We aimed to test the hypothesis that Minimally Invasive Video-assisted Thyroidectomy (MIVAT) affords comparable safety and efficacy as to the open conventional surgery, when dealing with patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions, in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain and hospital stay.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This was a single-blinded randomised controlled trial comparing the MIVAT with conventional thyroidectomy. The primary endpoints of the study were measurement of postoperative pain after 24 and 48 hours from operation and self-rated patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome three months postoperatively. The secondary outcome measures were operative time, incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative haematoma formation, length of incision, and duration of hospital stay.
Operative time was significantly less with open thyroidectomy than with MIVAT, while MIVAT was associated with less pain 24 hours postoperatively. Blood loss did not reach significance between procedures. Comparisons between the two procedures with regard to pain scores after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, depicted statistically significant differences in favour of the MIVAT after 24 hours. MIVAT was associated with less scarring and more satisfactory cosmetic results. There were statistically no significant differences between both procedures for the presence of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism.
MIVAT is a safe procedure that produces outcomes, in view of short-term adverse events, similar to those of open thyroidectomy, and is superior in terms of immediate postoperative pain and cosmetic results.
Thyroid surgery; minimally invasive
Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) advantages include a smaller incision, less extensive surgical dissection, improved visualization secondary to rigid fiberoptics, and decreased postoperative pain. The aims of our study were to report our experience using expanded indications of MIVAT.
A retrospective chart review of a single surgeon's initial experience was carried out at a tertiary academic cancer center.
In all, 53 patients were identified, of whom 40 underwent total thyroidectomy and 13 underwent hemithyroidectomy. Thyroid volume, nodule size, incision length, and surgical time were all examined. Most common pathology was well-differentiated papillary thyroid cancer (69.8%): 42% of patients had evidence of thyroiditis found on pathology; 17% of patients had temporary vocal cord paralysis, with only 1 case of vocal cord paralysis persisting >6 months (1.9%). Six patients (11%) experienced temporary hypocalcemia, requiring postoperative calcium supplementation; no patients experienced permanent hypocalcemia.
The use of MIVAT with expanded indications shows complication rates comparable to those of traditional open thyroidectomy.
thyroid; minimally invasive; thyroidectomy; thyroid neoplasm; video-assisted surgery
Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty using a short skin incision is a subject of much debate in the literature. The present study estimates the possible minimal length of the exposure in an unselected patient cohort and compares the lateral mini-incision technique and traditional total hip arthroplasty (THA). One hundred and two patients were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery and length of incision: mini-incision (less than 10 cm) was performed in 38 patients; midi-incision (10–14 cm) in 43; and standard-incision (longer than 14 cm) in 21 patients. No statistical difference was found with regard to intraoperative and total blood loss, the rate of complications, and postoperative recovery. Significantly decreased body mass index (BMI), shorter operative time, and higher number of hips with malpositioning of the acetabular cup were found in the mini-incision group. These patients, however, experienced less pain in the early postoperative period and were highly satisfied with the cosmetic results. The length of incision was shortened and optimized (less than 14 cm) in 82% of patients, and mini-incision was performed in 38 patients of this unselected cohort. Because of the understandable demand of the patients for less invasive intervention, the surgeon should use a smaller but not necessarily mini-incision with minimal soft tissue trauma that still allows him to perform the procedure well, without compromising the type of implants and the otherwise excellent long-term results. Randomized prospective studies are needed to explore the real value of the minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty.
To evaluate the effectiveness of minimally invasive surgery total hip arthroplasty (THA) using the two-incision technique as described by Mears.
From January 2003 to December 2006, sixty-four patients underwent total hip arthroplasty using the one-incision (group I) and two-incision (group II) technique by one surgeon. There were 34 hips in group I and 30 hips in group II. There was no difference in age, gender, and causes of THA between the two groups. We evaluated the operation time, bleeding amount, incision length, ambulation, hospital stay, and complications between the two groups.
