Several studies have reported the following as determining factors for the adoption of healthy lifestyles among undergraduate students: gender, socioeconomic level, prior lifestyles, environment, parental lifestyles and health status, career choice, and healthy support networks. However, these factors are influenced by students’ knowledge about healthy lifestyles.
We will carry out a randomized trial in a sample of 280 new undergraduate students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico’s Faculty of Higher Studies-Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, UNAM). There will be an experimental group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven university departments (careers); these students will receive training as university student health promoters through an e-learning course. This course will allow the topics necessary for such promoters to be reviewed. There will be a control group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven departments (careers); these students will not undergo the training. Later, the students who comply satisfactorily with the e-learning course will replicate the course to 10 of their classmates. A healthy-lifestyle questionnaire will be given to all the participants, and the parameters established in the self-care card will be recorded before and after the training. The study variables are as follows: (i) independent variable—compliance with the e-learning course; (ii) dependent variables—lifestyles changes prior to the educative intervention (including healthy eating, physical activity, and addiction prevention) and parameters related to health status established in self-care (including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference). Data will be analyzed using Student’s t test and logistic regression analysis odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The analysis of the open answers will be carried out with ATLAS. ti 5.5 software.
Health promotion among university students should incorporate options that are feasible for and attractive to students. Thus, as proposed in the present protocol, e-learning courses offer excellent possibilities because they allow students to program their learning in their available time without affecting their academic studies.
University health promoter; University student health promoter; Self-care; Health promotion
Students are pivotal to manpower development and technological advancement of any nation. Nigerian nation was recently ranked third human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) most endemic nation in the world
The study was designed to determine the frequency of HIV infection among Nigerian tertiary and secondary institution students.
Materials and Methods:
A HIV screening test was conducted on 1,978 apparently healthy students composed of 981 males and 997 females aged 11–35 years, randomly selected from some Nigerian tertiary and secondary institutions
Overall, the sero-prevalence rate of 13.7% was recorded consisting 9.9% in the tertiary and 3.8% in secondary institutions. The distribution of the infection showed no significant difference by age (χ2=1.07, P>0.05) and by gender (χ2=0.85, P>0.05). Also, the prevalence had no significant association with the settlement of students (χ2=0.96, P>0.05) and the status of educational institutions (χ2=1.42, P>0.05).
The findings indicate a high HIV prevalence rate among students in this part of the globe. General behavioral changes about sex among the students are suggested.
Educational-institutions endemic-state; Frequency; Human immunodeficiency virus; Students
Athletics is the most prominent extracurricular activity in U.S. secondary schools in terms of student participation and school budgets. The latter is often justified on the grounds that healthy bodies produce healthy minds, that school sports boost school spirit, and that participation in school-based sports increases students’ self-esteem. In this article we examine the interrelationships among participation in a school-based sport and the benefits assumed to be associated with it. Specifically, we test a model that postulates that school spirit, operationalized as attachment to school, and healthy bodies, operationalized as a sense of physical well-being, mediate the relationship between school sports and self-esteem. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health on Caucasian and African American girls and boys were employed to test the model. School attachment and physical well-being absorbed the statistical effect of participating in a sport for all four gender-by-race groups. Among Caucasian girls a negative residual effect of sports participation was observed, which suggests that sports participation encapsulates multiple effects with contradictory influences. For African American girls school attachment by itself was not a significant mediator of the effect of sports participation on self-esteem. For all groups a sense of physical well-being was the more powerful mediator.
Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted.
To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars.
A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States.
A nationally representative sample (n = 563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied.
Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores.
School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food in school vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than elementary schools that neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food (13% vs 37%; P = 0.006). Middle schools that required prohibiting junk food in vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than middle schools that recommended prohibiting junk food (71% vs 87%; P = 0.07). Similar associations were not evident for district-level polices or high schools.
Policy may be an effective tool to decrease junk food in schools, particularly in elementary and middle schools.
The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multi-component intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and a la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools.
