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1.  Relationship between carotid intima‐media thickness and arterial stiffness in children after Kawasaki disease 
Background
Evidence of premature atherosclerosis and systemic arterial stiffening in patients after Kawasaki disease is accumulating.
Aim
To test the hypothesis that carotid intima‐media thickness (IMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, is associated with systemic arterial stiffness in children after Kawasaki disease.
Methods
A cohort of 72 patients was studied, comprising 26 patients with Kawasaki disease and coronary aneurysms (group I), 24 patients with Kawasaki disease and normal coronary arteries (group II) and 22 healthy age‐matched children (group III). The carotid IMT, carotid artery stiffness index, brachioradial pulse wave velocity (PWV), fasting total cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined and compared among the three groups.
Results
The carotid IMT was related to indices of arterial stiffness, and significant determinants of carotid IMT were identified by multivariate analysis. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) carotid IMT of both group I (0.41 (0.04) mm) and group II (0.39 (0.04) mm) was significantly greater than that of group III (0.36 (0.04) mm; p<0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). For the entire cohort, carotid IMT correlated positively with LDL cholesterol (r = 0.31, p = 0.009), carotid artery stiffness index (r = 0.40, p = 0.001) and brachioradial PWV (r = 0.28, p = 0.016), but not with age, body mass index, systemic blood pressure, and HDL and total cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis identified carotid artery stiffness index (β = 0.25, p = 0.028) and subject grouping (β = −0.39, p = 0.001; model R2 = 0.29) as significant correlates of carotid IMT.
Conclusion
The increased carotid IMT in children after Kawasaki disease is associated with systemic arterial stiffening.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.096628
PMCID: PMC2083125  PMID: 16820386
2.  Relationship Between Brachial Flow - Mediated Dilation and Carotid Intima- Media Thickness in an Elderly Cohort: The Cardiovascular Health Study 
Atherosclerosis  2007;197(2):840-845.
Objective
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a large multi-ethnic elderly cohort.
Background
Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a physiologic measure and Carotid IMT is an anatomic structural measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Both brachial FMD and carotid IMT have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events. The relationship between brachial FMD and carotid IMT is less clear especially in older adults.
Methods
Brachial FMD, carotid IMT and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2338 adults, age 72–98 years who were participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The relationship between FMD and IMT was assessed both unadjusted and also after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity. BMI, HDL, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hormone therapy and prior CVD.
Results
Both brachial FMD and carotid IMT correlated significantly with age, HDL levels, waist/hip ratio, serum cholesterol and number of CV risk factors. Brachial FMD was not associated with CCA IMT in this elderly cohort (Pearson partial correlation coefficient= −0.0252, p=0.222). In the adjusted linear regression model with CCA IMT as the dependent variable, brachial FMD was also not associated with CCA IMT (beta coefficient= −0.006, p=0.470)
Conclusion
Brachial FMD and CCA IMT are not related in population-based older adults. Brachial FMD and CCA IMT may be distinct and independent stages in the complex atherosclerotic process.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.07.032
PMCID: PMC4115586  PMID: 17804000
Brachial flow-mediated dilation; carotid intima-media thickness; endothelial function; atherosclerosis; elderly
3.  Levels of Oxidized LDL and Advanced Glycation End Products–Modified LDL in Circulating Immune Complexes Are Strongly Associated With Increased Levels of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Its Progression in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2011;60(2):582-589.
OBJECTIVE
High cholesterol levels in circulating immune complexes (IC), surrogate markers of modified LDL, are associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes. Different modifications of LDL are involved in IC formation, but which of these are predictive of vascular events is not known. Therefore, we measured oxidized LDL (oxLDL), advanced glycation end products–modified LDL (AGE-LDL), and malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) in IC and determined their relationship with increased carotid IMT and compared the strength of the association with that observed with conventional risk factors.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Levels of oxLDL, AGE-LDL, and MDA-LDL were measured in circulating IC isolated from sera of 479 patients of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort, collected at baseline. Internal and common carotid IMT were measured 8 and 14 years later by DCCT/EDIC.
RESULTS
OxLDL, AGE-LDL, and MDA-LDL levels in circulating IC were significantly correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, and lipid and blood pressure, but not with age. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that individuals in the highest versus lowest quartile of oxLDL and AGE-LDL in IC had a 6.11-fold [confidence interval (CI) 2.51–14.8] and a 6.4-fold (CI 2.53–16.2) increase in the odds of having high carotid IMT, respectively, after adjusting for conventional risk factors. Parallel analyses resulted in odds ratios of 2.62 (CI 1.24, 5.55) for LDL-C, 1.45 (CI 0.69, 3.03) for diastolic blood pressure, and 2.33 (CI 1.09, 4.99) for A1C.
