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1.  Acyl Carrier Protein Synthases from Gram-Negative, Gram-Positive, and Atypical Bacterial Species: Biochemical and Structural Properties and Physiological Implications 
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(13):4737-4748.
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the transfer of the 4′-phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzyme A (CoA) onto a serine residue of apo-ACP, resulting in the conversion of apo-ACP to the functional holo-ACP. The holo form of bacterial ACP plays an essential role in mediating the transfer of acyl fatty acid intermediates during the biosynthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids. AcpS is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we have purified and characterized the AcpS enzymes from Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which exemplify gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical bacteria, respectively. Our gel filtration column chromatography and cross-linking studies demonstrate that the AcpS enzyme from M. pneumoniae, like E. coli enzyme, exhibits a homodimeric structure, but the enzyme from S. pneumoniae exhibits a trimeric structure. Our biochemical studies show that the AcpS enzymes from M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae can utilize both short- and long-chain acyl CoA derivatives but prefer long-chain CoA derivatives as substrates. On the other hand, the AcpS enzyme from E. coli can utilize short-chain CoA derivatives but not the long-chain CoA derivatives tested. Finally, our biochemical studies show that M. pneumoniae AcpS is kinetically a very sluggish enzyme compared with those from E. coli and S. pneumoniae. Together, the results of these studies show that the AcpS enzymes from different bacterial species exhibit different native structures and substrate specificities with regard to the utilization of CoA and its derivatives. These findings suggest that AcpS from different microorganisms plays a different role in cellular physiology.
doi:10.1128/JB.01917-05
PMCID: PMC1483016  PMID: 16788183
2.  Modeling holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes of modular polyketide synthases: a docking and molecular dynamics study 
Background
Modular polyketide synthases are multifunctional megasynthases which biosynthesize a variety of secondary metabolites using various combinations of dehydratase (DH), ketoreductase (KR) and enoyl-reductase (ER) domains. During the catalysis of various reductive steps these domains act on a substrate moiety which is covalently attached to the phosphopantetheine (P-pant) group of the holo-Acyl Carrier Protein (holo-ACP) domain, thus necessitating the formation of holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes. Even though three dimensional structures are available for DH, KR and ACP domains, no structures are available for DH or KR domains in complex with ACP or substrate moieties. Since Ser of holo-ACP is covalently attached to a large phosphopantetheine group, obtaining complexes involving holo-ACP by standard protein-protein docking has been a difficult task.
Results
We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes for identifying specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. A novel combination of protein-protein and protein-ligand docking has been used to first model complexes involving apo-ACP and then dock the phosphopantetheine and substrate moieties using covalent connectivity between ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety as constraints. The holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes obtained from docking have been further refined by restraint free explicit solvent MD simulations to incorporate effects of ligand and receptor flexibilities. The results from 50 ns MD simulations reveal that substrate enters into a deep tunnel in DH domain while in case of KR domain the substrate binds a shallow surface exposed cavity. Interestingly, in case of DH domain the predicted binding site overlapped with the binding site in the inhibitor bound crystal structure of FabZ, the DH domain from E.Coli FAS. In case of KR domain, the substrate binding site identified by our simulations was in proximity of the known stereo-specificity determining residues.
Conclusions
We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes and identified the specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. Analysis of the conservation profile of binding pocket residues in homologous sequences of DH and KR domains indicated that, these results can also be extrapolated to reductive domains of other modular PKS clusters.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-12-10
PMCID: PMC3422181  PMID: 22639887
Molecular dynamics; Protein-ligand docking; Protein-protein interaction; Substrate binding site; Evolutionary conservation; Modular polyketide synthase; Dehydratase domain; Ketoreductase domain
3.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations 
Bacterial acyl carrier protein synthase plays an essential role in the synthesis of fatty acids, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, AcpS or group I phosphopentatheine transferase exhibits two different structural conformations depending upon the pH.
The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS–ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the α2 helix and in the conformation of the α3–α4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4–6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS–ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS–ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.
doi:10.1107/S0907444911020221
PMCID: PMC3270384  PMID: 21697604
acyl carrier protein synthases; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Corynebacterium ammoniagenes; acyl carrier proteins; fatty-acid synthases
4.  Solution Structure of 4′-Phosphopantetheine - GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens: A Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein with Atypical Structural Features and a Putative Role in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis† 
Biochemistry  2011;50(9):1442-1453.
GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens is a specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP) whose gene, gmet_2339, is located near genes encoding many proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, indicating a likely function for GmACP3 in LPS production. By overexpression in Escherichia coli, about 50% holo-GmACP3 and 50% apo-GmACP3 were obtained. Apo-GmACP3 exhibited slow precipitation and non-monomeric behavior by 15N NMR relaxation measurements. Addition of 4′-phosphopantetheine (4′-PP) via enzymatic conversion by E. coli holo-ACP synthase, resulted in stable >95% holo-GmACP3 that was characterized as monomeric by 15N relaxation measurements and had no indication of conformational exchange. We have determined a high-resolution solution structure of holo-GmACP3 by standard NMR methods, including refinement with two sets of NH residual dipolar couplings, allowing for a detailed structural analysis of the interactions between 4′-PP and GmACP3. Whereas the overall four helix bundle topology is similar to previously solved ACP structures, this structure has unique characteristics, including an ordered 4′-PP conformation that places the thiol at the entrance to a central hydrophobic cavity near a conserved hydrogen-bonded Trp-His pair. These residues are part of a conserved WDSLxH/N motif found in GmACP3 and it’s orthologs. The helix locations and the large hydrophobic cavity are more similar to medium- and long-chain acyl-ACPs than to other apo- and holo-ACP structures. Taken together, structural characterization along with bioinformatic analysis of nearby genes suggest that GmACP3 is involved in lipid A acylation, possibly by atypical long-chain hydroxy fatty acids, and potentially involved in synthesis of secondary metabolites.
doi:10.1021/bi101932s
PMCID: PMC3063093  PMID: 21235239
5.  Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster: Purification of Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and Malonyl-Coenzyme A:ACP Transacylase (FabD) 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(17):5498-5504.
A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4′-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H6-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.
PMCID: PMC94061  PMID: 10464226
6.  Altered molecular form of acyl carrier protein associated with beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II (fabF) mutants. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1987;169(4):1469-1473.
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a required cofactor for fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Mutants lacking beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II activity (fabF1 or fabF3) possessed a different molecular species of ACP (F-ACP) that was separated from the normal form of the protein by conformationally sensitive gel electrophoresis. Synthase I mutants contained the normal protein. Complementation of fabF1 mutants with an F' factor harboring the wild-type synthase II allele resulted in the appearance of normal ACP, whereas complementation with an F' possessing the fabF2 allele (a mutation that produces a synthase II enzyme with altered catalytic activity) resulted in the production of both forms of ACP. The structural difference between F-ACP and ACP persisted after the removal of the 4'-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group, and both forms of the protein had identical properties in an in vitro fatty acid synthase assay. Both ACP and F-ACP were purified to homogeneity, and their primary amino acid sequences were determined. The two ACP species were identical but differed from the sequence reported for E. coli E-15 ACP in that an Asn instead of an Asp was at position 24 and an Ile instead of a Val was at position 43. Therefore, F-ACP appears to be a modification of ACP that is detected when beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II activity is impaired.
Images
PMCID: PMC211969  PMID: 3549687
7.  Relationships between fatty acid and polyketide synthases from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): characterization of the fatty acid synthase acyl carrier protein. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1996;178(19):5660-5667.
We have characterized an acyl carrier protein (ACP) presumed to be involved in the synthesis of fatty acids in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). This is the third ACP to have been identified in S. coelicolor; the two previously characterized ACPs are involved in the synthesis of two aromatic polyketides: the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin and a grey pigment associated with the spore walls. The three ACPs are clearly related. The presumed fatty acid synthase (FAS) ACP was partially purified, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained. The corresponding gene (acpP) was cloned and sequenced and found to lie within 1 kb of a previously characterized gene (fabD) encoding another subunit of the S. coelicolor FAS, malonyl coenzyme A:ACP acyl-transferase. Expression of S. coelicolor acpP in Escherichia coli yielded several different forms, whose masses corresponded to the active (holo) form of the protein carrying various acyl substituents. To test the mechanisms that normally prevent the FAS ACP from substituting for the actinorhodin ACP, acpP was cloned in place of actI-open reading frame 3 (encoding the actinorhodin ACP) to allow coexpression of acpP with the act polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. Pigmented polyketide production was observed, but only at a small fraction of its former level. This suggests that the FAS and PKS ACPs may be biochemically incompatible and that this could prevent functional complementation between the FAS and PKSs that potentially coexist within the same cells.
PMCID: PMC178404  PMID: 8824610
8.  Functional Characterization of an Evolutionarily Distinct Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase in the Apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum†  
Eukaryotic Cell  2005;4(7):1211-1220.
Recently, two types of fatty acid synthases (FASs) have been discovered from apicomplexan parasites. Although significant progress has been made in characterizing these apicomplexan FASs, virtually nothing was previously known about the activation and regulation of these enzymes. In this study, we report the discovery and characterization of two distinct types of phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) that are responsible for synthesizing holo-acyl carrier protein (ACP) from three apicomplexan parasites: surfactin production element (SFP) type in Cryptosporidium parvum (CpSFP-PPT), holo-ACP synthase (ACPS)-type in Plasmodium falciparum (PfACPS-PPT), and both SFP and ACPS types in Toxoplasma gondii (TgSFP-PPT and TgACPS-PPT). CpSFP-PPT and TgSFP-PPT are monofunctional, cytosolic, and phylogenetically related to animal PPTases. However, PfACPS-PPT and TgACPS-PPT are bifunctional (fused with a metal-dependent hydrolase), likely targeted to the apicoplast, and more closely related to proteobacterial PPTases. The function of apicomplexan PPTases has been confirmed by detailed functional analysis using recombinant CpSFP-PPT expressed from an artificially synthesized gene with codon usage optimized for Escherichia coli. The recombinant CpSFP-PPT was able to activate the ACP domains from the C. parvum type I FAS in vitro using either CoA or acetyl-CoA as a substrate, or in vivo when coexpressed in bacteria, with kinetic characteristics typical of PPTases. These observations suggest that the two types of fatty acid synthases in the Apicomplexa are activated and regulated by two evolutionarily distinct PPTases.
doi:10.1128/EC.4.7.1211-1220.2005
PMCID: PMC1168963  PMID: 16002647
9.  Solution Structures of Spinach Acyl Carrier Protein with Decanoate and Stearate† 
Biochemistry  2006;45(16):5217-5227.
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor in a variety of biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism. Thus it is of interest to determine structures of physiologically relevant ACP-fatty acid complexes. We report here the NMR solution structures of spinach ACP with decanoate (10:0-ACP) and stearate (18:0-ACP) attached to the 4′ phosphopantetheine prosthetic group. The protein in the fatty acid complexes adopts a single conformer, unlike apo- and holo-ACP, which interconvert in solution between two major conformers. The protein component of both 10:0- and 18:0-ACP adopts the four-helix bundle topology characteristic of ACP, and a fatty acid binding cavity was identified in both structures. Portions of the protein close in space to the fatty acid and the 4′ phosphopantetheine were identified using filtered/edited NOESY experiments. A docking protocol was used to generate protein structures containing bound fatty acid for 10:0- and 18:0-ACP. In both cases, the predominant structure contained fatty acid bound down the center of the helical bundle, in agreement with the location of the fatty acid binding pockets. These structures demonstrate the conformational flexibility of spinach-ACP and suggest how the protein changes to accommodate its myriad binding partners.
doi:10.1021/bi052062d
PMCID: PMC2533275  PMID: 16618110
10.  Substrate Recognition by β-Ketoacyl-ACP Synthases† 
Biochemistry  2011;50(49):10678-10686.
β-Ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) enzymes catalyze Claisen condensation reactions in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. These reactions follow a ping-pong mechanism in which a donor substrate acylates the active site cysteine residue after which the acyl group is condensed with the malonyl-ACP acceptor substrate to form a β-ketoacyl-ACP. In the priming KASIII enzymes the donor substrate is an acyl-CoA while in the elongating KASI and KASII enzymes the donor is an acyl-ACP. Although the KASIII enzyme in Escherichia coli (ecFabH) is essential, the corresponding enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtFabH) is not, suggesting that the KASI or II enzyme in M. tuberculosis (KasA or KasB, respectively) must be able to accept a CoA donor substrate. Since KasA is essential, the substrate specificity of this KASI enzyme has been explored using substrates based on phosphopantetheine, CoA, ACP and AcpM peptide mimics. This analysis has been extended to the KASI and KASII enzymes from E. coli (ecFabB and ecFabF) where we show that a 14 residue malonyl-phosphopantetheine peptide can efficiently replace malonyl-ecACP as the acceptor substrate in the ecFabF reaction. While ecFabF is able to catalyze the condensation reaction when CoA is the carrier for both substrates, the KASI enzymes ecFabB and KasA have an absolute requirement for an ACP substrate as the acyl donor. Provided that this requirement is met, variation in the acceptor carrier substrate has little impact on the kcat/Km for the KASI reaction. For the KASI enzymes we propose that the binding of ecACP (AcpM) results in a conformational change that leads to an open form of the enzyme to which the malonyl acceptor substrate binds. Finally, the substrate inhibition observed when palmitoyl-CoA is the donor substrate for the KasA reaction has implications for the importance of mtFabH in the mycobacterial FASII pathway.
doi:10.1021/bi201199x
PMCID: PMC3361727  PMID: 22017312
11.  Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity 
BMC Biochemistry  2011;12:44.
Background
Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids.
Results
To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family.
Conclusion
These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-12-44
PMCID: PMC3176148  PMID: 21831316
12.  Genetic construction and functional analysis of hybrid polyketide synthases containing heterologous acyl carrier proteins. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1993;175(8):2197-2204.
The gene that encodes the acyl carrier protein (ACP) of the actinorhodin polyketide synthase (PKS) of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) was replaced with homologs from the granaticin, oxytetracycline, tetracenomycin, and putative frenolicin polyketide synthase gene clusters. All of the replacements led to expression of functional synthases, and the recombinants synthesized aromatic polyketides similar in chromatographic properties to actinorhodin or to shunt products produced by mutants defective in the actinorhodin pathway. Some regions within the ACP were also shown to be interchangeable and allow production of a functional hybrid ACP. Structural analysis of the most abundant polyketide product of one of the recombinants by electrospray mass spectrometry suggested that it is identical to mutactin, a previously characterized shunt product of an actVII mutant (deficient in cyclase and dehydrase activities). Quantitative differences in the product profiles of strains that express the various hybrid synthases were observed. These can be explained, at least in part, by differences in ribosome-binding sites upstream of each ACP gene, implying either that the ACP concentration in some strains is rate limiting to overall PKS activity or that the level of ACP expression also influences the expression of another enzyme(s) encoded by a downstream gene(s) in the same operon as the actinorhodin ACP gene. These results reaffirm the idea that construction of hybrid polyketide synthases will be a useful approach for dissecting the molecular basis of the specificity of PKS-catalyzed reactions. However, they also point to the need for reducing the chemical complexity of the approach by minimizing the diversity of polyketide products synthesized in strains that produce recombinant polyketide synthases.
Images
PMCID: PMC204504  PMID: 8468280
13.  A Polyketide Synthase Acyltransferase Domain Structure Suggests a Recognition Mechanism for Its Hydroxymalonyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Substrate 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110965.
We have previously shown that the acyl transferase domain of ZmaA (ZmaA-AT) is involved in the biosynthesis of the aminopolyol polyketide/nonribosomal peptide hybrid molecule zwittermicin A from cereus UW85, and that it specifically recognizes the precursor hydroxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and transfers the hydroxymalonyl extender unit to a downstream second ACP via a transacylated AT domain intermediate. We now present the X-ray crystal structure of ZmaA-AT at a resolution of 1.7 Å. The structure shows a patch of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues in the area where the AT is proposed to interact with the precursor ACP. We addressed the significance of the AT/ACP interaction in precursor specificity of the AT by testing whether malonyl- or methylmalonyl-ACP can be recognized by ZmaA-AT. We found that the ACP itself biases extender unit selection. Until now, structural information for ATs has been limited to ATs specific for the CoA-linked precursors malonyl-CoA and (2S)-methylmalonyl-CoA. This work contributes to polyketide synthase engineering efforts by expanding our knowledge of AT/substrate interactions with the structure of an AT domain that recognizes an ACP-linked substrate, the rare hydroxymalonate. Our structure suggests a model in which ACP interaction with a hydrophobic motif promotes secondary structure formation at the binding site, and opening of the adjacent substrate pocket lid to allow extender unit binding in the AT active site.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110965
PMCID: PMC4207774  PMID: 25340352
14.  FT-ICR-MS characterization of intermediates in the biosynthesis of the α-methylbutyrate side chain of lovastatin by the 277 kDa polyketide synthase LovF 
Biochemistry  2010;50(2):287-299.
There are very few fungal polyketide synthases that have been characterized by mass spectrometry. In this paper we describe the in vitro reconstitution and FT-ICR-MS verification of the full activity of an intact 277 kDa fungal polyketide synthase LovF of the lovastatin biosynthetic pathway. We report here both the verification of the reconstitution of fully functional holo-LovF by using 13C-labelled malonyl-CoA to form α-methylbutyrate functionality, and also detection of five predicted intermediates covalently bound to the 4′-phosphopantetheine at the acyl carrier protein (ACP) active site utilizing the phosphopantetheine ejection assay and high resolution mass spectrometry. Under in vitro conditions, the diketide acetoacetyl-intermediate did not accumulate on the ACP active site of holo-LovF following incubation with malonyl-CoA substrate. We found that incubation of holo-LovF with acetoacetyl-CoA served as an effective means of loading the diketide intermediate onto the ACP active site of LovF. Our results, demonstrate that subsequent α-methylation of the acetoacetyl intermediate stabilizes the intermediate onto the ACP active site, and facilitates the formation and mass spectrometric detection of additional intermediates en route to the formation of α-methylbutyrate.