The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools.
Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and a la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and sugar added beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and a la carte.
The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and a la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes.
School Food Services; Nutrition and Diet; Child and Adolescent Health
Bullying and violence are problems of aggression in schools among adolescents. Basic daily healthy practices including nutritious diet, hygiene and physical activity are common approaches in comprehensive health promotion programs in school settings, however thier relationship to these aggressive behaviours is vague. We attempted to show the advantages of these healthy lifestyle behaviours in 9 developing countries by examining the association with being frequently bullied, violence and injury.
A cross-sectional cross-national survey of 9 countries using the WHO Global School Based Student Health Survey dataset was used. Measurements included experiences of “being frequently bullied” in the preceding 30 days and violence/injury in the past 12 months. Association of risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol, sexual behaviour) and healthy lifestyle (nutrition, hygiene practices, physical activity) to being bullied, and violence/injury were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Hygiene behaviour showed lower risks of being frequently bullied [male: RR = 0.7 (97.5CI: 0.5, 0.9); female: RR = 0.6 (0.5, 0.8)], and lower risk of experiences of violence/injury [RR = 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) for males], after controlling for risk behaviours, age, education, poverty, and country.
Healthy lifestyle showed an association to decreased relative risk of being frequently bullied and violence/injury in developing countries. A comprehensive approach to risk and health promoting behaviours reducing bullying and violence is encouraged at school settings.
To characterize the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in collegiate student-athletes and to raise awareness among sports medicine providers of the possibility of this potentially fatal disease in the student-athlete population.
An 18-year-old, previously healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female gymnast complained of intense pain, bilaterally, deep in her chest. The athlete was referred to her team physician, who identified normal vital signs but referred her to the emergency room because of significant pain. The student-athlete was diagnosed with bilateral pulmonary emboli in the emergency room.
Pneumonia, renal calculi, upper urinary tract infection, intercostal muscle strain or rib fracture, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, gastritis, ulceration, esophagitis, infection, tumor, pulmonary embolism.
The student-athlete was immediately placed on anticoagulants for 6 months. During that time, she was unable to participate in gymnastics and was limited to light conditioning.
Documented cases of female student-athletes developing a pulmonary embolism are lacking in the literature. Two cases of pulmonary embolism in male high school student-athletes have been documented, in addition to many cases in elderly and sedentary populations.
All health care providers, including sports medicine professionals, should be aware that this condition may be present among student-athletes. During the initial evaluation, prescreening should include questions about any previous or family history of pulmonary embolism or other blood clots. Athletes who answer positively to these questions may have a higher likelihood of pulmonary embolism and should be referred for testing.
cardiovascular diseases; vascular diseases
The purposes of this study were to investigate the actual status in subjective symptoms of fatigue (SSF) and lifestyles of young male students living in two different life spheres of the Tokyo metropolitan area and a rural area, and to find, regional differences in these characteristics and relations between SSF and lifestyles in school life.
A questionnaire regarding SSF and lifestyle was administered to 412 healthy male students (16–18 yr) attending the two National Colleges of Technology located in the Tokyo metropolitan area (MA) and a local city (LC). Statistical techniques such as a chi-square test and Hayashi’s Quantification Theory I analysis were used to examine relations between SSF and lifestyles.
Results and conclusion
A significant difference was found only in “feeling of physical disintegration,”, and the MA group was higher than the LC group. The MA students showed shorter sleeping hours and earlier awaken time compared with LC students. In the relations between SSF and lifestyles, sleeping habit was an important factor significantly relating to SSF in both groups. Paying attention to good sleeping habits is an important countermeasure for preventing SSF in the male students.
subjective symptoms of fatigue; lifestyle; regional characteristics; adolescence
West Virginia, the second most rural state in the nation, has a higher than average prevalence of chronic diseases, especially those related to physical inactivity and obesity. Innovative educational approaches are needed to increase physical activity among adults and youth in rural areas and reduce rural health disparities. This paper describes West Virginia's Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) Education and Outreach on Healthy Weight and Physical Activity. The project involved teachers and underserved high school students in social science research aimed at increasing physical activity among student and community participants.