There was no difference in the bleeding amount between the two groups. Operation time was longer in the two-incision group than in the one-incision group. Operation time of the two-incision technique could be reduced after 15 cases. Patients started ambulation after surgery earlier in group II than group I, and the hospital stay was shorter in group II than in group I. There was no difference in clinical results between the two groups. There was no difference in component position of the acetabular cup and femoral stem between the two groups. Intraoperative periprosthetic fracture occurred in four cases (13.3%) in group II.
Two-incision THA has the advantage of rapid recovery and shorter hospital stay. However, longer operation time and a high complication rate compared to one-incision are problems that need to be solved in the two-incision technique.
Total hip arthroplasty; Minimal invasive surgery; Two-incision technique
The targets of minimally invasive surgery (MIVA) could be summarised by: achievement of the same results as those obtained with traditional surgery, less trauma, better post-operative course, early discharge from hospital and improved cosmetic results. The minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery can be described as either endoscopic "pure" approach (completely closed approach with or without CO2 insufflation), or "open approach" with central neck mini-incision or "open video-assisted approach". Traditionally, open thyroidectomy requires a 6 to 8 cm, or bigger, transverse wound on the lower neck. The minimally invasive approach wound is much shorter (1.5 cm for small nodules, up to 2–3 cm for the largest ones, in respect of the exclusion criteria) upon the suprasternal notch.
Patients also experience much less pain after MIVA surgery than after conventional thyroidectomy. This is due to less dissection and destruction of tissues.
Pathologies treated are mainly nodular goiter; the only kind of thyroid cancer which may be approached with endoscopic surgery is a small differentiated carcinoma without lymph node involvement.
The patients were considered eligible for MIVA hemithyroidectomy and thyroidectomy on the basis of some criteria, such as gland volume and the kind of disease. In our experience we have chosen the minimally invasive open video-assisted approach of Miccoli et al. (2002). The aim of this work was to verify the suitability of the technique and the applicability in clinical practice.
A completely gasless procedure was carried out through a 15–30 mm central incision about 20 mm above the sternal notch. Dissection was mainly performed under endoscopic vision using conventional endoscopic instruments. The video aided group included 11 patients. All patients were women with a average age of 54.
We performed thyroidectomy in 8 cases and hemithyroidectomy in 3 cases. The operative average time has been 170 minutes.
Nowadays this minimally invasive surgery, in selected patients, clearly demonstrates excellent results regarding patient cure rate and comfort, with shorter hospital stay, reduced postoperative pain and most attractive cosmetic results.
minimally invasive thyroidectomy; MIVA; video-assisted surgery
Minimally invasive thyroidectomy is still in its phase of evolution with various techniques being practiced only in certain centers internationally. The conventional thyroidectomy performed by the Kocher's cervicotomy often leaves an undesirable scar over the neck, the size of which is usually around 8–10 cm long. The main aim of minimally invasive thyroid surgery is to minimize or avoid the scar over the neck. Endoscopic thyroid surgery in India, especially in the state of Kerala, is still in its infancy. Here, we describe the first case report of a modified technique of video-assisted thyroid surgery using a laparoscope and conventional open surgical instruments. Video-assisted thyroidectomy enables adequate visualization of the operative field and provides a magnified view of the vital structures like the parathyroid gland, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and the thyroid vasculature. The procedure described here can be considered as a more cost-effective alternative to the conventional minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), and therefore is feasible in a rural setup.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy; minimally invasive thyroidectomy; thyroid surgery; video-assisted thyroidectomy