doi:10.1021/bi1014776
PMCID: PMC3085095  PMID: 21069965
α-methylbutyrate; fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance; lovastatin; LovF; mass spectrometry; natural products; phosphopantetheine ejection assay; polyketide synthase
15.  Structure of a specialized acyl carrier protein essential for lipid A biosynthesis with very long chain fatty acids in open and closed conformations 
Biochemistry  2012;51(37):7239-7249.
The solution NMR structures and backbone 15N dynamics of the specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP), RpAcpXL, from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in both the apo-form and holo-form modified by covalent attachment of 4′-phosphopantethine at S37, are virtually identical, monomeric, and correspond to the closed conformation. The structures have an extra α-helix compared to the archetypical ACP from Escherichia coli, which has four helices, resulting in a larger opening to the hydrophobic cavity. Chemical shift differences between apo- and holo-RpAcpXL indicated some differences in the hinge region between helices α2 and α3 and in the hydrophobic cavity environment, but corresponding changes in NOE crosspeak patterns were not detected. In contrast to the NMR structures, apo-RpAcpXL was observed in an open conformation in crystals that diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution, which resulted from movement of helix α3. Based on the crystal structure, the predicted biological assembly is a homodimer. Although the possible biological significance of dimerization is unknown, there is potential that the resulting large shared hydrophobic cavity could accommodate the very long-chain fatty acid (28 to 30 carbon chain length) that this specialized ACP is known to synthesize and transfer to lipid A. These structures are the first representatives of the AcpXL family and the first to indicate that dimerization may be important for the function of these specialized ACPs.
doi:10.1021/bi300546b
PMCID: PMC4104962  PMID: 22876860
Structural genomics; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG); Protein Structure Initiative; Solution NMR; X-ray crystal structure; ACP-XL
16.  Stereospecificity of the Dehydratase Domain of the Erythromycin Polyketide Synthase 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2010;132(42):14697-14699.
The dehydratase (DH) domain of module 4 of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS) has been shown to catalyze an exclusive syn elimination/syn addition of water. Incubation of recombinant DH4 with chemoenzymatically prepared anti-(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoyl-ACP (2a-ACP) gave the dehydration product 3-ACP. Similarly, incubation of DH4 with synthetic 3-ACP resulted in the reverse enzyme-catalyzed hydration reaction, giving a ~3:1 equilbrium mixture of 2a-ACP and 3-ACP. Incubation of a mixture of propionyl-SNAC (4), methylmalonyl-CoA, and NADPH with the DEBS β-ketoacyl synthase – acyl transferase [KS6][AT6] didomain, DEBS ACP6, and the ketoreductase domain from tylactone synthase module 1 (TYLS KR1) generated in situ anti-2a-ACP that underwent DH4-catalyzed syn dehydration to give 3-ACP. DH4 did not dehydrate either syn-(2S,3R)-2b-ACP, syn-(2R,3S)-2c-ACP, or anti-(2S,3S)-2d-ACP generated in situ by DEBS KR1, DEBS KR6, or the rifamycin synthase KR7 (RIFS KR7), respectively. Similarly, incubation of a mixture of (2S,3R)-2-methyl-3-hydroxypentanoyl-N-acetylcysteamine thioester (2b-SNAC), methylmalonyl-CoA, and NADPH with DEBS [KS6][AT6], DEBS ACP6, and TYLS KR1 gave anti-(2R,3R)-6-ACP that underwent syn dehydration catalyzed by DEBS DH4 to give (4R,5R)-(E)-2,4-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-hept-2-enoyl-ACP (7-ACP). The structure and stereochemistry of 7 were established by GC-MS and LC-MS comparison of the derived methyl ester 7-Me to a synthetic sample of 7-Me.
doi:10.1021/ja107344h
PMCID: PMC2959128  PMID: 20925342
17.  Functional Characterization of the Acyl-[Acyl Carrier Protein] Ligase in the Cryptosporidium parvum Giant Polyketide Synthase 
The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum possesses a unique 1,500-kDa polyketide synthase (CpPKS1) comprised of 29 enzymes for synthesizing a yet undetermined polyketide. This study focuses on the biochemical characterization of the 845-amino acid loading unit containing acyl-[ACP] ligase (AL) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). The CpPKS1-AL domain has a substrate preference for long chain fatty acids, particularly for the C20:0 arachidic acid. When using [3H]palmitic acid and CoA as co-substrates, the AL domain displayed allosteric kinetics towards palmitic acid (Hill coefficient, h = 1.46, K50 = 0.751 μM, Vmax = 2.236 μmol mg−1 min−1) and CoA (h = 0.704, K50 = 5.627 μM, Vmax = 0.557 μmol mg−1 min−1), and biphasic kinetics towards adenosine 5′-triphosphate (Km1 = 3.149 μM, Vmax1 = 373.3 nmol mg−1 min−1, Km2 = 121.0 μM, and Vmax2 = 563.7 nmol mg−1 min−1). The AL domain is Mg2+-dependent and its activity could be inhibited by triacsin C (IC50 = 6.64 μM). Furthermore, the ACP domain within the loading unit could be activated by the C. parvum surfactin production element-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase. After attachment of the fatty acid substrate to the AL domain for conversion into the fatty-acyl intermediate, the AL domain is able to transfer palmitic acid to the activated holo-ACP in vitro. These observations ultimately validate the function of the CpPKS1-AL-ACP unit, and make it possible to further dissect the function of this megasynthase using recombinant proteins in a stepwise procedure.
doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.10.014
PMCID: PMC1828208  PMID: 17161840
Apicomplexa; Cryptosporidium parvum; Polyketide synthase; Acyl ligase; Acyl carrier protein; Phosphopantetheinyl transferase; Linetics; Triacsin C
18.  Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI): a Target for the Antimicrobial Triclosan and Its Role in Acylated Homoserine Lactone Synthesis 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(17):5489-5497.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabI structural gene, encoding enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that fabI is probably the last gene in a transcriptional unit that includes a gene encoding an ATP-binding protein of an ABC transporter of unknown function. The FabI protein was similar in size and primary sequence to other bacterial enoyl-ACP reductases, and it contained signature motifs for the FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase and glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase families, respectively. The chromosomal fabI gene was disrupted, and the resulting mutant was viable but possessed only 62% of the total enoyl-ACP reductase activity found in wild-type cell extracts. The fabI-encoded enoyl-ACP reductase activity was NADH dependent and inhibited by triclosan; the residual activity in the fabI mutant was also NADH dependent but not inhibited by triclosan. An polyhistidine-tagged FabI protein was purified and characterized. Purified FabI (i) could use NADH but not NADPH as a cofactor; (ii) used both crotonyl-coenzyme A and crotonyl-ACP as substrates, although it was sixfold more active with crotonyl-ACP; and (iii) was efficiently inhibited by low concentrations of triclosan. A FabI Gly95-to-Val active-site amino acid substitution was generated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the mutant protein was purified. The mutant FabI protein retained normal enoyl-ACP reductase activity but was highly triclosan resistant. When coupled to FabI, purified P. aeruginosa N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) synthase, RhlI, could synthesize C4-HSL from crotonyl-ACP and S-adenosylmethionine. This reaction was NADH dependent and inhibited by triclosan. The levels of C4-HSL and N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactones were reduced 50% in a fabI mutant, corroborating the role of FabI in acylated homoserine lactone synthesis in vivo.
PMCID: PMC94060  PMID: 10464225
19.  Structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 
The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase II from T. thermophilus HB8 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution and compared with the structures of β-keto-ACP synthases from other sources.
The β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases (β-keto-ACP synthases; KAS) catalyse the addition of two-carbon units to the growing acyl chain during the elongation phase of fatty-acid synthesis. As key regulators of bacterial fatty-acid synthesis, they are promising targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. The crystal structure of 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase II from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtKAS II) has been solved by molecular replacement and refined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.07, b = 185.57, c = 62.52 Å, and contains one homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The subunits adopt the well known α-β-α-β-α thiolase fold that is common to ACP synthases. The structural and sequence similarities of TtKAS II to KAS I and KAS II enzymes of known structure from other sources support the hypothesis of comparable enzymatic activity. The dimeric state of TtKAS II is important to create each fatty-acid-binding pocket. Closer examination of KAS structures reveals that compared with other KAS structures in the apo form, the active site of TtKAS II is more accessible because of the ‘open’ conformation of the Phe396 side chain.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108010336
PMCID: PMC2376401  PMID: 18453702
acyl-carrier protein synthases; homodimers
20.  Engineered Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Streptomyces by Altered Catalytic Function of β-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III 
Journal of Bacteriology  2001;183(7):2335-2342.