The HSTA is an ongoing initiative of university–school–community partnerships in West Virginia that offers academic enrichment to high-school students in after-school clubs. For this project, six HSTA clubs were awarded grants to conduct research on physical activity promotion during the 2003–2004 school year. The project was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Focus groups, workshops, and targeted technical assistance were used to assist teachers and students with developing, implementing, and evaluating their research projects. Each club completed one project, and students reported on their research at the annual HSTA symposium held in the spring. Teachers documented their experience with the projects in process journals before and during implementation.
Data from the teachers' process journals revealed that they believed this research experience increased their students' interest in health and health science careers and increased their students' understanding of social science research methods. Challenges included lack of time after school to complete all activities, competing student activities, limited social science research experience of both teachers and students, and delays that resulted from a lengthy human subjects approval process.
The entire process was too ambitious to be achieved in one school year. Recommendations for future implementation include offering training modules on social science research methods for both teachers and students. These modules could be offered as a graduate course for teachers and as an in-school elective within the curriculum or as a summer institute for students. This preparatory training might alleviate some of the time management issues experienced by all the projects and could result in more skilled teacher and student researchers.
The EBV IgG titres in acute and convalescent specimens from 97 cases of infectious mononucleosis were compared with titres from acute and convalescent sera from 96 students with illnesses resembling infectious mononucleosis but without heterophil antibody, EB IgM or EB IgG seroconversion; and also with titres from 91 healthy students known to have had EB IgG antibody for at least six months. These titres were related to the titre of the Research Standard A.66/235 for infectious mononucleosis serum prepared by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. Serial sera were tested for heterophil antibody and EBVCA specific IgG and IgM from 61 university students with infectious mononucleosis. The period of persistence of heterophil antibody and EBV IgM after illness was outlined from the results of the tests. Single sera from 406 patients in hospital or general practice sent to the diagnostic laboratory for heterophil antibody tests were also tested for EBV antibodies without prior knowledge of the heterophil antibody result. The close agreement between heterophil antibody and EBV IgM results is shown. False positive EB IgM results were correlated with the presence of rheumatoid factor.
Parents and children joint activities are considered to be an important factor on healthy lifestyle development throughout adolescence. This study is a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children – World Health Organization Collaborative Study (HBSC). It aims to describe family time in joint activities and to clarify the role of social and structural family profile in a cross-national perspective.
The research was carried out according to the methodology of the HBSC study using the anonymous standardized questionnaire. In total, 17,761 students (8,649 boys and 9,112 girls) aged 13 and 15 years from 6 European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Greenland, Lithuania, Spain, and Ukraine) were surveyed in the 2001–2002 school-year. The evaluation of joint family activity is based on 8 items: (1) watching TV or a video, (2) playing indoor games, (3) eating meals, (4) going for a walk, (5) going places, (6) visiting friends or relatives, (7) playing sports, (8) sitting and talking about things (chatting).
Students from Spain and Ukraine reported spending the most time together with their families in almost all kinds of joint activities, whereas students from Greenland and Finland reported spending the least of this time. Boys were more likely than girls to be spending time together with family. Joint family activity goes into decline in age from 13 to 15 years. Variability of family time in a cross-national perspective was relatively small and related to children age category. Considering national, gender and age differences of studied population groups, we found that the distribution of joint family activities tends to be dispersed significantly by family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth.
