3) with this implantation level, excessive contact pressures on the opposite tibial cartilage are avoided.
The prosthetic device was implanted in 11 intact fresh-frozen human cadaver ankles, aiming its surface 0.5 mm below cartilage level. The implantation level was measured at 4 margins of each implant. Intraarticular contact pressures were measured before and after implantation, with compressive forces of 1,000–2,000 N and the ankle joint in plantigrade position, 10° dorsiflexion, and 14° plantar flexion.
There was a matching offset size available for each specimen. The mean implantation level was 0.45 (SD 0.18) mm below the cartilage surface. The defect area accounted for a median of 3% (0.02–18) of the total ankle contact pressure before implantation. This was reduced to 0.1% (0.02–13) after prosthetic implantation.
These results suggest that the implant can be applied clinically in a safe way, with appropriate offset sizes for various talar domes and without excessive pressure on the opposite cartilage.
PMCID: PMC2917574  PMID: 20515434
14.  Direction of the oblique medial malleolar osteotomy for exposure of the talus 
A medial malleolar osteotomy is often indicated for operative exposure of posteromedial osteochondral defects and fractures of the talus. To obtain a congruent joint surface after refixation, the oblique osteotomy should be directed perpendicularly to the articular surface of the tibia at the intersection between the tibial plafond and medial malleolus. The purpose of this study was to determine this perpendicular direction in relation to the longitudinal tibial axis for use during surgery.
Materials and methods
Using anteroposterior mortise radiographs and coronal computed tomography (CT) scans of 46 ankles (45 patients) with an osteochondral lesion of the talus, two observers independently measured the intersection angle between the tibial plafond and medial malleolus. The bisector of this angle indicated the osteotomy perpendicular to the tibial articular surface. This osteotomy was measured relative to the longitudinal tibial axis on radiographs. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to assess reliability.
The mean osteotomy was 57.2 ± 3.2° relative to the tibial plafond on radiographs and 56.5 ± 2.8 on CT scans. This osteotomy corresponded to 30.4 ± 3.7° relative to the longitudinal tibial axis. The intraobserver (ICC, 0.90–0.93) and interobserver (ICC, 0.65–0.91) reliability of these measurements were good to excellent.
A medial malleolar osteotomy directed at a mean 30° relative to the tibial axis enters the joint perpendicularly to the tibial cartilage, and will likely result in a congruent joint surface after reduction.
PMCID: PMC3117279  PMID: 21165631
Medial malleolus; Osteotomy; Ankle; Radiography; Preoperative planning; Surgical approach
15.  Joint space width of the tibiotalar joint in the healthy foot 
It is important to evaluate dynamic changes in the joint space width of the ankle mortise in detail in order to better understand the pathology of foot and ankle disorders. However, there are few reports on changes in the joint space width of the foot and ankle assessed using 3D images. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the joint space width of the ankle (tibiotalar joint) in association with dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint in healthy feet.
Computed tomography (CT) images of 10 healthy feet were obtained in the neutral, plantarflexed and dorsiflexed positions of the ankle joint, from which 3D virtual models were fabricated of the tibia, fibula and talus. The 3D joint space width in these models was calculated using a custom made software program.
The joint space width increased in the order of dorsiflexion, neutral position and plantar flexion. Regarding the amount of change in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion relative to the neutral position, there were no significant differences in the middle-middle position. On the other hand, there were highly significant differences in the medial-anterior, medial-middle and medial-posterior positions.
The joint space width of the ankle joint can be calculated accurately using 3D reconstruction images. Our findings should assist in clarifying pathology associated with movement of the ankle during the gait cycle based on changes in the joint space width in feet exhibiting disorders.
PMCID: PMC4490633  PMID: 26146520
Ankle joint; Computed tomography; X-ray
16.  Osteochondral lesion of the talus in a recreational athlete: a case report 
A 23-year-old recreational male athlete presented with intermittent pain of three weeks duration, localized to the left ankle. Pain was aggravated by walking, although his symptoms had not affected the patient’s jogging activity which was performed three times per week. Past history revealed an inversion sprain of the left ankle, sustained fifteen months previously. Examination showed mild swelling anterior to the ankle mortise joint while other tests including range of motion, strength and motion palpation of specific joints of the ankle were noted to be unremarkable. Radiographic findings revealed a defect in the medial aspect of the talus. An orthopaedic referral was made for further evaluation. Tomography revealed a Grade III osteochondral lesion of the talus.
It was determined that follow-up views be taken in three months to demonstrate if the lesion was progressing or healing. Within the three month period, activity modifications and modalities for pain control were indicated. Surgery was considered a reasonable option should conservative measures fail.
The present case illustrates an osteochondral lesion of the talus, a condition which has not previously been reported in the chiropractic literature. A review of the pertinent orthopaedic literature has indicated an average delay of three years in diagnosing the existence of this lesion.
