Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.
Osteoid osteoma is a rare occurrence in the hand, and only a small percentage affects the thumb and distal phalanges. An 18-year-old right-hand-dominant man presented to our office with an approximately 1-year history of left thumb pain without any history of trauma. He had seen several doctors previously and undergone multiple diagnostic tests with no definitive diagnosis. Plain radiographs and computed tomography at our institution were consistent with the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. The patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesion without bone grafting. The diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was confirmed by pathology. At 6 months follow-up, the patient showed complete resolution of pain and full restoration of hand function. This case demonstrates that osteoid osteoma should not be forgotten as a differential diagnosis in patients with finger pain, especially in individuals who have not yet or just recently have reached skeletal maturity.
Osteoid osteoma; Phalanx; Tumor; Resection; Thumb
A case of multicentric giant cell tumor with synchronous occurrence in all three bones around the knee is reported here in view of its rarity. A 33-year-old average built male reported with complaints of severe pain, gradually increasing swelling around the right knee. A 3 × 2 cm swelling was present on the lateral aspect of the distal end of the right femur and a 3 × 3 cm swelling on the proximal part of the right tibia. Plain X-ray of right knee showed subarticular eccentrically located expansile lytic lesion in the lateral tibia condyle, lateral condyle of femur and patella. Fine needle aspiration cytology and subsequent histology ascertained the diagnosis of giant cell tumor of the bone. The patient was treated successfully with curettage, bone grafting and methyl methacrylate cementing (Sandwich technique).
Amputation; arthrodesis; arthroplasty; curettage; giant cell tumor
Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor and accounts for 10% of benign tumors. Almost any bones can be involved but half of cases involving femur or tibia. Osteoid osteoma is a rare tumor of the scapula with only 18 reported cases in the literature. We presented a case of osteoid osteoma of the scapula in right shoulder in angle of coracoid and geloneid in a 34- year old woman. She had right radicular shoulder pain increased at night for 4 years. An important point about this case is that, patient was treated in long-term with miss diagnosis of cervicospinal discopathy. The key of diagnosis in this patient was paying attention to the nature of night increasing pain and performing bone scan. After the operative curettage of the tumor, the pain dramatically stopped and a few weeks of physical therapy led to full range of motion in her shoulder.
Osteoid osteoma; Scapula; Shoulder
Nonossifying fibroma is a common fibrous bone lesion in children that occurs in the metaphysis of the long bones of the lower extremities. The lesion rarely leads to aneurysmal bone cyst, which is characterized as a blood-filled space.
We present the case of a 13-year-old Japanese boy with a complaint of discomfort in the thigh and a small, well-defined, osteolytic lesion with cortical thinning located in the medullary space of the distal diaphysis of the femur. At 10-month follow-up, the size of the lesion had increased. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging failed to detect any solid area. Curettage and bone graft were performed and confirmed a blood-filled cystic lesion. The pathological diagnosis of the cyst wall was that of nonossifying fibroma, suggesting aneurysmal bone cyst as a secondary change. An aneurysmal bone cyst is rarely found secondary to nonossifying fibroma, and the diaphyseal location is atypical for nonossifying fibroma, both of which made diagnosis challenging.
The current case is a reminder to clinicians that, although rare, nonossifying fibroma can be associated with aneurysmal bone cyst, and both can occur in the diaphysis of long bones.
A 14-year-old male high school volleyball player was seen to evaluate right- and left-hand little-finger distal interphalangeal joint deformity and pain. His symptoms began during his second season of competitive play. The distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the little fingers flexed 20-30°, and a 10-15° valgus deformity was seen at the same joints. Pain was relieved with rest but returned immediately after playing volleyball, so plain radiographs were obtained. The flexion and valgus deformity was obvious on plain radiographs and through a clinical examination. Thus, a bilateral little-finger distal phalanx base epiphysis injury was seen. This injury is characterized by a biplanar Salter Harris physeal injury; type 5 on anteroposterior radiographs and type 2 on lateral plain radiographs. The deformity occurred as a result of competitive volleyball play. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral biplanar physial injury of the base of distal phalanges of the little fingers. Flexion and valgus deformities of DIP joints are a result of repeated micro traumas around the physis.
As a result of repeated micro traumas to the physial region, flexion and valgus deformities of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints should be occurred.
Sports injuries to the hand often require treatment in orthopedic departments to avoid permanent deformities.
Short- or long-term functional results can be gained by simple splinting procedures and abstention from play.