CONCLUSIONS
OxLDL and AGE-LDL in circulating IC were significantly associated with progression and increased levels of carotid IMT in type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db10-0915
PMCID: PMC3028359  PMID: 20980456
4.  Mildly Elevated Serum Bilirubin Levels Are Negatively Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis among Elderly Persons 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114281.
Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79±8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 509 women aged 81±8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002), smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006), GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039), and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022) were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (β = 0.104, p = 0.046), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.148, p = 0.004), prevalence of antihypertensive medication (β = 0.126, p = 0.004), fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.135, p = 0.003), GGT (β = -0.104, p = 0.032), estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum bilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006), and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (β = 0.103, p = 0.017) were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs) {95% confidence interval (CI)} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI) of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11–0.57) in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21–0.78) in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26–0.98) in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24–0.89) in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114281
PMCID: PMC4257609  PMID: 25479598
5.  Variations in Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) during the Cardiac Cycle: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment 
Introduction
Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (cIMT), a measure of atherosclerosis, varies between peak-systole (PS) and end-diastole (ED). This difference might affect cardiovascular risk assessment.
Materials and methods
IMT measurements of the right and left CCA were synchronized with an electrocardiogram: R-wave for ED and T-wave for PS. IMT was measured in 2930 members of the Framingham Offspring Study. Multivariable regression models were generated with ED-IMT, PS-IMT and change in IMT as dependent variables and Framingham risk factors as independent variables. ED-IMT estimates were compared to the upper quartile of IMT based on normative data obtained at PS.
Results
The average age of our population was 57.9 years. Average difference in IMT during the cardiac cycle was 0.037 mm (95% CI: 0.035–0.038 mm). ED-IMT and PS-IMT had similar associations with Framingham risk factors (total R2= 0.292 versus 0.275) and were significantly associated with all risk factors. In a fully adjusted multivariable model, a thinner IMT at peak-systole was associated with pulse pressure (p < 0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.0064), age (p = 0.046), and no other risk factors. Performing ED-IMT measurements while using upper quartile PS-IMT normative data lead to inappropriately increasing by 42.1% the number of individuals in the fourth IMT quartile (high cardiovascular risk category).
Conclusion
The difference in IMT between peak-systole and end-diastole is associated with pulse pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and age. In our study, mean IMT difference during the cardiac cycle lead to an overestimation by 42.1% of individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1016/j.echo.2012.05.007
PMCID: PMC3544292  PMID: 22721828
Ultrasonics; Risk Factors; Carotid Arteries; Blood Pressure; systole; diastole
6.  Effects of Acarbose to Delay Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Early Diabetes 
Background
The antidiabetic agent acarbose reduces postprandial glucose excursions. We have evaluated the effect of randomized treatment with acarbose on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in early diabetes.
Methods
The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) was a randomized trial of acarbose versus placebo, in 219 participants with early diabetes characterized by glucose values over 11.1 mmol/L 2 hours after a 75g oral glucose load, and mean HbA1c 6.3%. IMT was measured at baseline and yearly. Follow-up was discontinued if participants progressed to the study glucose endpoints; IMT readings were available for a median of 2 years, with 72 subjects followed for 5 years.
Results
Progressive increases in IMT were seen in both treatment groups, but this was reduced in participants randomized to acarbose (p=0.047). In age, sex and smoking-adjusted analyses IMT progression was associated with greater fasting and OGTT-excursion glucose, fasting insulin, cholesterol, and glycated LDL concentrations. IMT progression was reduced with study-related changes in weight, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids; these features were more strongly associated with reduced IMT progression than acarbose treatment. Despite strong associations of baseline glycemia with IMT progression, study-related changes in glucose were not important determinants of IMT progression.
Conclusions
Acarbose can delay progression of carotid intima-media thickness in early diabetes defined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, weight, insulin and lipids contributed to risk of progression but reductions in glycemia were not major determinants of reduced rate of IMT progression. Vascular benefits of acarbose may be independent of its glycemic effects.
doi:10.1002/dmrr.2433
PMCID: PMC4062388  PMID: 23908125
Diabetes; Acarbose; Atherosclerosis; Intima-Media Thickness
7.  Changes in Carotid Intima-Media Thickness During the Cardiac Cycle: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Background
Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease, changes during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude of this effect and its implications have not been well studied.