Although considered rare, the diagnostic frequency of the condition appears to be on the rise due to increased awareness and the use of bone and CT scans. The osteochondral lesion of the talus deserves particular consideration by practitioners working with athletes due to its higher incidence within this group. This diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with chronic ankle pain particularly when a history of an inversion sprain exists.
The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of this condition, and review diagnosis and management strategies.
PMCID: PMC2485432
osteochondral lesion; talus; osteochondritis dissecans; diagnosis; chiropractic; athletic injuries; ankle
17.  Unusual fracture combination in a paediatric acute ankle (combined medial talar compression fracture with medial malleolus fracture in an immature skeleton): a case report 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2014;2014(10):rju100.
Talar compression fractures are uncommon orthopaedic injuries, especially in the immature skeleton. Fractures of the talar body constitute >5% of all foot and ankle fractures. The combination of a medial compression fracture and corresponding medial malleolar fracture is rare and not previously reported injury in the literature. We present a case report of a skeletally immature 15-year-old Caucasian male who sustained a medial malleolar and corresponding medial talus fracture after being ejected from his pushbike. This report outlines the potential difficulties in diagnosing an unusual fracture combination and the importance of initial management including necessary diagnostic imaging to identify such injuries. Through this case, we aim to highlight the need for having high suspicions of underlying fractures in paediatric trauma cases. The long-term complications and risks of osteonecrosis of the talus can have detrimental effect on a patient's outcome; therefore, we also emphasize the need for regular monitoring and long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4197413  PMID: 25320236
18.  Relation between foot arch index and ankle strength in elite gymnasts: a preliminary study 
Background: Gymnasts usually start intensive training from early childhood. The impact of such strenuous training on the musculoskeletal system is not clear.
Objectives: To evaluate the relation between muscle strength of the ankle joint and foot structure in gymnasts.
Methods: The study population comprised 20 high level male gymnasts and 17 non-athletic healthy male controls. Arch indices were measured using a podoscope. Ankle plantar/dorsiflexion and eversion/inversion strengths were measured using a Biodex 3 dynamometer within the protocol of concentric/concentric five repetitions at 30°/s velocity.
Results: The mean arch index of the right and left foot of the gymnasts and the controls were respectively: 31.4 (29.1), 34.01 (34.65); 60.01 (30.3), 63.75 (32.27). Both the arch indices and the ankle dorsiflexion strengths were lower in the gymnasts. Although no correlation was found between strength and arch index in the control group, a significant correlation was observed between eversion strengths and arch indices of the gymnasts (r = 0.41, p = 0.02).
Conclusions: Whether or not the findings indicate sport specific adaptation or less training of the ankle dorsiflexors, prospective data are required to elucidate the tendency for pes cavus in gymnasts, for whom stabilisation of the foot is a priority.
PMCID: PMC1725158  PMID: 15728681
19.  Arthroscopic excision of separated ossicles of the lateral malleolus 
Journal of Orthopaedic Science  2013;18(5):733-739.
We have conducted a retrospective review of 19 patients for whom 20 separated ossicles of the lateral malleolus were excised arthroscopically. We examined the operating methods, findings, and overall results.
The patients’ indications for this procedure were as follows. The main complaints were pain alone; ossicle sizes were small and ankle instability was minimal. There were 12 ankles of 12 males and eight ankles of seven females. The patients’ average age was 17.6 years. A 2.7-mm, 30° arthroscope was inserted into the ankle joint through the anterolateral portal. Instruments were inserted through the accessory anterolateral portal, and ossicles were removed piece by piece. Talar tilt angles and anterior displacements were examined and compared before and after surgery by use of stress radiographs. Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) ankle/hindfoot scales were assessed pre and postoperatively.
All patients recovered their original levels of activity. The mean talar tilt angle changed from 6.1° ± 2.4° preoperatively to 6.0° ± 1.8° postoperatively (p = 0.93), and the mean anterior displacement changed from 5.9 ± 1.7 mm preoperatively to 6.1 ± 2.0 mm postoperatively (p = 0.42). Average JSSF ankle/hindfoot scale improved from 77.6 ± 2.6 points preoperatively to 97.2 ± 5.2 points postoperatively (p < 0.01).
Arthroscopic excision of separated ossicles of the lateral malleolus achieved good results with minimum incisions, and relatively early resumption of daily and sports activity was possible. However, when the ossicles were embedded within the fibers of the anterior talofibular ligament, it was impossible to avoid cutting of ligament fibers. To reduce the possibility of ligament dysfunction, we believe postoperative treatment should conform to the accepted method for treatment of acute ankle sprains.