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed using multiple small sites. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has emerged as an alternative technique to improve cosmesis and minimize complications associated with multiple incisions. A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single surgeon (DTA) from April 2008 to August 2011. Charts were reviewed for surgical indication, operative technique (multiple vs. single transumbilical incision), operative time, length of stay, and surgical complications. Sixty-three patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a traditional approach of four skin incisions, while 62 patients underwent a single-incision transumbilical approach. Average age and sex were comparable between the two groups. Indications for surgery included cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, biliary pancreatitis, and porcelain gallbladder. Of those undergoing single-incision cholecystectomy, 85% (53/62) went home the same day, compared with 70% (44/63) of those undergoing four-incision cholecystectomy (P = 0.03). Among those not discharged on the same day of surgery, the average length of stay trended shorter in the single-incision group (2.8 days, range 1–6) compared with the four-incision group (3.3 days, range 1–12; P = NS). Operative time was slightly longer for those undergoing single-incision surgery (65 minutes, range 35–141) versus traditional four-incision surgery (51 minutes, range 41–109) (P < 0.001). With this single surgeon's single-incision transumbilical technique, costs were comparable between the two groups. One patient who underwent traditional four-incision cholecystectomy was readmitted for biliary pancreatitis and bacteremia on postoperative day 3. In the single-incision group, one patient was readmitted 1 month later with pancreatitis. In conclusion, single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be an effective alternative to traditional four-incision cholecystectomy, with the added benefit of minimized scarring and a shorter length of stay. A longer operative time may be needed initially to adjust for a learning curve. This technique can be performed safely for patients with a multitude of gallbladder diseases without resulting in additional complications.
The choice of surgical incision is determined by access to the surgical field, particularly when an oncological resection is required. Special consideration is also given to other factors, such as postoperative pain and its sequelae, fewer complications in the early postoperative period and a lower occurrence of incisional hernias. The purpose of this study is to compare the right Kocher’s and the midline incision, for patients undergoing right hemicolectomy, by focusing on short- and longterm results.
Between 1995 and 2009, hospital records for 213 patients that had undergone a right hemicolectomy for a right- sided adenocarcinoma were retrospectively studied. 113 patients had been operated via a Kocher’s and 100 via a midline incision. Demographic details, operative data (explorative access to the peritoneal cavity, time of operation), recovery parameters (time with IV analgesic medication, time to first oral fluid intake, time to first solid meal, time to discharge), and oncological parameters (lymph node harvest, TNM stage and resection margins) were analyzed. Postoperative complications were also recorded. The two groups were retrospectively well matched with respect to demographic parameters and oncological status of the tumor.
The median length of the midline incision was slightly longer (12 vs. 10 cm, p < 0.05). The duration of the surgery for the Kocher’s incision group was significantly shorter (median time 70 vs 85 min, p < 0.001). In three patients we performed wedge resection of liver metastasis and in one patient we performed a typical right hepatectomy that lasted 190 min. No major operative complications were noted. There was no immediate or 30- day postoperative mortality. The Kocher’s incision group had a significantly shorter hospital stay (median time 5 vs 8 days). All patients underwent wide tumor excision and clear resection margins were obtained in all cases. No significant difference was noted regarding analgesia requirements and early postoperative complications. Late postoperative complications included 2 incisional hernias and three patients presented with one episode of obstructive ileus, that resolved conservatively.
The Kocher’s incision approach for right- sided colon cancer is technically feasible, safe and overall very well tolerated. It can achieve the same standards of tumor resection and surgical field accessibility as the midline approach, while reducing postoperative recovery.
Colonic adenocarcinoma; Midline incision; Right Kocher’s incision; Right hemicolectomy
An alternative method to laparoscopic surgery has been developed for urological procedures.
The surgery is minimal access because the length of the single skin incision ranges
from 3–6 cm depending on the type of operation. It is direct access because the surgeon
sees the operative area directly and stereoscopically by eye without video-optical support.
The procedure requires a special open-lumen retractorscope (JakoscopeTM) with a
high intensity fiberoptic light system and modified standard hand instruments. Among
the procedures performed nephrectomy, ureterolithotomy, prostatic adenomectomy,
spermatic vein ligation and others have been performed. The kidney procedures have
been operated retroperitoneally through a minilumbotomy incision. The procedures are
simple, rapid and the instruments are inexpensive. The postoperative pain and morbidity
are comparable to the laparoscopic approach.