Bilateral little-finger deformity; mallet finger; clinodactyly; volleyball sport injury; physis injury; hand pain
Periosteal osteoid osteoma is extremely rare. The diagnosis is not always clear. We report a case of periosteal osteoid osteoma arising from the posterior surface of the right distal femur in a 21-year-old woman. After careful evaluation and excisional biopsy, histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma, showing the nidus, surrounding osteosclerosis, and catarrhal synovitis. The lesion was treated successfully with excision of the nidus.
periosteal; osteoid osteoma; femur; nidus.
Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare, benign soft-tissue tumor composed of spindled and stellate-shaped cells that are embedded in a dense collagenous stroma. Clinically, desmoplastic fibroma presents as a firm, mobile, slow-growing mass that is located in the subcutaneous tissue or near the deep aspect of the skeletal muscles. The present study describes the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with an inactive, firm, slightly tender mass in the lower medial segment of the right femur. An open biopsy was performed and the result of the pathological examination indicated a desmoplastic fibroma. The patient underwent a radical resection of the tumor and the accompanying bone, which was then reimplanted using devitalized tumor bone, self-ilium graft and homologous allograft bone transplantation, with an internal fixation by locking the compression plate. This was followed by a reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the lateral and medial collateral ligaments. There was no evidence of local recurrence at five years post-surgery.
desmoplastic fibroma; collagenous fibroma; femur; thigh mass; fibroblastic; internal fixation
Purpose. This study has researched the affect of different methodologies of harvesting and analysing the samples in determining the mediators emerging after the rat articular cartilage injury. Materials and Methods. One hundred and forty-four male wistar rats were divided into 2 groups. Synovial fluid samples were taken from all of the rats. We entered into the right knees of the rats in group I (n = 36) under anaesthesia and took cartilage tissue samples from their distal femur. Samples were taken as reference values for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histopathological evaluations. We entered into the right knees of the rats in group II (n = 108) and formed complete layer of cartilage injury in their medial femoral condyles. At the end of the 15th day, the rats were sacrificed after taking synovial fluid samples from their right knees creating defect in the rats in group II. The molecular markers in the synovial fluid and cartilage tissue samples which were taken from the experimental and control groups (MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TNF-α, and NO) were analysed by direct or indirect methodologies. SPSS 18.0 Package program was used in the statistical evaluation. Students t-test where the measurement variables between the experimental and control groups were compared was applied. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were used in the determination of the diagnostic sufficiency from the tissue. Results. No difference was found between TIMP-1 (P = 0.67) and MMP-9 (P = 0.28) levels in synovial fluid and cartilage tissue. From the molecular markers, when MMP-9, MMP-13, NO, TIMP-1, TNF-α′, the area under ROC curve, and P values were examined, MMP-13 (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.70–0.85), NO (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.72–0.86), and TNF-α (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.91–0.98) results were found to be statistically significant. Inferences. The indirect ELISA protocol which we apply for the cartilage tissue as an alternative to synovial lavage fluid is a reliable method which can be used in the determination of articular cartilage injury markers.
The clinical and radiological features of 38 children with osteoid osteomas were analysed retrospectively. Twenty nine patients had lesions of the femur (n = 17) or tibia (n = 12). The mean duration from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.8 months. In seven patients the history of pain and abnormalities on examination suggested a possible neurological disorder. Fourteen of 29 patients (48%) with femoral or tibial osteomas had localised muscle atrophy, and 10 patients (34%) had diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes in the affected limb. Two patients had painless lesions. Six patients had normal plain radiographs. Delay in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma may be prevented by the knowledge that pain may be referred or radicular, that the concomitant occurrence of muscle atrophy and depressed deep tendon reflexes are relatively common findings, and that the characteristic radiological features may only appear late in the course of the disease.
Skiing as a recreational activity has increased exponentially in the last twenty-years. Similar to any sporting activity, participants can sustain various types of injury, which provides the emergency departments with a continuous supply of patients. The injury pattern from the slopes has also changed over this time period, due to alterations and improvements in ski equipment. An increased diversity in alpine skiing techniques, as well as snowboarding and cross-terrain disciplines has also influenced this change.
We present a multi-media experience of a high-speed ski fall that caused a valgus-external rotation injury to the right knee that precluded the patient from further ski activity. There was no bruising, swelling or instability demonstrated and the patient returned to ski activities 24-hours post-injury. Although this injury appeared clinically benign initially, the patient complained of persistent pain around the right knee which was causing occupational difficulties. Following normal clinical assessment, the patient returned to work but continued to complain of persistent pain at the lateral aspect of the right knee. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrated extensive bone marrow oedema (BMO), a mild depression of the articular cortex compression with a small focus of articular cartilage disruption and microfractures of the lateral tibial plateau. The patient was treated conservatively and remains well with avoidance of impact exercises 14-months post-injury.
In the presence of any high speed injury, we would stress that regardless of initial normal investigations, clinical suspicion should remain paramount and not deter the physician from further investigation in the presence of continuing symptomatology.
Malignant degeneration in association with orthopaedic implants is a known but rare complication. To our knowledge, no case of osseous malignant fibrous histiocytoma after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is reported in the literature.
We report a 29-year-old male Turkish patient who presented with severe pain in the operated knee joint 40 months after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. X-ray and MR imaging showed a large destructive tumor in the medial femoral condyle. Biopsy determined a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, wide tumor resection and distal femur reconstruction with a silver-coated non-cemented tumor knee joint prosthesis was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy was continued according to the EURAMOS 1 protocol.
Though secondary malignant degeneration after orthopaedic implants or prostheses is not very likely, the attending physician should take this into consideration, especially if symptoms worsen severely over a short period of time.
Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma (myofibrosarcoma) is described to be a distinct atypical myofibroblastic tumor often with fibromatosis-like features and predilection for head and neck. Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma of bone is extremely rare.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because she had experienced right knee pain for 2 years. Plain radiography showed a honeycombed lesion on the right distal femur, and computed tomography showed a bone tumor with cortex destruction invading the soft tissue. A biopsy specimen from the intraosseous lesion showed a hypocellular area of spindle cell proliferation with dense collagen deposition, which is reminiscent of a histological feature of desmoplastic fibroma. However, histological examination of the extraosseous lesion indicated a slightly hypercellular area containing scattered spindle-shaped atypical cells with enlarged nuclei, suggestive of low-grade sarcoma. Spindle-shaped atypical cells were immunohistochemically positive for SMA. A final diagnosis of low-grade myofibroiblastic sarcoma of the bone was made from a surgically resected specimen.
The patient was alive and well with no evidence of disease at 15 months after the surgery without any additional therapy.
Extensive sampling of a tumor may be necessary to determine the true nature of the tumor and to make an accurate diagnosis.
Low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma; Leiomyosarcoma; Desmoplastic fibroma; Biopsy
Generally, skeletal peripheral metastases below the elbow and the knee are rare. Skeletal metastases to the hand or foot are very rare; but when they do it may be a revealing clinical finding. Purely lytic lesions are commonly seen in metastases from lung, renal, and thyroid tumors, but they are also known to occur in primary myeloma, brown tumor and lymphomas. A 70-year-old man was brought to the emergency department with acute painful swelling involving his right hand and the right knee. Due to significant accompanying soft tissue swellings cellulitis, acute osteomyelitis and gouty arthropathy were included in the initial differential diagnosis. Radiographs showed pure lytic bony lesion with complete disappearance of lower two third of the second metacarpal, trapezium and trapezoid bones of the right hand along with a lytic subarticular lesion of medial condyle of ipsilateral femur. Chest X-ray (CXR) was normal but sonography of the abdomen readily demonstrated a large renal mass, later confirmed at biopsy as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinicians should be cognizant of the strong association between digital acrometastases and renal cell carcinoma in male patients with normal CXR findings. In suspected hand acrometastasis associated with a soft tissue component outside the contours of normal bone, screening the abdomen by sonography should be done prior to bone biopsy and before costly or time-consuming investigations are offered. Metastatic RCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of all unilateral expansile bony lesions of the digit. It is particularly important if such lesion/lesions are accompanied by local inflammation. Screening the abdomen by sonography may be of particular value in such elderly male patient when Chest X-ray shows no abnormality.
Acrometastasis; abdominal sonography; peripheral skeletal metastases; renal cell carcinoma
An osteoid osteoma of the cervical spinal pedicle is rare and carries a high surgical risk because of the close anatomic relationship to the spinal cord, nerve root, and vertebral artery. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with an osteoid osteoma of the C2 pedicle. Computed tomograms showed an oval nidus and marked sclerosis around this lesion at the right C2 pedicle. There also was expansion of the medial and inferior cortical bone of the C2 pedicle. After failure of nonoperative treatment, we planned surgery. Owing to concerns regarding thermal damage to the spinal cord, nerve root, and/or vertebral artery using computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation, we curetted the nidus using a navigation system. Twenty-eight months after surgery, her pain was relieved with no limitation of cervical movement and there has been no evidence of recurrence. Navigation allowed safe curettage of the nidus through a small hole while maintaining spinal stability.
OBJECTIVES—To determine the difference in shape of the distal femur, viewed axially in two dimensions, between eburnated and non-eburnated femora.
METHODS—A comparison of 52 non-eburnated and 16 eburnated femora drawn from a large archeological skeletal population. Eburnation was taken to indicate late stage osteoarthritis. Shape variability, based on landmarks, was quantified using a principal components analysis after a Procrustes alignment.
RESULTS—A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. This was with respect to the patellar groove and the shape of the medial condyle. The latter difference is consistent with bone remodelling as a knee stabilising mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS—Anatomical shape can be quantified using an uncomplicated statistical technique. It was used to quantify the shape of the distal femur and demonstrate shape differences associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Keywords: osteoarthritis; knee; bone remodelling
The progression of osteoarthritis can be accompanied by depth-dependent changes in the properties of articular cartilage. The objective of the present study was to determine the subsequent alteration in the fluid pressurization in the human knee using a three-dimensional computer model. Only a small compression in the femur-tibia direction was applied to avoid numerical difficulties. The material model for articular cartilages and menisci included fluid, fibrillar and nonfibrillar matrices as distinct constituents. The knee model consisted of distal femur, femoral cartilage, menisci, tibial cartilage, and proximal tibia. Cartilage degeneration was modeled in the high load-bearing region of the medial condyle of the femur with reduced fibrillar and nonfibrillar elastic properties and increased hydraulic permeability. Three case studies were implemented to simulate (1) the onset of cartilage degeneration from the superficial zone, (2) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the middle zone, and (3) the progression of cartilage degeneration to the deep zone. As compared with a normal knee of the same compression, reduced fluid pressurization was observed in the degenerated knee. Furthermore, faster reduction in fluid pressure was observed with the onset of cartilage degeneration in the superficial zone and progression to the middle zone, as compared to progression to the deep zone. On the other hand, cartilage degeneration in any zone would reduce the fluid pressure in all three zones. The shear strains at the cartilage-bone interface were increased when cartilage degeneration was eventually advanced to the deep zone. The present study revealed, at the joint level, altered fluid pressurization and strains with the depth-wise cartilage degeneration. The results also indicated redistribution of stresses within the tissue and relocation of the loading between the tissue matrix and fluid pressure. These results may only be qualitatively interesting due to the small compression considered.
Subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head may be either of the insufficiency-type with poor quality bone or the fatigue-type with normal quality bone but subject to high repetitive stresses. Unlike osteonecrosis, multiple site involvement rarely has been reported for subchondral stress fractures. We describe a case of multifocal subchondral stress fractures involving femoral heads and medial tibial condyles bilaterally within 2 weeks.
A 27-year-old military recruit began having left knee pain after 2 weeks of basic training, without any injury. Subsequently, right knee, right hip, and left hip pain developed sequentially within 2 weeks. The diagnosis of multifocal subchondral stress fracture was confirmed by plain radiographs and MR images. Nonoperative treatment of the subchondral stress fractures of both medial tibial condyles and the left uncollapsed femoral head resulted in resolution of symptoms. The collapsed right femoral head was treated with a fibular strut allograft to restore congruity and healed without further collapse.
There has been one case report in which an insufficiency-type subchondral stress fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle occurred within a 2-year interval.
Because the incidence of bilateral subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head is low and multifocal involvement has not been reported, multifocal subchondral stress fractures can be confused with multifocal osteonecrosis. Our case shows that subchondral stress fractures can occur in multiple sites almost simultaneously.
Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a small and painful benign osteoblastic tumour located preferentially in the shaft of long bones near the metaphyseal junctions, with a predilection for the lower limbs. Juxta- and intra-articular OOs are rare and even though hip, elbow, and talus are the most commonly reported locations, they may be found in any joint accounting for approximately 13% of all osteoid osteomas. There is usually a significant time delay between symptom initiation and diagnosis when the lesion is present in an uncommon location due to the diagnostic challenge it presents due to the lack of classical clinical signs and/or radiographic features found in the extra-articular lesions. A case of a distal humerus OO of a 15-year-old girl is presented to point out that a confounding factor, such as a previous paediatric supracondylar fracture, may further delay the already difficult diagnosis of a juxta- or intra-articular osteoid osteoma and also to emphasize the possibility of arthroscopic treatment of such lesions.