PMCID: PMC3778221  PMID: 23728893
20.  Reconstruction of focal cartilage defects in the talus with miniarthrotomy and collagen matrix 
Surgical principal and objective
Treatment of focal cartilage defects (traumatic or osteochondrosis dissecans) of the talus using a collagen matrix. The goal is to stabilize the superclot formed after microfracturing to accommodate cartilage repair. The procedure can be carried out via miniarthrotomy, without medial malleolus osteotomy.
International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade III and IV focal cartilage defects of the talus > 1.5 cm2.
Generalized osteoarthritis, inflammatory joint disease, gout, neuroarthropathy.
Surgical technique
Miniarthrotomy to open the ankle joint. Debridement of unstable cartilage and necrotic bone, curettage of cysts. Filling of the bone defects with autologous cancellous bone. Sealing of reconstructed bone with fibrin glue and attachment of a collagen matrix shaped to precisely fit the defect.
Postoperative regimen
Immobilization for 48 h. Partial weight bearing of 10 kg for 6 weeks, with continuous passive motion. Increasing weight bearing from 7 weeks onwards.
Follow-up of at least 30 months in 14 patients showed improvement in the Score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) from 50 to 89 points, with equal mobility on both sides of the upper ankle joint.
PMCID: PMC4250579  PMID: 24898391
Osteochondrosis dissecans; Microfracture; Ankle joint; Autograft; Chondrogenesis ; Osteochondrosis dissecans; Mikrofraktur; Sprunggelenk; Autologes Transplantat; Chondrogenese
21.  Changes in Plantar Loading Based on Shoe Type and Sex During a Jump-Landing Task 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(5):601-609.
Metatarsal stress fractures are common in cleated-sport athletes. Previous authors have shown that plantar loading varies with footwear, sex, and the athletic task.
To examine the effects of shoe type and sex on plantar loading in the medial midfoot (MMF), lateral midfoot (LMF), medial forefoot (MFF), middle forefoot (MidFF), and lateral forefoot (LFF) during a jump-landing task.
Crossover study.
Patients or Other Participants:
Twenty-seven recreational athletes (14 men, 13 women) with no history of lower extremity injury in the last 6 months and no history of foot or ankle surgery.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
The athletes completed 7 jumping trials while wearing bladed-cleat, turf-cleat, and running shoes. Maximum force, contact area, contact time, and the force-time integral were analyzed in each foot region. We calculated 2 × 3 analyses of variance (α = .05) to identify shoe-condition and sex differences.
We found no shoe × sex interactions, but the MMF, LMF, MFF, and LFF force-time integrals were greater in men (P < .03). The MMF maximum force was less with the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .02). Total foot and MidFF maximum force was less with the running shoes (P < .01). The MFF and LFF maximum forces were different among all shoe conditions (P < .01). Total foot contact area was less in the bladed-cleat shoes (P = .01). The MMF contact area was greatest in the running shoes (P < .01). The LFF contact area was less in the running shoes (P = .03). The MFF and LFF force-time integrals were greater with the bladed-cleat shoes (P < .01). The MidFF force-time integral was less in the running shoes (P < .01).
Independent of shoe, men and women loaded the foot differently during a jump landing. The bladed cleat increased forefoot loading, which may increase the risk for forefoot injury. The type of shoe should be considered when choosing footwear for athletes returning to activity after metatarsal stress fractures.
PMCID: PMC3784361  PMID: 24067149
athletic injuries; sex differences; lower extremity
22.  Discriminating Between Copers and People With Chronic Ankle Instability 
Journal of Athletic Training  2012;47(2):136-142.
Differences in various outcome measures have been identified between people who have sprained their ankles but have no residual symptoms (copers) and people with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, the diagnostic utility of the reported outcome measures has rarely been determined. Identifying outcome measures capable of predicting who is less likely to develop CAI could improve rehabilitation protocols and increase the efficiency of these measures.
To determine the diagnostic utility and cutoff scores of perceptual, mechanical, and sensorimotor outcome measures between copers and people with CAI by using receiver operating characteristic curves.
Case-control study.
Sports medicine research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
Twenty-four copers (12 men, 12 women; age = 20.8 ± 1.5 years, height = 173 ± 11 cm, mass = 78 ± 27 kg) and 24 people with CAI (12 men, 12 women; age = 21.7 ± 2.8 years, height = 175 ± 13 cm, mass = 71 ± 13 kg) participated.
Self-reported disability questionnaires, radiographic images, and a single-legged hop stabilization test.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
Perceptual outcomes included scores on the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), FADI-Sport, and a self-report questionnaire of ankle function. Mechanically, talar position was quantified by measuring the distance from the anterior tibia to the anterior talus in the sagittal plane. Sensorimotor outcomes were the dynamic postural stability index and directional indices, which were calculated during a single-legged hop stabilization task.
Perceptual outcomes demonstrated diagnostic accuracy (range, 0.79–0.91), with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0.65 to 1.00. Sensorimotor outcomes also were able to discriminate between copers and people with CAI but with less accuracy (range, 0.69–0.70), with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0.37 to 0.86. The mechanical outcome demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy (0.52).