A chest wall approach combined with a gasless technique appears to make single-incision endoscopic thyroidectomy feasible and practicable.
Endoscopic thyroidectomy making the scar outside the neck area has a cosmetic appeal for patients. Based on an anterior chest wall approach combined with the gasless technique, we developed a novel method for gasless endoscopic thyroidectomy with a single incision.
Materials and Methods:
From March 2009 to November 2010, 48 patients with benign thyroid nodules underwent thyroidectomy with the gasless single-incision endoscopic surgery technique via the anterior chest wall approach. A 3-cm long skin incision parallel to the clavicle was made on the anterior chest wall on the side of the lesion. The platysma flap was lifted up to maintain working space from the incision to the thyroid cartilage. Dissection of the thyroid was begun from the inferior pole of the thyroid. The line of resection was selected to preserve recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroids. A 5-mm drainage tube was inserted into the lower portion of the operative space through the incision after the thyroid gland and the lesion were resected using the Harmonic scalpel.
The overall operating time was 126 minutes (range, 90 to 210), 138 minutes (range, 80 to 160) in first 24 cases; and 112 minutes in the second 24 patients (P<.05). Three cases were converted to the conventional procedure: 2 because of a malignancy diagnosed on frozen section, and one due to uncontrolled bleeding from the middle thyroid vein. Another malignancy diagnosed on final pathological examination was treated with additional surgery to complete the thyroidectomy by using the conventional open method. There were 2 cases of postoperative complications: transient hoarseness and hematoma. No wound infection occurred in our series. The scar was well hidden beneath the clothes, and the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result of the surgery.
Advantages of the chest wall approach combined with the gasless technique have made single-incision endoscopic thyroidectomy more feasible and practicable.
Endoscopic surgery; Thyroidectomy; Gasless; Single-incision surgery
The concept of surgical invasiveness cannot be limited to the length or to the site of the skin incision. It must be extended to all structures dissected during the procedure. Therefore, MIT or MIP should properly be defined as operations through a short and discrete incision that permits direct access to the thyroid or parathyroid gland, resulting in a focused dissection.
Parathyroid glands are particularly suitable for minimally invasive surgery as most parathyroid tumors are small and benign. MIP are performed through a limited or discrete incision when compared to classic open transverse cervical incision and are targeted on one specific parathyroid gland. The concept of these limited explorations is based on the fact that 85% of patients will have single-gland disease. MIP must be proposed only for patients with sporadic hyperparathyroidism in whom a single adenoma has been clearly localized by preoperative imaging studies.
The minimal access approaches to the thyroid gland may be broadly classified into three groups: the mini-open lateral approach via a small incision, minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy via the midline and various endoscopic techniques. Endoscopic extracervical approaches have the main advantage of leaving no scar in the neck but cannot reasonably be described as minimally invasive as they require more dissection than conventional open surgery.
Initially the indications for MIT were a solitary thyroid nodule of less than 3 cm in diameter in an otherwise normal gland. Today, MIT are also proposed in patients with small nodular goiters, Graves’s diseases and low risk papillary thyroid cancers. Some concern remains about the radicality of MIT in this latter group but preliminary results are comparable to those of conventional surgery both in terms of I-131 uptake and serum thyroglobuline levels.
Demonstrating the advantages of MIT and MIP over conventional surgery is not easy. Main complications, such as nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, or hemorrhage, are the same as in conventional surgery. Several studies comparing conventional surgery with minimally invasive techniques using a cervical access have shown a diminution of postoperative pain, and better cosmetic results with minimally invasive techniques. MIP and MIT seem overall to be an advance but only randomized studies will demonstrate the real benefit.