A 41-year-old female runner presented to the sports medicine clinic for evaluation of bilateral medial knee pain, left greater than right. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation over the central aspect of the medial collateral ligament. Anteroposterior and lateral standing knee films were unremarkable. The patient received a corticosteroid injection over the tibial collateral ligament bursa with resolution of symptoms within 2 weeks. There have been few documented case reports of this type of injury in patients with knee pain. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate definitive treatment are important to establish to provide maximum recovery and minimize long-term disability, which may include chronic refractory pain during aggravating activities.
tibial collateral ligament bursa; bursitis; knee pain
High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is commonly used for genu varum deformity in young and active patients. Corrective valgus osteotomy may however lead to an oblique joint line in cases of associated femur varum or absence of tibia vara. The over-correction, needed to obtain good long-term clinical results, may increase the obliquity even more. To avoid this drawback, the authors suggest use of an accurate and reproducible radiological protocol including at least a standing AP long-leg X-ray to measure not only the hip–knee–ankle (HKA) angle but also the medial distal femoral mechanical angle (MDFMA) and the medial proximal tibial mechanical angle (MPTMA). These measures will guide the surgeon to choose the best indication, including HTO, double level osteotomy (DLO) and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO). Computer-navigation of the osteotomies is the best choice to achieve the preoperative goal. This paper will present the pre- and perioperative protocols of HTO and DLO and the rationale behind this way of thinking.
Knee pain is a complex problem that can occur after total knee arthroplasty. One cause of knee pain may be due to a retained osteophyte, but it is not clear if the retained osteophyte is sufficient explanation of the pain, as not all patients with retained osteophytes are symptomatic. In fact, the literature shows that excised osteophytes can also recur over a period of time, without any symptoms. Therefore a retained osteophyte alone is probably not sufficient to cause symptoms.
We present a case of intermittent medial knee pain occurring post-primary total knee arthroplasty, in a patient who underwent several investigations over a period of 5 years. Radiographs showed an osteophyte in the postero-medial femur along with slight tibial component overhang which was normal for that knee implant design. The symptoms eventually settled with excision of only the osteophyte, without altering the tibial component.
A retained osteophyte alone, or tibial component overhang alone, did not seem to cause significant symptoms in our patient whose symptoms completely settled with excision of the osteophyte alone, without changing the tibial component. Therefore, it seems that the combination of retained osteophyte and tibial component overhang (tibia-femoral component size mismatch) are detrimental and therefore best avoided. This report also emphasises the importance of meticulous osteophyte excision and avoiding tibial component overhang during knee arthroplasty.
We measured the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) length, height and widths of the anterior, posterior and inferior section of the resected distal femurs using three dimensional computer tomographic measurements in 200 knees from 100 cadavers. We also calculated the aspect ratio (ML/AP) and compared the measured parameters with that of six conventionally used total knee femoral prostheses. We found that the average ML (70.2±5.5 mm) and AP (53.9±3.8 mm) dimensions from our study were lower than those reported from Western populations. The aspect ratio showed a progressive decline with an increasing antero-posterior dimension. All of the compared designs showed undersizing for the mediolateral dimension distally and for the widths of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. But some of the compared designs showed oversizing for the height of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. This study provides guidelines for designing a suitable femoral component for total knee prostheses that fit Asian populations.
Distal femur anthropometry; Computed tomography; Aspect ratio; Femoral prosthesis
In patients who have undergone a total joint replacement, any mass occurring in or adjacent to the joint needs thorough investigation and a wear debris-induced cyst should be suspected.
An 81-year-old man presented with a painful and enlarging mass at the popliteal fossa and calf of his right knee. He had had a total right knee replacement seven years previously. Plain radiographs showed narrowing of the medial compartment. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic lesion at the postero-medial aspect of the knee joint mimicking popliteal cyst or soft tissue sarcoma. Fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic. A core-needle biopsy showed metallosis. Intraoperative findings revealed massive metallosis related to extensive polyethylene wear, delamination and deformation. Revision knee and patella arthroplasty was carried out after a thorough debridement of the knee joint.
Long-term follow-up is critical for patients with total joint replacement for early detection of occult polyethylene wear and prosthesis loosening. In these cases, revision arthroplasty may provide a satisfactory knee function.
Introduction. Enchondroma protuberans is an extremely rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. We report the first case report of enchondroma protuberans in the forearm. Presentation of Case. We report a case of enchondroma protuberans originating in the left ulnar bone of a young woman. A 20-year-old female referred to our hospital complaining of progressive sustained left forearm pain with a radiation to fourth and fifth finger. Conventional radiography revealed a well-defined eccentric osteolytic lesion in the distal diaphysis of ulna with expansion of overlying cortex (without calcification). Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined ovoid intramedullary lesion, which was exophytically protruding from medial surface of left ulnar bone. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Discussion. Enchondroma protuberans typically present as a well-defined intramedullary osteolytic lesion that may be accompanied by a fine matricidal calcification. The connection between the intramedullary portion and the exophytic protrusion can be seen well by magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion. Enchondroma protuberans should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteochondroma, enchondroma, and periosteal chondroid tumors.