The greatest diagnostic utility scores were achieved by the self-assessed disability questionnaires, which indicated that perceptual outcomes had the greatest ability to accurately predict people who became copers after their initial injuries. However, the diversity of outcome measures that discriminated between copers and people with CAI indicated that the causal mechanism of CAI is probably multifactorial.
PMCID: PMC3418124  PMID: 22488278
self-report disability; positional fault; dynamic postural control
23.  Clinical Examination Results in Individuals With Functional Ankle Instability and Ankle-Sprain Copers 
Journal of Athletic Training  2013;48(5):581-589.
Why some individuals with ankle sprains develop functional ankle instability and others do not (ie, copers) is unknown. Current understanding of the clinical profile of copers is limited.
To contrast individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI), copers, and uninjured individuals on both self-reported variables and clinical examination findings.
Cross-sectional study.
Sports medicine research laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants:
Participants consisted of 23 individuals with a history of 1 or more ankle sprains and at least 2 episodes of giving way in the past year (FAI: Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool [CAIT] score = 20.52 ± 2.94, episodes of giving way = 5.8 ± 8.4 per month), 23 individuals with a history of a single ankle sprain and no subsequent episodes of instability (copers: CAIT score = 27.74 ± 1.69), and 23 individuals with no history of ankle sprain and no instability (uninjured: CAIT score = 28.78 ± 1.78).
Self-reported disability was recorded using the CAIT and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports. On clinical examination, ligamentous laxity and tenderness, range of motion (ROM), and pain at end ROM were recorded.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
Questionnaire scores for the CAIT, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Activities of Daily Living and for Sports, ankle inversion and anterior drawer laxity scores, pain with palpation of the lateral ligaments, ankle ROM, and pain at end ROM.
Individuals with FAI had greater self-reported disability for all measures (P < .05). On clinical examination, individuals with FAI were more likely to have greater talar tilt laxity, pain with inversion, and limited sagittal-plane ROM than copers (P < .05).
Differences in both self-reported disability and clinical examination variables distinguished individuals with FAI from copers at least 1 year after injury. Whether the deficits could be detected immediately postinjury to prospectively identify potential copers is unknown.
PMCID: PMC3784359  PMID: 23914879
laxity; chronic ankle instability; giving way; range of motion
24.  Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Talar Dome in a Collegiate Swimmer: A Case Report 
Journal of Athletic Training  1998;33(4):365-371.
To present the case of an intercollegiate swimmer with a stage IV lateral talar dome injury and associated bony fragments.
Lack of distinct diagnostic symptoms, low index of clinical suspicion, and the difficulty of visualizing the early stages of this injury on standard x-rays cause frequent misdiagnosis of talar dome lesions.
Differential Diagnosis:
Ganglion cyst, with inflammatory synovitis secondary to rupture of cyst; loose bodies from previous occult fracture; osteochondral fracture.
Initial treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a posterior splint for comfort, followed by arthroscopic excision of loose bodies with abrasion and drilling arthroplasty.
Patient presented to the team physician for care of acute left medial ankle pain after the athletic trainer had attempted to rupture a ganglion cyst on the anterolateral aspect of the patient's ankle.
Increased clinical suspicion is necessary to correctly diagnose osteochondral lesions, particularly in the early stages. Aggressive treatment of talar dome lesions has a good success rate and may be an attractive option for competitive athletes.
PMCID: PMC1320590  PMID: 16558537
ganglion cyst; inflammatory synovitis; osteochondral fracture
25.  Posterior ankle and subtalar arthroscopy: indications, technique, and results 
Over the decades, arthroscopy has grown in popularity for the treatment of many foot and ankle pathologies. While anterior ankle arthroscopy is a widely accepted technique, posterior ankle/subtalar arthroscopy is still a relatively new procedure. The goal of this review is to outline the indications, surgical techniques, and results of posterior ankle/subtalar arthroscopy. The main indications include: 1) osteochondral lesions (of subtalar and posterior ankle joint); 2) posterior soft tissue or bony impingement; 3) os trigonum syndrome; 4) posterior loose bodies; 5) flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tenosynovitis; 6) posterior synovitis; 7) subtalar (or ankle) joint arthritis; 8) posterior tibial, talar, or calcaneal fractures (for arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation). Although posterior ankle/subtalar arthroscopy has shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of many of the above mentioned conditions, thorough knowledge of the anatomy, correct indications, and a precise surgical technique are essential to produce good outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3535152  PMID: 22426574
Posterior ankle arthroscopy; Subtalar arthroscopy; Prone arthroscopy; Osteochondral lesions; Os trigonum; Posterior arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis; Talocalcaneal coalitions; Foot and ankle

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