Our study compares children and parent joint activities in European countries and reveals differences and similarities in these patterns between countries. The findings underline the role of family structure (intact/restructured family) and family wealth in the distribution of time spent in joint family activities, which should be considered by health promoters.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a healthy school tuck shop program, developed as a way of creating a healthy and nutritional school environment, on students' access to healthy foods. Five middle schools and four high schools (775 students) participated in the healthy school tuck shop program, and nine schools (1,282 students) were selected as the control group. The intervention program included restriction of unhealthy foods sold in tuck shops, provision of various fruits, and indirect nutritional education with promotion of healthy food products. The program evaluation involved the examination of students' purchase and intake patterns of healthy foods, satisfaction with the available foodstuffs, and utilization of and satisfaction with nutritional educational resources. Our results indicated that among of the students who utilized the tuck shop, about 40% purchased fruit products, showing that availability of healthy foods in the tuck shop increased the accessibility of healthy foods for students. Overall food purchase and intake patterns did not significantly change during the intervention period. However, students from the intervention schools reported higher satisfaction with the healthy food products sold in the tuck shop than did those from the control schools (all P < 0.001), and they were highly satisfied with the educational resources provided to them. In conclusion, the healthy school tuck shop program had a positive effect on the accessibility of healthy food. The findings suggest that a healthy school tuck shop may be an effective environmental strategy for promoting students' access to healthy foods.
School tuck shop; healthy eating; intervention program; fruits and vegetables
To compare the log-roll (LR) maneuver and the lift-and-slide (LS) technique and to investigate the effect of training on the performance of these transfer techniques.
Design and Setting:
A repeated-measures design involving certified athletic trainers and athletic training students from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I college.
Certified athletic trainers and athletic training students were required to transfer healthy individuals onto a spine board. Testing was performed on 2 men of average size, whereas training sessions were performed on both men and women of different heights and weights.
Differences between transfer techniques were noted. The execution of the LR produced significantly greater lateral-flexion motion and greater axial rotation of the head as compared with the LS. Performance of spine-board transfer techniques did not improve with training.
The LS technique was more effective in restricting motion of the head. To truly establish the safety of spine-board transfer techniques, researchers need to assess how individual segments move within the structurally unstable cervical spine.
cervical spine; spine injury; emergency management
To find out the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS) in women with PCOS and assess their strength of association. Methods: Total 50 apparently healthy non-pregnant PCOS subjects of 15 to 35 years were studied for having the features of MBS from May 2006 to April 2007. MBS was diagnosed by National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III 2001 criteria. Student’s t test & Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.
21 subjects out of 50 (42%) met criteria for the MBS. 15(71.5%) belonged to 26–35 years and six (20.7%) in 15–25 years. Prevalence of waist circumference > 88 cm were noted in 34%, HDL cholesterol< 50 mg/dl in 50%, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl in 40%, BP ≥130/85 mm Hg in 50% and FBS≥ 110 mg/dl in 16%. Women with higher insulin resistance and free testosterone levels significantly (P<0.01) correlated with higher prevalence of MBS.
The metabolic syndrome and its individual components are common in PCOS, particularly among women with hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism.
PCOS; metabolic syndrome; hyperinsulinemia
The Congress has had a long-time concern about the adequacy of nutrition education provided medical students and physicians during their training. Attempts over three decades to address this deficiency have been largely ineffective. Yet, recent changes in the delivery of health care from inpatient to outpatient services require physicians be competent in both applied nutrition and patient counseling. The importance of patient counseling is underscored by the surveys of the National Center for Health Statistics which reveal that overweight for the U.S. population has increased between the early 60s and the late 80s. These findings suggest that the Healthy People 2000 objective of reducing the prevalence of overweight may not be met. Congress evidenced its concern about the nutrition education in the medical curriculum in Section 302 of the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990 that required a report on the subject from the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The Division of Medicine in the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the Public Health Service, responded by compiling the report. The report to Congress focuses on two issues--why it has been so difficult to increase the nutrition content of medical school curriculums and, if the Federal Government intervenes, what strategies might be effective.
To evaluate using an Internet-based social networking site within an elective geriatric pharmacotherapy course.
Thirty pharmacy students enrolled in a geriatric pharmacotherapy elective course were invited to join a closed Facebook (Facebook Inc, Palo Alto, CA) group to enhance communication among students and faculty members within the course. Creating a discussion board was the primary activity in the course. Each week, 3 students were assigned to post a healthy aging topic, and other students in the class were expected to post their comments and reactions. The healthy aging topics also were discussed during class.