Minimally invasive surgery; thyroidectomy; parathyroidectomy
Minimally-invasive, video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT) was developed to reduce scarring/trauma associated with cervical incisions used in open thyroidectomy. Results from various centres have been published internationally but none from the UK. This study reports the first results from the UK and compares them with other centres. We also aim to compare the results of a single-surgeon experience in a small/moderately-sized hospital to those of larger tertiary centres.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Retrospective analysis of a single surgeon experience in a district general hospital
The cohort was 55 patients (52 female, 3 male), mean age 48 years (range, 21-77 years) who had 64 MIVAT procedures. There were 49 hemithyroidectomies (HTs), 2 isthmusectomy, 4 total thyroidectomies (TTs) and 9 completion thyroidec-tomies (CTs) with median operating time of 86 min (IQR 66-110 min). Individual operating times were HT 85 min (IQR 60-110 min); TT 130 min (IQR 100-140 min) and CT 77 min (IQR 70-98 min). Median operating time was shorter in the second half of this series (76 min vs 92 min; P < 0.001). Length of stay was < 1 day in 92%. Conversions occurred in 6.3% with no haematoma or re-operation. Transient voice change was present in 7 (11%), permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 2 (3%), and transient hypocalcaemia in 2 (3%).
The first results from the UK are similar to those of other international centres. A single-surgeon practice can obtain results comparable to larger tertiary centres provided there is sufficient case-load. MIVAT is safe and effective, but has a steep learning curve with rapid improvement observed within first 30 cases. Future studies should focus on objective assessment of scar/cosmesis and cost-effectiveness. MIVAT is an acceptable alternative to open surgery in highly selected patients.
Minimally invasive; Thyroidectomy; Education
In selected patients, video-assisted thyroidectomy can be considered a safe and validated procedure offering significant advantages over conventional surgery, with no additional morbidity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the results obtained in a series of patients selected for video-assisted thyroidectomy over a 10-years period. All patients who underwent video-assisted thyroidectomy from June 1998 to June 2009 were considered. The eligibility criteria for video-assisted thyroidectomy are: thyroid nodules ≤ 35 mm; estimated thyroid volume < 30 ml; no previous conventional neck surgery and/or radiation therapy; small, low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. A total of 1363 video-assisted thyroidectomies were attempted in the time period considered. Conversion to the conventional procedure was necessary in 7 cases. Thyroid lobectomy was successfully performed in 157 cases, total thyroidectomy in 1175, and completion thyroidectomy in 24. In 126 patients, the central neck nodes were removed through the same access. Simultaneous video-assisted parathyroidectomy, for a parathyroid adenoma, was performed in 42 patients. Pathological studies showed benign disease in 986 cases, papillary thyroid carcinoma in 368 cases, C-cells hyperplasia in 1 case, and medullary microcarcinoma in 1 patients with RET germline mutation. Post-operative complications included 27 transient and 1 definitive recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, 230 transient hypocalcemia, 10 definitive hypoparathyroidism, 4 postoperative hematoma and 5 wound infection.
Thyroidectomy; Minimally invasive thyroidectomy; Endoscopic thyroidectomy
Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy has many benefits over open surgery such as smaller incisions, less pain, less blood loss, faster postoperative recovery, shortened hospital stay, similar or superior survival rates. In contrast video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has higher equipment costs, increased operating room times, at least initially, and a learning curve for the team. However when an experienced surgeon performs the surgery, significant hospital savings combined with better outcomes are achieved by video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS); lobectomy; costs; quality of life
Background. This paper studied technical aspects and feasibility of single incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC).
Methods. Bibliographic search was carried out up to October 2009 including original articles, case reports, and technical notes. Assessed criteria were techniques, operative time, scar length, conversion, complications, and hospitalization duration.