The Streptomyces glaucescens β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (KASIII) initiates straight- and branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis by catalyzing the decarboxylative condensation of malonyl-ACP with different acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) primers. This KASIII has one cysteine residue, which is critical for forming an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the first step of the process. Three mutants (Cys122Ala, Cys122Ser, Cys122Gln) were created by site-directed mutagenesis. Plasmid-based expression of these mutants in S. glaucescens resulted in strains which generated 75 (Cys122Ala) to 500% (Cys122Gln) more straight-chain fatty acids (SCFA) than the corresponding wild-type strain. In contrast, plasmid-based expression of wild-type KASIII had no effect on fatty acid profiles. These observations are attributed to an uncoupling of the condensation and decarboxylation activities in these mutants (malonyl-ACP is thus converted to acetyl-ACP, a SCFA precursor). Incorporation experiments with perdeuterated acetic acid demonstrated that 9% of the palmitate pool of the wild-type strain was generated from an intact D3 acetyl-CoA starter unit, compared to 3% in a strain expressing the Cys122Gln KASIII. These observations support the intermediacy of malonyl-ACP in generating the SCFA precursor in a strain expressing this mutant. To study malonyl-ACP decarboxylase activity in vitro, the KASIII mutants were expressed and purified as His-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli and assayed. In the absence of the acyl-CoA substrate the Cys122Gln mutant and wild-type KASIII were shown to have comparable decarboxylase activities in vitro. The Cys122Ala mutant exhibited higher activity. This activity was inhibited for all enzymes by the presence of high concentrations of isobutyryl-CoA (>100 μM), a branched-chain fatty acid biosynthetic precursor. Under these conditions the mutant enzymes had no activity, while the wild-type enzyme functioned as a ketoacyl synthase. These observations indicate the likely upper and lower limits of isobutyryl-CoA and related acyl-CoA concentrations within S. glaucescens.
doi:10.1128/JB.183.7.2335-2342.2001
PMCID: PMC95142  PMID: 11244075
21.  Chasing Acyl-Carrier-Protein Through a Catalytic Cycle of Lipid A Production 
Nature  2013;505(7483):422-426.
Summary
Acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) represents one of the most highly conserved proteins across all domains of life and is nature's way of transporting hydrocarbon-chains in vivo. Notably, type II ACPs serve as a crucial interaction hub within primary cellular metabolism1 by communicating transiently between partner enzymes of the numerous biosynthetic pathways2,3. However, the highly transient nature of such interactions and the inherent conformational mobility of ACP2 have stymied previous attempts to structurally visualize ACP tied to an overall catalytic cycle. This is essential to understanding a fundamental aspect of cellular metabolism leading to compounds that are not only useful to the cell, but are also of therapeutic value. For example, ACP is central to the biosynthesis of the lipid A (endotoxin) component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in Gram-negative microorganisms, which is required for their growth and survival4,5 and is an activator of the mammalian host's immune system6,7, thus emerging as an important therapeutic target8-10. During lipid A synthesis (Raetz Pathway), ACP shuttles acyl-intermediates linked to its prosthetic 4′-phosphopantetheine group (4′-PPT)2 among four acyltransferases, including LpxD11. Here we report the crystal structures of three forms of Escherichia coli ACP engaging LpxD, which represent stalled substrate and liberated products along the reaction coordinate. The structures reveal the intricate interactions at the interface that optimally position ACP for acyl-delivery and that directly involve the pantetheinyl group. Conformational differences among the stalled ACPs provide the molecular basis for the association-dissociation process. An unanticipated conformational shift of 4′-phosphopantetheine groups within the LpxD catalytic chamber reveals an unprecedented role of ACP in product release.
doi:10.1038/nature12679
PMCID: PMC3947097  PMID: 24196711
22.  Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria 
Molecular microbiology  2013;89(2):372-387.
SUMMARY
The main purpose of our study is to understand how mycobacteria exert control over the biosynthesis of their membrane lipids and find out the key components of the regulatory network that control fatty acid biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. In this paper we describe the identification and purification of FasR, a transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium sp. that controls the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fas) and the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (acpS) encoding genes, whose products are involved in the fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis pathways. In vitro studies demonstrated that fas and acpS genes are part of the same transcriptional unit and that FasR specifically binds to three conserved operator sequences present in the fas-acpS promoter region (Pfas). The construction and further characterization of a fasR conditional mutant confirmed that FasR is a transcriptional activator of the fas-acpS operon and that this protein is essential for mycobacteria viability. Furthermore, the combined used of Pfas-lacZ fusions in different fasR backgrounds and electrophoretic mobility shift assays experiments, strongly suggested that long-chain acyl-CoAs are the effector molecules that modulate the affinity of FasR for its DNA binding sequences and therefore the expression of the essential fas-acpS operon.
doi:10.1111/mmi.12282
PMCID: PMC3752660  PMID: 23721164
23.  Improvement of Natamycin Production by Engineering of Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases in Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(11):3346-3354.
Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are essential to the activities of type I/II polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) through converting acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) in PKSs and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs) in NRPSs from inactive apo-forms into active holo-forms, leading to biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. The industrial natamycin (NTM) producer, Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10, contains two PPTases (SchPPT and SchACPS) and five PKSs. Biochemical characterization of these two PPTases shows that SchPPT catalyzes the phosphopantetheinylation of ACPs in both type I PKSs and type II PKSs, SchACPS catalyzes the phosphopantetheinylation of ACPs in type II PKSs and fatty acid synthases (FASs), and the specificity of SchPPT is possibly controlled by its C terminus. Inactivation of SchPPT in S. chattanoogensis L10 abolished production of NTM but not the spore pigment, while overexpression of the SchPPT gene not only increased NTM production by about 40% but also accelerated productions of both NTM and the spore pigment. Thus, we elucidated a comprehensive phosphopantetheinylation network of PKSs and improved polyketide production by engineering the cognate PPTase in bacteria.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00099-13
PMCID: PMC3648053  PMID: 23524668
24.  Protein-Protein Recognition between Acyltransferases and Acyl Carrier Proteins in Multimodular Polyketide Synthases † 
Biochemistry  2010;49(1):95-102.
Acyltransferase (AT) domains of multimodular polyketide synthases are the primary gatekeepers for stepwise incorporation of building blocks into a growing polyketide chain. Each AT domain has two substrates, an α-carboxylated CoA thioester (e.g. malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA) and an acyl carrier protein (ACP). Whereas the acyl-CoA specificity of AT domains has been extensively investigated, little is known about their ACP specificity. Guided by recent high-resolution structural insights, we have systematically probed the protein-protein interactions between AT domains, ACP domains and the linkers that flank AT domains. Representative AT domains of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS) have greater than 10-fold specificity for their cognate ACP substrates as compared to other ACP domains from the same synthase. Both the flanking (N- and C-terminal) linkers of an AT domain contributed to the efficiency and specificity of transacylation. As a frame of reference, the activity and specificity of a stand-alone AT domain from the “AT-less” disorazole synthase (DSZS) were also quantified. The activity (kcat/KM) of this AT was >250-fold higher than the corresponding values for DEBS AT domains. Although the AT from DSZS discriminated modestly against ACP domains from DEBS, it exhibited >40-fold higher activity in trans in the presence of these heterologous substrates than their natural AT domains. Our results highlight the opportunity for regioselective modification of a polyketide backbone by in trans complementation of inactivated AT domains. They also reinforce the need for more careful consideration of protein-protein interactions in the engineering of these assembly line enzymes.
doi:10.1021/bi901826g
PMCID: PMC2805051  PMID: 19921859
25.  Plasmodium falciparum Acyl Carrier Protein Crystal Structures in Disulfide-linked and Reduced States and their Prevalence during Blood Stage Growth 
Proteins  2010;78(3):575-588.
Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) has a single reactive sulfhydryl necessary for function in covalently binding nascent fatty acids during biosynthesis. In Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of malaria, fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the apicoplast organelle during the liver stage of the parasite life cycle. During the blood stage, fatty acid biosynthesis is inactive and the redox state of the apicoplast has not been determined. We solved the crystal structure of ACP from P. falciparum in reduced and disulfide-linked forms, and observe the surprising result that the disulfide in the PfACP cross-linked dimer is sequestered from bulk solvent in a tight molecular interface. We assessed solvent accessibility of the disulfide with small molecule reducing agents and found that the disulfide is protected from BME but less so for other common reducing agents. We examined cultured P. falciparum parasites to determine which form of PfACP is prevalent during the blood stages. We readily detected monomeric PfACP in parasite lysate, but do not observe the disulfide-linked form, even under conditions of oxidative stress. To demonstrate that PfACP contains a free sulfhydryl and is not acylated or in the apo state, we treated blood stage parasites with the disulfide forming reagent diamide. We found that the effects of diamide are reversed with reducing agent. Together, these results suggest that the apicoplast is a reducing compartment, as suggested by models of P. falciparum metabolism, and that PfACP is maintained in a reduced state during blood stage growth.
doi:10.1002/prot.22582
PMCID: PMC2805782  PMID: 19768685

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