Students wrote reflections about their experiences using Facebook for the activities within this course. A survey instrument also measured students' opinions about using Facebook for educational purposes.
Using Facebook allowed students to discuss topics more openly and encouraged classroom discussions of healthy aging topics.
online social networking; Facebook; geriatric pharmacotherapy
The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an intervention that helps schools to make their cafeteria's offering healthier. A descriptive study was conducted by an independent research agency to survey the perceptions, experiences, and opinions of users of the programme (school directors, parents, students, and health professionals). Results show that directors and students of participating schools perceive their cafeteria's offering to be healthier after implementing the programme than prior to implementation. Next, further important results of the study are highlighted and relations with other projects, caveats, and practical recommendations are discussed. It is concluded that the Healthy School Canteen programme is a promising intervention to change the school food environment but that further research is needed to ultimately establish its effectiveness. Also, it will be a challenge to motivate all schools to enroll in the programme in order to achieve the goal of the Dutch Government of all Dutch school cafeterias being healthy by 2015.
In the present population-based study, we determined the prevalences of the most common human-pathogenic microsporidia, Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in asymptomatic healthy people living in the Czech Republic. A total of 382 males and females (ages, 1 to 84 years) living in the Czech Republic, of whom 265 were Czech nationals and 117 were foreign students, were included in a study testing for the presence of microsporidia by use of coprology and molecular methods. Single-species infections with Enterocytozoon bieneusi or an Encephalitozoon sp. were detected for 9 and 136 individuals, respectively. Moreover, coinfections were detected for 14 individuals. Four genotypes of 3 human-pathogenic Encephalitozoon spp. and 7 E. bieneusi genotypes, including 3 novel genotypes, were detected. Some of these were reported in humans for the first time. The highest prevalence was recorded for individuals older than 50 years and for loose, unformed stool samples. These findings clearly show that exposure to microsporidia is common among immunocompetent people and that microsporidiosis is not linked to any clinical manifestation in healthy populations.
Federal and state policies identify schools as a setting to prevent childhood obesity, but schools need better health-promoting strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate interim progress in schools receiving hands-on training from the Healthy Schools Program, the nation's largest school-based program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. The 4-year program targets schools with predominantly low-income, African American, or Hispanic students.
In 2010 we assessed schools that enrolled in the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years. School representatives completed an inventory of 8 content areas: policy and systems, school meals, competitive foods and beverages, health education, physical education, physical activity outside of physical education, before- and after-school programs, and school employee wellness. schools' baseline inventory was compared by t test with the most recent inventory available.
Schools made significant changes in all content areas, and effect sizes were moderate to large.
Participating schools improved environmental policies and practices to prevent childhood obesity. The program is a resource to implement recent federal and state policies.
The signed informed consent document certifies that the process of informed consent has taken place and provides research participants with comprehensive information about their role in the study. Despite efforts to optimize the informed consent document, only limited data are available about the actual use of consent documents by participants in biomedical research.
To examine the use of online consent documents in a minimal-risk genetic study.
Prospective sibling cohort enrolled as part of a genetic study of hematologic and common human traits.
University of Michigan Campus, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Volunteer sample of healthy persons with 1 or more eligible siblings aged 14 to 35 years. Enrollment was through targeted e-mail to student lists. A total of 1209 persons completed the study.
Time taken by participants to review a 2833-word online consent document before indicating consent and identification of a masked hyperlink near the end of the document.
The minimum predicted reading time was 566 seconds. The median time to consent was 53 seconds. A total of 23% of participants consented within 10 seconds, and 93% of participants consented in less than the minimum predicted reading time. A total of 2.5% of participants identified the masked hyperlink.
The online consent process was not observed directly by study investigators, and some participants may have viewed the consent document more than once.