Results. The review analyzed seventeen SILCs by seven surgical teams. A single port system was used by four teams. No team used the same laparoscope. Two teams used two laparoscopes. All teams used curved instruments. SILC time was 116 ± 34 minutes. Final scar was longer than port incision (31 ± 7 versus 24 ± 8 mm; P = .036). No conversion was reported. The only complication was a bacteremia. Hospitalization was 5 ± 2 days.
Conclusion. SILC is feasible. A single incision around the umbilical scar represents cosmetic progress. Comparative studies are needed to assess potential abdominal wall and recovery benefits to justify the increased cost of SILC.
Open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP) has traditionally been performed through a lower midline incision. Prior efforts to reduce pain and expedite recovery include a variety of alterations in length and the orientation of the incision. The aim of our study is to compare the safety, efficacy, and cosmetic outcomes associated with transverse and longitudinal mini-radical prostatectomy incisions.
Materials and Methods:
Consecutive patients undergoing ORP at a single institution were studied. Patients were randomized to receive either a modified transverse or longitudinal incision. In all patients, the length of the incision was 7cm. The following parameters were compared between the two groups: Perioperative blood loss, duration of surgery, technical factors, pain and analgesic requirements, length of hospital stay (LOS), and pathological stage. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to compare the cosmetic aspects associated with the incisions.
Fifty-six patients underwent a transverse (n=27) and longitudinal (n=29) mini- incision ORP. No significant differences were noted in the perioperative parameters that were compared (P>0.116). None of the patients required blood transfusion, there were no wound complications. Perioperative pain and analgesic requirements were not significantly different among the two study arms (P>0.433). The POSAS indicated no significant difference in cosmesis scores with both incisions (P>0.09).
Seven-centimeter transverse and longitudinal mini-incisions offer alternatives to the standard ORP incision, and to minimally invasive approaches. Both incisions are safe, associated with little postoperative pain, and a short postoperative LOS. Both incisions provide highly satisfactory cosmesis for the patient.
Cosmesis; localized prostate cancer; prostate cancer treatment; radical prostatectomy
Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem for surgeons. The clinical importance of nodules is the need to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5%–15% of patients. If fine needle aspiration cytology is positive, or suspicious for malignancy, surgery is recommended. During the past decade, with the tendency to develop smaller incisions, an endoscopic approach has been applied to thyroid surgery, called minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. This approach was immediately followed by other minimally invasive or scarless neck techniques, such as the breast approach, axillary-breast approach, and robot-assisted method. All these techniques follow the same principles of surgery and oncology. This review presents the current surgical management of the thyroid gland, including the surgical techniques and compares them by describing benefits and drawbacks of each one.
thyroidectomy; surgical techniques; thyroid cancer
Endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT) was found to be a safe and feasible alternative to open thyroidectomy.
Background and Objective:
Endoscopic neck surgery for the thyroid and parathyroid is being tested as an alternative to open thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of endoscopic transaxillary total thyroidectomy (ETTT).
Methods and Results:
Twenty-two consecutive patients from January 2006 to September 2008 underwent ETTT. No conversions to open were necessary. Mean age was 49.3±12.9 years, 20 were female, and 2 were male. Mean operating time was 238 minutes±72.7. Mean blood loss was 40mL±28.3mL. Mean weight of the gland was 137.05g±129.21g. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified with no permanent injury. Six patients developed hoarseness of the voice for a mean of 15.1±8.01 days. No patient developed tetany or hypocalcemia requiring treatment. Six patients experienced transient numbness in the anterior chest wall lasting 2 weeks in 5 patients and 2 months in one. All patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission.
ETTT requires additional operative time compared with the open approach, but is cosmetically favorable. Visualization of the nerve and parathyroid is much better. Although the learning curve is steep, with experience the operative time will decrease. ETTT is different but safe and feasible.
Minimal; Invasive; Endoscopic; Thyroidectomy; Transaxillary
In recent years, multiple studies have proved laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) to be as safe and as effective in rectal cancer treatment as open surgery, with the undeniable benefit of perioperative trauma reduction. Decreasing the number of incisions and performing single-port surgery could have further reduced the trauma. A new access device, QuadPort™ Olympus, enables operations from just one small transumbilical incision, leaving a barely visible scar afterwards. This is one of the first reports of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site TME for rectal carcinoma. A 73-year-old woman presented with tubulo-villous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and focal adenocarcinoma in situ at 7 cm from the anal verge. She had TME performed via a QuadPort™, Olympus, in line with principles of laparoscopic TME. The operating time was 80 min. There were no adverse events during the procedure. Total blood loss was less than 100 ml. There were no complications in the postoperative period. The patient required only non-opioid analgesia, during the first 2 days. The patient was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day with standard recommendations. Feasibility and safety of the proposed transumbilical laparoendoscopic single site TME for rectal carcinoma was proved. It is a technically demanding procedure, requiring appropriate laparoscopic skills. The QuadPort provided good oncological protection of the wound and easy specimen extraction. Reduced operative trauma resulted in no opioid administration in the perioperative period. Hospital stay was comparable with laparoscopic TME but the cosmetic effect was much better.
transumbilical; laparoendoscopic; single-site surgery; total mesorectal excision; rectal cancer; QuadPort; single incision surgery; single port surgery; single access surgery
Purpose: Single incision laparoscopic surgery in suitable cases is preferred today because it results in less postoperative pain, a more rapid recovery period, more comfort, and a better cosmetic appearance from smaller incisions. This study aims to present our experiences with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this procedure.
Methods: A total of 150 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2009 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. In this serial, two different access techniques were used for single incision laparoscopy.
Results: Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed successfully on 150 patients. Median operative time was 29 (minimum-maximum=5-66) minutes. Median duration of hospital stay was found to be 1.33 (minimum-maximum=1-8) days. Patients were controlled on the seventh postoperative day. Bilier complication was not seen in the early period. Five patients showed port site hernia complications. Other major complications were not seen in the 36-month follow-up period.
Conclusion: Operation time of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is significantly shortened with the learning curve. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy seems a safe method.
Cholecystectomy; Single incision
The mini-incision anterior approach in total hip replacement is not new, but uses a shorter incision than the traditional Hueter approach, typically only 6–8 cm in length. Despite its size, the single anterior incision allows good exposure. It is very atraumatic, preserves muscles and tendons, and allows the patient early mobilisation and fast postoperative recovery. Although, a special table (e.g., a Judet table) and specific tools (e.g., a curved reamer) are needed to perform hip replacement via the mini-anterior approach, any kind of hip prosthesis (cemented or uncemented) can be implanted. As there is a significant learning curve in mastering the mini-incision anterior approach, surgeons are advised to start with a longer incision and then to decrease its length with increasing experience.
Historically, invasive, large incisions were necessary to perform “open” abdominal surgical procedures. While effective, this method increased the possibility of multiple complications, including post-operative pain, wound infection, incisional hernia and prolonged hospitalization. Concerns over the rate of complications and morbidities led surgeons to develop laparoscopic surgical techniques, in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions as opposed to larger, open incisions across the surgical site. There was a continuous effort to minimize the number of ports, and finally single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) came into practice. Sils without frills is a concept where multiple ports are made in a curved 2.5 cm incision in a triangle. The chopstick method is used to minimize instrument and telescope clash during the procedure. Standard laparoscopic instruments are introduced along with a 30 ° telescope. Instrument clashes are avoided by chop stick technique of crossing them at a proximal point so that ends are away from each other. Dissection takes place in forward backward movement after making lateral retraction by the other instrument. With experience the operative time is expected to become comparable with conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But benefits regarding post operative pain in SILS has not been confirmed. It is felt that expertise and reduction of operative time may reduce post operative pain. No special telescopes, ports or hand instruments are needed for this procedure but may have a role in advanced laparoscopic procedures.
Sils; Spa; Single; Incision; Laparoscopy
Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a well-established surgical technique. We have been utilizing precordial video-assisted neck surgery (VANS) with a gasless anterior neck skin lifting method. Recently, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has generated excitement among surgeons as potentially scar-free surgery. We developed an innovative gasless transoral technique for endoscopic thyroidectomy that incorporated the concept of NOTES in a VANS-technique.
Incision was made at the vestibulum under the inferior lip. From the vestibulum to the anterior cervical region, a subplatysmal tunnel in front of the mandible was created and cervical skin was lifted by Kirschner wires and a mechanical retracting system. This method without CO2 insufflation created an effective working space and provided an excellent cranio-caudal view so that we could perform thyroidectomy and central node dissection safely.
Beginning with our first clinical application of TOVANS in September 2009, we have performed eight such procedures. Three of the eight patients had papillary microcarcinoma and received central node dissection after thyroidectomy. All patients began oral intake 1 day after surgery. The sensory disorder around the chin persisted more than 6 months after surgery in all patients. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy revealed in one patient. Nobody had mental nerve palsy, and no infection developed with use of preventive antibacterial tablets for 3 days.
We developed a new method for gasless transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy with a premandible approach and anterior neck-skin lifting. TOVANS makes possible complete endoscopic radical lymphadenectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. We believe that this method is innovative and progressive and has not only a cosmetic advantage but also provides easy access to the central node compartment for dissection in endoscopic thyroid cancer surgery.
Transoral; Video assisted neck surgery; Endoscopic thyroidectomy; Minimally invasive thyroidectomy; Endoscopic lymphadenectomy; TOVANS
Laparoscopic splenectomy in a pediatric patient was performed through a single umbilical incision by using 3 ports.
Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is an emerging technique that has been used as an approach for appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and splenectomy. We describe the technique of single incision laparoscopic splenectomy for hypersplenism in a 5-year-old boy with spherocytosis.
The patient required blood transfusions for anemia secondary to hypersplenism. His spleen measured 9.8 cm in cranio-caudal length on ultrasound. SILS splenectomy was performed through a 2-cm umbilical incision by using 3 ports. The splenic attachments were taken down using an electrosurgical sealing and cutting device, and the hilum was transected with an endosurgical stapler. The spleen was placed in an endosurgical bag, morcellated, and removed from the abdomen via the umbilical incision without complications. Operative time was 84 minutes; blood loss was minimal.
SILS splenectomy is feasible in pediatric patients. More experience is needed to assess advantages and disadvantages compared with the standard laparoscopic approach.
Single incision; Laparoscopy; Splenectomy; Child
Minimally invasive surgery can be technically demanding but minimizes surgical trauma, pain and recovery. Two-incision minimally invasive surgery allows only intermittent visualization and may require fluoroscopy for implant positioning. We describe a modified technique for primary total hip arthroplasty, using two small incisions with a stepwise approach and adequate visualization to reliably and reproducibly perform the surgery without fluoroscopy.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and two patients with an average age of 60 years underwent modified two-incision minimally invasive technique for primary THA without fluoroscopy. The M/L taper femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) and Trilogy (Zimmer) hemispherical titanium shell, with a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner, was used. Operative time, blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, radiographic outcomes and complications were recorded.
The mean operating time was 77 min. The mean blood loss was 335 cc. The mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. Mean cup abduction angle was 43.8°. Mean leg length discrepancy was 1.7 mm. Thirteen patients had lateral thigh numbness and two patients had wound complications that resolved without any treatment.
A modified two-incision technique without fluoroscopy for primary total hip arthroplasty has the advantage of preserving muscles and tendons, shorter recovery and return to function with minimal complications. Provided that the surgeon has received appropriate training, primary total hip arthroplasty can be performed safely with the modified two-incision technique.
Minimally invasive surgery; total hip arthroplasty; two-incision surgery for THA