Methods and Results
Far-wall IMT measurements of the right common carotid artery were measured at end diastole and peak systole in 5633 individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Multivariable regression models were generated with end-diastolic IMT, peak-systolic IMT, and change in IMT during the cardiac cycle as dependent variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors as independent variables. The average age of our population was 61.9 (45 to 84) years. Average change in carotid IMT during the cardiac cycle was 0.041 mm (95% confidence interval: 0.039 to 0.042 mm), with a mean IMT of 0.68 mm. End-diastolic IMT and peak-systolic IMT were similarly associated with risk factors. In a fully adjusted model, change in carotid IMT during the cardiac cycle was associated with ethnicity and pulse pressure (P=0.001) and not age, sex, or other risk factors. Chinese and Hispanics had less of a change in IMT than did non-Hispanic whites. With peak-systolic IMT reference values used as normative data, 31.3% more individuals were classified as being in the upper quartile of IMT and at high risk for cardiovascular disease than would be expected when IMT is measured at end diastole.
Conclusions
Measurable differences in IMT are seen during the cardiac cycle. This affects the interpretation of IMT measurements used for cardiovascular risk assessment, given published normative data with IMT measured at peak systole.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00063440. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001420 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001420.)
doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.001420
PMCID: PMC3487346  PMID: 23130162
atherosclerosis; blood pressure; carotid arteries; diastole; epidemiology; risk factors; systole; ultrasonics
8.  Comparison of brachial and carotid artery ultrasound for assessing extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV: a prospective cohort study 
Background
Non-invasive surrogate measures which are valid and responsive to change are needed to study cardiovascular risks in HIV. We compared the construct validity of two noninvasive arterial measures: carotid intima medial thickness (IMT), which measures anatomic disease; and brachial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a measure of endothelial dysfunction.
Methods
A sample of 257 subjects aged 35 years or older, attending clinics in five Canadian centres, were prospectively recruited into a study of cardiovascular risk among HIV subjects. The relationship between baseline IMT or FMD and traditional vascular risk factors was studied using regression analysis. We analyzed the relationship between progression of IMT or FMD and risk factors using fixed-effects models. We adjusted for use of statin medication and CD4 count in both models.
Results
Baseline IMT was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.034), current smoking status (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001) and total:HDL cholesterol ratio (p = 0.004), but not statin use (p = 0.904) and CD4 count (p = 0.929). IMT progression was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.0051) and current smoking status (p = 0.011), but not statin use (p = 0.289) and CD4 count (p = 0.927). FMD progression was significantly associated with current statin use (p = 0.019), but not CD4 count (p = 0.84). Neither extent nor progression of FMD was significantly associated with any of the examined vascular risk factors.
Conclusion
IMT correlates better than FMD with established cardiovascular risk factors in this cohort of HIV patients. Standardization of protocols for FMD and IMT will facilitate the comparison of results across studies.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-6-11
PMCID: PMC2708196  PMID: 19519884
9.  The correlation between serum lipid profile with carotid intima-media thickness and plaque 
Background
It is indicated that non-HDL cholesterol and lipid ratios, including total/HDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, are risk indicators with greater predictive value for coronary atherosclerotic progression or regression compared with conventional lipid profile. However, there have been few reports about the correlation between serum lipid profile with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in Chinese general people.
Methods
We examined 402 subjects without apparent diseases in a cross-sectional study (mean age 50.16 years; 36.07% female). Demographics, anthropometrics, and laboratory data were collected. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness were evaluated by ultrasonography.
Results
Univariate correlations showed carotid IMT was correlated with LDL-C (r = 0.137, p = 0.009), non-LDL-C levels (r = 0.140, p = 0.008) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (r = 0.169, p = 0.001). After adjustment for potential covariates, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (β = 0.132, p < 0.001) were independent variables that interacted on carotid IMT. Other risk factors including age and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with carotid IMT. LDL-C levels, non-HDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were significantly higher, but HDL-C levels were significantly lower in subjects with carotid plaque than those without it. The subsequent multiple logistic regression analysis showed that LDL-C (OR; 1.325, 95% CI; 1.046-1.821, p = 0.033) and HDL-C levels (OR; 0.093, 95% CI; 0.038-0.227, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the presence of carotid plaque after adjustment of age. Furthermore, LDL-C combined with HDL-C levels showed the highest area under the curve (0.788, 95% CI; 0.740–0.837, p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Serum LDL-C/HDL-C ratio represents as an independent index associated with increased carotid IMT and LDL-C combined with HDL-C levels may be useful markers for predicting the presence of carotid plaque in the Chinese general population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-181
PMCID: PMC4272763  PMID: 25491329
Subclinical atherosclerosis; Lipid ratio; Intima-media thickness; Plaque
10.  Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study 
Objectives
To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults.
Background
Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Methods
Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program.
Results
The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score.
Conclusions
Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.03.026
PMCID: PMC2747309  PMID: 19520251
Atherosclerosis; Ultrasound; Preclinical disease; Abdominal aorta; IMT
11.  Segment-Specific Associations of Carotid IMT with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study 
Background and Purpose
We propose to study possible differences in the associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) and Carotid Intima-Media thickness (IMT) measurements made at three different levels of the carotid bifurcation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of Whites and African Americans of both genders with mean age 45 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were determined in cohort members. Carotid IMT was measured from high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images at three levels: the common carotid artery (CCA), the carotid artery bulb (Bulb) and the internal carotid artery (ICA). Associations with risk factors were evaluated by multivariate linear regression analyses.
Results
Of 3258 who underwent carotid IMT measurements, CCA, Bulb, and ICA IMT were measured at all three separate levels in 3023 (92.7%). A large proportion of the variability of CCA IMT was explained by cardiovascular risk factors (26.8%) but less so for the Bulb (11.2%) and ICA (8.0%). Carotid IMT was consistently associated with age, LDL-cholesterol, smoking and hypertension in all segments. Associations with fasting glucose and diastolic blood pressure were stronger for CCA than for the other segments. Hypertension, diabetes and current smoking had qualitatively stronger associations with Bulb IMT, and LDL cholesterol with ICA IMT. Conclusion: In our cohort of relatively young white and African-American men and women, a greater proportion of the variability in common carotid IMT can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors than for the carotid artery bulb and internal carotid arteries.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566596
PMCID: PMC3163306  PMID: 19910544
Carotid Intimal Medial Thickness; Risk Factors; Carotid Ultrasound
12.  Risk Factors for the Progression of Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2013;37(5):365-374.
Background
Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries is known to have a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to identify risk factors affecting the progression of carotid IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM with carotid IMT measurements were enrolled, and their clinical data and carotid IMT results at baseline and 2 years later were compared.
Results
Of the 171 patients, 67.2% of males and 50.8% of females had abnormal baseline IMT of the left common carotid artery. At baseline, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and smoking in male participants, and fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in females were significantly higher in patients with abnormal IMT than in those with normal IMT. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in males and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between the nonprogression and the progression groups. Reduction of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score after 2 years was generally higher in the nonprogression group than the progression group.
Conclusion
LDL-C levels in males and HDL-C levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between participants with and without progression of carotid IMT. Furthermore, a reduction in the UKPDS 10-year CHD risk score appeared to delay the advancement of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the importance of establishing the therapeutic goal of lipid profiles should be emphasized to prevent the progression of carotid IMT in newly diagnosed T2DM patients.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2013.37.5.365
PMCID: PMC3816138  PMID: 24199166
Atherosclerosis; Carotid artery intima-media thickness; Diabetes mellitus type 2; Risk factors
13.  Regression of target organ damage in children and adolescents with primary hypertension 
Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany)  2010;25(12):2489-2499.
We assessed the effects of 12 months of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapy on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, regression of target organ damage (TOD) and metabolic abnormalities in 86 children (14.1 ± 2.4 years) with primary hypertension. Twenty-four hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased (130 ± 8 vs 126 ± 8, 73 ± 7 vs 70 ± 7, p = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively). Body mass index (BMI) did not change, but waist-to-hip (0.85 ± 0.07 vs 0.83 ± 0.05, p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; 0.49 ± 0.07 vs 0.48 ± 0.05, p = 0.008) decreased. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi; 38.5 ± 10.7 vs 35.2 ± 7.5 g/m2.7, p = 0.0001), prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (46.5% vs 31.4%; p = 0.0001), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT; 0.44 ± 0.05 vs 0.42 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.0001), wall cross sectional area (WCSA; 7.5 ± 1.3 vs 6.9 ± 1.2 mm2, p = 0.002), hsCRP (1.1 ± 1.0 vs 0.7 ± 0.7 mg/l, p = 0.002), and LDL-cholesterol (115 ± 33 vs 107 ± 26 mg/dl, p = 0.001) decreased. Patients who had lowered BP had a lower cIMT at the second examination (0.41 ± 0.04 vs 0.43 ± 0.04 mm, p = 0.04) and lower initial hsCRP values (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.5 ± 1.3 mg/l, p = 0.04) in comparison to non-responders. Regression analysis revealed that the main predictor of LVMi decrease was a decrease in abdominal fat expressed as a decrease in waist circumference (WC) (R2 = 0.280, β = 0.558, p = 0.005), for WCSA-SDS a decrease in WC (R2 = 0.332, β = 0.611, p = 0.009) and for a cIMT-SDS decrease the main predictor was a decrease in hsCRP concentrations (R2 = 0.137, β = 0.412, p = 0.03). Standard antihypertensive treatment lowered BP and led to regression of TOD in hypertensive children. Lean body mass increase and decrease in abdominal obesity correlated with TOD regression.
doi:10.1007/s00467-010-1626-7
PMCID: PMC2962779  PMID: 20730452
Primary hypertension; Target organ damage; Arteriosclerosis; Metabolic syndrome; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Children
14.  Effect of Intensive Diabetes Treatment on Carotid Artery Wall Thickness in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications 
Diabetes  1999;48(2):383-390.
The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) is a multicenter longitudinal observational study of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. One of the major objectives of EDIC is to study the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the role of cardiovascular risk factors and antecedent therapy in the DCCT on carotid intima-media wall thickness (IMT) in type 1 diabetes. At ~18 months after the end of the DCCT, high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess the carotid arteries of 1,325 patients with type 1 diabetes, 19–51 years of age, with duration of diabetes ranging from 6.3 to 26.1 years. An age- and sex-matched nondiabetic population (n = 153) was studied with the same protocol. The ultrasound protocol was carried out in 28 EDIC clinics by centrally trained and certified sonographers using one of three scanning systems. Determination of IMT from videotaped images was performed by a single reader at the Central Ultrasound Reading Unit. Univariate associations with greater IMT were strongest for older age and longer diabetes duration, greater waist-to-hip ratio (men only), higher blood pressure, higher LDL cholesterol, and smoking. The DCCT therapy group (intensive versus conventional) and HbA1c, measured at the time of the ultrasound or the mean HbA1c during the DCCT, were not significantly related to IMT. Multivariate analyses suggest that age, height, smoking, and BMI were the major predictors of common carotid IMT, whereas age, smoking, and LDL cholesterol predicted internal carotid IMT. There were significant differences between the IMT values of the internal carotid artery in the EDIC male cohort and similarly aged male nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences between the IMT values in the EDIC female cohort and similarly aged female nondiabetic control subjects. At this point in the planned 10-year follow-up of the DCCT cohort, neither intensive therapy nor HbA1c level appears to influence the early signs of atherosclerosis. Traditional risk factors, including age, smoking, and LDL cholesterol, were related to IMT. As the cohort is only now entering the age interval during which rapid progression and clinical expression of atherosclerosis are expected, further follow-up will help to determine the role of hyperglycemia, and its interaction with other risk factors, on the development of atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC2622732  PMID: 10334318
15.  Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) progression as a predictor of stroke in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) 
Background
Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease associated with incident stroke. We study whether IMT rate-of-change is associated with stroke.
Materials and Methods
We studied 5028 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) composed of whites, Chinese, Hispanic and African-Americans free of cardiovascular disease. In this MESA IMT progression study, IMT rate-of-change (mm/year) was the difference in right common carotid artery (CCA) far-wall IMT (mm) divided by the interval between two ultrasound examinations (median interval of 32 months). CCA IMT was measured in a region free of plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors and baseline IMT were determined when IMT rate-of-change was measured. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models generated Hazard risk Ratios (HR) with cardiovascular risk factors, ethnicity and education level/income as predictors.
Results
There were 42 first time strokes seen during a mean follow-up of 3.22 years (median 3.0 years). Average age was 64.2 years, with 48% males. In multivariable models, age (HR: 1.05 per year), systolic blood pressure (HR 1.02 per mmHg), lower HDL cholesterol levels (HR: 0.96 per mg/dL) and IMT rate-of-change (HR 1.23 per 0.05 mm/year; 95% C.L. 1.02, 1.48) were significantly associated with incident stroke. The upper quartile of IMT rate-of-change had an HR of 2.18 (95% C.L.: 1.07, 4.46) compared to the lower three quartiles combined.
Conclusion
Common carotid artery IMT progression is associated with incident stroke in this cohort free of prevalent cardiovascular disease and atrial fibrillation at baseline.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.625186
PMCID: PMC3202068  PMID: 21885840
Ultrasonography; Risk Factors; Carotid Arteries; Carotid Intima Media Thickness; stroke
16.  Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:926912.
Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight <2,500 grams (g) was negatively correlated with (a) increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), according to regression coefficient (RC) equal to −0.323, 95% CI [−0.571, −0.075] P < 0.05; (b) diastolic blood pressure (RC = −4.744, 95% CI [−9.017, −0.470] P < 0.05); (c) low HDL-cholesterol (RC = −0.272, 95% CI [−0.516, −0.029] P < 0.05); (d) frequency of intima-media thickness (IMT) of left carotid >75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P < 0.05). Birthweight >3,500 g was associated with (a) BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P < 0.05); (b) increased waist circumference (RC = 0.284, 95% CI [0.054, 0.513] P < 0.05); (c) elevated WHR (RC = 0.280, 95% CI [0.054, 0.505] P < 0.05); (d) minimum subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (RC = 4.354, 95% CI [0.821, 7.888] P < 0.05); (e) maximum SAT (RC = 7.095, 95% CI [0.608, 13.583] P < 0.05); (f) right lobe of the liver side (RC = 6.896, 95% CI [1.946, 11.847] P < 0.001); (g) frequency's right lobe of the liver >75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P < 0.001). Weight gain in the first year of life was inversely correlated with (a) mean IMT of left carotid (RC = −0.046, 95% CI [−0.086, −0.006] P < 0.05; (b) frequency IMT of left carotid >75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P < 0.05); (c) mean IMT (RC = −0.038, 95% CI [0.073, −0.002] P < 0.05); (d) the frequency of the mean IMT >75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P < 0.05). Conclusions. Adults birthweight <2,500 g and >3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1155/2015/926912
PMCID: PMC4310315  PMID: 25648854
17.  Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians 
Objective
Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians.
Methods
One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Results
Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P < 0.05). The vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet (< 6 years, 6 to ≤ 11 years, > 11 years), those in tertile 1 (< 6 years) and tertile 2 (6 to ≤ 11 years) had shown thinner IMT as compared to the omnivores, and tertile 3 had shown no reduction.
Conclusion
A decrease in multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as BMI, blood pressure and lipid profile was associated with vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-63
PMCID: PMC3184257  PMID: 21929760
vegetarian diet; IMT; duration of vegetarian diet
18.  Effect of intensive multifactorial treatment on the intima-media thickness of large arteries in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus*  
Objective: To quantify the changes in blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of large arteries in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus who received either intensive multifactorial treatment or conventional treatment. Methods: Two-hundred and ten patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to two groups: an intensive treatment group (n=110) and a conventional treatment group (n=100). Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein C (HDL-C)], and IMTs of large arteries (carotid, iliac, and femoral arteries) were determined before and at one and two years after starting treatment. The patients in the conventional treatment group received routine diabetes management in our outpatient department. Targets were established for patients in the intensive treatment group. Their blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure levels were regularly monitored and therapeutic regimens were adjusted for those whose measurements did not meet the target values until all the parameters met the established targets. Within-group and between-group differences were evaluated. Results: A significantly greater percentage of patients in the intensive treatment group had LDL-C levels that reached the target value one year after starting treatment than those in the conventional treatment group (52.04% vs. 33.33%, P<0.05). No significant differences were found between groups for FBG, HbA1c, blood pressure, TG, TC, or HDL-C. The percentages of patients with TG (51.02% vs. 34.48%), TC (52.04% vs. 33.33%), and LDL-C (61.22% vs. 43.67%) who met the respective target values in the intensive treatment group were all significantly higher than the corresponding percentages in the conventional treatment group two years after starting treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the percentages of patients with FBG, HbA1c, and blood pressure values meeting the respective targets between the groups at the two-year follow-up. One year after starting treatment, the LDL-C level, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the IMTs of the femoral and iliac arteries of the intensive treatment group were significantly lower compared to those of the conventional treatment group (P<0.05), although there was no significant difference in other metabolic parameters. Two years after starting treatment, the TC, LDL-C, blood pressure [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP], and the IMTs of the carotid and femoral arteries of the intensive treatment group were significantly lower than those of the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). No significant differences in other metabolic parameters existed between the two groups two years after starting treatment. Conclusions: Early comprehensive and intensive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can delay or even reverse the increase in IMT of large arteries. Lowering blood pressure and blood lipid regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have great significance in decreasing the risk of diabetes-related macrovascular lesions.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1100302
PMCID: PMC3348229  PMID: 22556176
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Intensive treatment; Intima-media thickness (IMT); Large arteries
19.  Clinical Implications of Discordance Between LDL Cholesterol and LDL Particle Number 
Journal of clinical lipidology  2011;5(2):105-113.
Background
The amount of cholesterol per LDL particle is variable and related in part to particle size, with smaller particles carrying less cholesterol. This variability causes concentrations of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL particles (LDL-P) to be discordant in many individuals.
Methods
LDL-P measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, calculated LDL-C, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were assessed at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a community-based cohort of 6814 persons free of clinical CVD at entry and followed for CVD events (n=319 during 5.5-year follow-up). Discordance, defined as values of LDL-P and LDL-C differing by ≥ 12 percentile units to give equal-sized concordant and discordant subgroups, was related to CVD events and to carotid IMT in models predicting outcomes for a 1 SD difference in LDL-C or LDL-P, adjusted for age, sex and race.
Results
LDL-C and LDL-P were associated with incident CVD overall: hazard ratios (HR [95% CI]) 1.20 [1.08, 1.34] and 1.32 [1.19, 1.47], respectively, but for those with discordant levels, only LDL-P was associated with incident CVD (HR: 1.45 [1.19, 1.78]) (LDL-C HR: 1.07 [0.88, 1.30])). IMT also tracked with LDL-P rather than LDL-C, i.e., adjusted mean IMT of 958, 932, and 917 μm in the LDL-P > LDL-C discordant, concordant, and LDL-P < LDL-C discordant subgroups, respectively, with the difference persisting after adjustment for LDL-C (p=0.002) but not LDL-P (p=0.60).
Conclusions
For individuals with discordant LDL-C and LDL-P levels, the LDL-attributable atherosclerotic risk is better indicated by LDL-P.
doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2011.02.001
PMCID: PMC3070150  PMID: 21392724
LDL particle number; LDL cholesterol; cardiovascular disease risk; NMR; lipoproteins
20.  Carotid intima-media thickness in young patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. 
Heart  1996;76(4):321-325.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent of early atherosclerotic changes of the carotid arteries in young patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) detected as increased intima-media thickness (IMT), and to determine the relations between IMT and some clinical and blood variables such as lipid and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentration and haemostatic factors. DESIGN: The IMT of the carotid bifurcation, the proximal 1 cm of the internal carotid artery, and the distal 1 cm of the common carotid artery was determined in all subjects using B mode ultrasonography. Blood lipids, fasting glucose, and several haemostatic variables were also analysed. SUBJECTS: 28 patients with FH (12 males and 16 females aged 11 to 27 years, one homozygote, 27 heterozygotes) and 28 sex and age matched normolipidaemic healthy subjects. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT (the average of six measurements of the maximum far wall IMT in the three carotid segments on each side) was significantly greater in patients with FH than in controls (mean (SD) 0.71 (0.15) v 0.49 (0.08) mm, P < 0.001). In all subjects, the mean IMT was significantly correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.59), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r = 0.60), triglycerides (r = 0.27), and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.47). No correlation was found between the mean IMT and Lp(a), fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of young patients with FH have a greater intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries than healthy subjects. Since the individual susceptibility of patients with FH to increased LDL cholesterol is different, B mode ultrasonography could provide a useful tool to identify those who are more likely to develop premature atherosclerotic disease.
PMCID: PMC484543  PMID: 8983678
21.  Atherogenic Lipid Profile and Systolic Blood Pressure are Associated with Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness in Children with Turner Syndrome 
Objective: Women with Turner syndrome (TS) have greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) known to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults. To determine whether there are risk factors for atherosclerosis in children with TS, we compared cIMT, anthropometric and metabolic parameters between children with TS and healthy controls.
Methods: Data of children with TS with XO karyotype (n=24, mean age: 11.6±3.6) were compared with those of healthy children (n=24, mean age: 10.5±3.6) with respect to anthropometric parameters, lipid levels, insulin resistance and cIMT which was measured by high resolution B-mode ultrasonography.
Results: Mean age and cIMT values were similar in the two groups of children. However in children with TS, fasting glucose (p=0.01), total cholesterol (p=0.006), triglyceride (p=0.04) levels and HDL-cholesterol (p=0.002) levels were higher than those of controls. In the TS group, cIMT correlated positively with LDL-cholesterol (r=0.435, p=0.034) and with systolic blood pressure (r=0.430, p=0.036) and negatively with HDL-cholesterol (r=-0.518, p=0.01). In stepwise regression analysis, HDL-cholesterol emerged as a significant predictor of cIMT (b= -0.518, p=0.01) contributing to 26.8 % of its variability.
Conclusion: The systolic blood pressure and dyslipidaemia were shown to be risk factors for atherosclerosis in children with TS.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4008/jcrpe.v1i2.9
PMCID: PMC3005644  PMID: 21318066
children; Turner syndrome; cardiovascular disease; carotid intima-media thickness
22.  Normative values and correlates of carotid artery intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis in Andean-Hispanics: The PREVENCION Study 
Atherosclerosis  2010;211(2):499-505.
Objectives
Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, ethnicity and gender-specific normative data are required to assess cIMT, which are not available for Andean-Hispanics. In addition, data regarding correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis in ethnic population are needed.
Methods
We studied 1448 adults enrolled in a population-based study in Peru. cIMT and carotid plaque were measured with high-resolution ultrasonography. A healthy reference sample (n=472) with no cardiovascular disease, normal weight and normal metabolic parameters was selected to establish normative cIMT values. Correlates of abnormal cIMT and carotid plaque were assessed in the entire population.
Results
In the reference sample, 95th-percentile cIMT values were both age and gender-dependent. In stepwise regression, selected predictors of increasing cIMT were: older age, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes mellitus, higher systolic blood pressure, higher LDL-cholesterol, smoking and male gender. Predictors of carotid plaque included older age, male gender, higher systolic blood pressure, lower diastolic blood pressure and higher LDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein were not associated with cIMT or carotid plaque. The lack of association with HDL-cholesterol was confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography.
Conclusions
We present ethnic-specific cutoffs for abnormal cIMT applicable to Andean-Hispanics and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis in this population. Pending longitudinal studies, our data supports several risk associations seen in other populations and can be used to identify Andean-Hispanics at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The lack of association between HDL-C and cIMT or carotid plaque in this population requires further investigation.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.04.009
PMCID: PMC2928715  PMID: 20510418
carotid intima-media thickness; Andean-Hispanics; definitions; cardiovascular disease; Latin America
23.  C-reactive protein is an independent predictor for carotid artery intima-media thickness progression in asymptomatic younger adults (from the Bogalusa Heart Study) 
Background
Conflicting information exists regarding the association between hsCRP and the progression of early stages of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of high sensitiviy c-reactive protein (hsCRP) along with major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on early carotid atherosclerosis progression in a large, population-based cohort study.
Methods
The study cohort included 839 young adults (aged 24 to 43 years, 70% white, 42% men) enrolled in Bogalusa Heart Study, who in 2001-2002 attended baseline examination with measurements of CV risk factors. Progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed during a mean follow-up of 2.4 years.
Results
Carotid artery IMT progression rates were as follows: composite carotid artery = 9.2 ± 52 μm/y, common carotid artery = 0.0 ± 51 μm/y, carotid bulb = 8.8 ± 103 μm/y, and internal carotid artery = 18.9 ± 81 μm/y. Elevated baseline hsCRP, reflecting an inflammatory state, showed independent association with composite carotid artery IMT progression. Increased age, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, LDL cholesterol, and current smoking were other risk associates of carotid artery IMT progression in young adults, indicating an underlying burden on the CV system by multiple risk factors.
Conclusion
In this population-based study, we observed independent categorical association of increased hsCRP with carotid artery IMT progression in young adults. This study underlines the importance of assesssing hsCRP levels along with smoking and traditional CV risk factor profiles in asymptomatic young adults.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-11-78
PMCID: PMC3264529  PMID: 22208681
Carotid artery intima-media thickness progression; cardiovascular risk; c-reactive protein; epidemiology; young adults
24.  Evaluation of Clinical Variables Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Women 
It has been previously documented that carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify clinical parameters associated with an increased cIMT treated hypertensive women. Female patients (n = 116) with essential hypertension, aged 40–65 years, were included in this study. Vascular ultrasound was performed and the patients were divided into two groups according to the values of cIMT (< or ≥0.9 mm). Patients with greater cIMT presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Serum HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower and CRP was significantly higher in the same group. There was a significant correlation between cIMT and age (r = 0.25, P = 0.007), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.19, P = 0.009), pulse pressure (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), and LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.19, P = 0.043). cIMT was correlated to CRP (r = 0.31, P = 0.007) and negatively correlated to HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.33, P = 0.001). In logistic regression, only HDL-cholesterol, CRP, and pulse pressure were shown to be independent variables associated to increased cIMT. In conclusion, pulse pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and CRP are variables correlated with cIMT in treated hypertensive women.
doi:10.1155/2012/257501
PMCID: PMC3371681  PMID: 22701780
25.  Relationship between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Helminth Infections on Flores Island, Indonesia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54855.
Objective
To examine the association between helminth infections and atherosclerosis.
Background
Chronic helminth infection, which can lead to poor nutritional status and anti-inflammatory response, might protect against the development of atherosclerosis.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed in Flores, Indonesia, an area highly endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Stool samples from 675 participants aged 18–80 years were collected and screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. We collected data on body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total immunoglobulin-E (TIgE) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide stimulated cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-10). In a subset of 301 elderly adults (≥40 years of age) carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was measured.
Results
Participants with any STH infection had lower BMI (kg/m2) (mean difference −0.66, 95%CI [−1.26, −0.06]), WHR (−0.01, [−0.02, −0.00]), total cholesterol (mmol/L) (−0.22, [−0.43, −0.01]) and LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) (−0.20, [−0.39, −0.00]) than uninfected participants. After additional adjustment for BMI the association between helminth infection and total cholesterol (mean difference −0.17, 95%CI [−0.37, 0.03]) as well as LDL-cholesterol (−0.15, [−0.33, 0.04]) was less pronounced. BMI, WHR, and total cholesterol were negatively associated with number species of helminth co-infections. Participants with high TIgE, an indicator of exposure to helminths, had lower FBG, TC, and HDL. The association between TIgE and TC and HDL remained significant after adjustment with BMI. No clear association was found between STH infection or TIgE and mean cIMT.
Conclusions
This cross-sectional study presents evidence that helminth infections were negatively associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, an association at least partially mediated by an effect on BMI. The significance of this finding needs to be determined.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054855
PMCID: PMC3554693  PMID: 23365679

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