Few research participants thoroughly read the consent document before agreeing to participate in this genetic study. These data suggest that current informed consent documents, particularly for low-risk studies, may no longer serve the intended purpose of protecting human participants, and the role of these documents should be reassessed.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health.
Current national and international maternity policy supports the importance of addressing public health goals and investing in early years. Health care providers for women during the reproductive and early postnatal period have the opportunity to encourage women to make choices that will impact positively on maternal and fetal health. Midwives are in a unique position, given the emphasis of the philosophy of midwifery care on building relationships and incorporating a holistic approach, to support women to make healthy choices with the aim of promoting health and preventing ill health. However, exploration of the educational preparation of midwives to facilitate public health interventions has been relatively limited. The aim of the study was to identify the scope of current midwifery pre registration educational provision in relation to public health and to explore the perspectives of midwives and midwifery students about the public health role of the midwife.
This was a mixed methods study incorporating a survey of Higher Educational Institutions providing pre registration midwifery education across the UK and focus groups with midwifery students and registered midwives.
Twenty nine institutions (53% response) participated in the survey and nine focus groups were conducted (59 participants). Public health education was generally integrated into pre registration midwifery curricula as opposed to taught as a discrete subject. There was considerable variation in the provision of public health topics within midwifery curricula and the hours of teaching allocated to them. Focus group data indicated that it was consistently difficult for both midwifery students and midwives to articulate clearly their understanding and definition of public health in relation to midwifery.
There is a unique opportunity to impact on maternal and infant health throughout the reproductive period; however the current approach to public health within midwifery education should be reviewed to capitalise on the role of the midwife in delivering public health interventions. It is clear that better understanding of midwifery public health roles and the visibility of public health within midwifery is required in order to maximise the potential contribution of midwives to achieving short and long term public health population goals.
Public health; Midwifery; Education; Training
Self-administrated patient outcome scores are increasingly recommended for evaluation of primary outcome in clinical studies. The VISA-P score, developed at the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment in Melbourne, Australia, is a questionnaire developed for patients with patellar tendinopathy and the patients assess severity of symptoms, function and ability to participate in sport. The aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire into Swedish and to study the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire and resultant scores.
The questionnaire was translated into Swedish according to internationally recommended guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The reliability and validity were tested in three different populations. The populations used were healthy students (n = 17), members of the Swedish male national basketball team (n = 17), considered as a population at risk, and a group of non-surgically treated patients (n = 17) with clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy. The questionnaire was completed by 51 subjects altogether.
The translated VISA-P questionnaire showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97).
The mean (± SD) of the VISA-P score, at both the first and second test occasions was highest in the healthy student group 83 (± 13) and 81 (± 15), respectively. The score of the basketball players was 79 (± 24) and 80 (± 23), while the patient group scored significantly (p < 0.05) lower, 48 (± 20) and 52 (± 19).
The translated version of the VISA-P questionnaire was linguistically and culturally equivalent to the original version. The translated score showed good reliability.
AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents.
METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.
Celiac disease; Saudi Arabia; Prevalence; Antiendomysial antibody; Epidemiology
The HEALTHY Study was a 3-year school-based intervention designed to change the behaviors of middle school students to reduce their risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This report examines the relation between exposure to communications campaign materials and behavior change among students in the HEALTHY intervention schools. Using data from campaign tracking logs and student interviews, the authors examined communications campaign implementation and exposure to the communications campaign as well as health behavior change. Campaign tracking documents revealed variability across schools in the quantity of communications materials disseminated. Student interviews confirmed that there was variability in the proportion of students who reported receiving information from the communication campaign elements. Correlations and regression analysis controlling for semester examined the association between campaign exposure and behavior change across schools. There was a significant association between the proportion of students exposed to the campaign and the proportion of students who made changes in health behavior commensurate with study goals. The results suggest that, in the context of a multifaceted school-based health promotion intervention, schools that achieve a higher rate of exposure to communication campaign materials among the students may stimulate greater health behavior change.
This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours.