Classical and delayed preconditioning are powerful endogenous protection mechanisms against ischemia-reperfusion damage. However, it is still uncertain whether delayed preconditioning can effectively salvage myocardium in patients with co-morbidities, such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. We investigated delayed preconditioning in mice models of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and investigated interventions to optimize the preconditioning potential.
Hypoxic preconditioning was induced in C57Bl6-mice (WT), leptin deficient ob/ob (model for type II diabetes) and double knock-out (DKO) mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency (model for metabolic syndrome). Twenty-four hours later, 30 min of regional ischemia was followed by 60 min reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility and infarct size were studied. The effect of 12 weeks food restriction or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) on this was investigated. Differences between groups were analyzed for statistical significance by student’s t-test or one-way ANOVA followed by a Fisher’s LSD post hoc test. Factorial ANOVA was used to determine the interaction term between preconditioning and treatments, followed by a Fisher’s LSD post hoc test. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the relationship between infarct size and contractility (PRSW). A value of p<0.05 was considered significant.
Left ventricular contractility is reduced in ob/ob compared with WT and even further reduced in DKO. ACE-I improved contractility in ob/ob and DKO mice. After ischemia/reperfusion without preconditioning, infarct size was larger in DKO and ob/ob versus WT. Hypoxic preconditioning induced a strong protection in WT and a partial protection in ob/ob mice. The preconditioning potential was lost in DKO. Twelve weeks of food restriction or ACE-I restored the preconditioning potential in DKO and improved it in ob/ob.
Delayed preconditioning is restored by food restriction and ACE-I in case of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
Myocardial protection; Preconditioning; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Diabetes mellitus; Metabolic syndrome
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by systolic and early diastolic ventricular dysfunction. In the metabolic syndrome (MS), ventricular stiffness is additionally increased in a later stage. It is unknown whether this is related to intrinsic cardiomyocyte dysfunction, extrinsic factors influencing cardiomyocyte contractility and/or cardiac function, or a combination of both. A first aim was to study cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca2+ handling in vitro in a mouse model of MS. A second aim was to investigate whether in vivo hypocaloric diet or ACE-inhibition (ACE-I) improved cardiomyocyte contractility in vitro, contractile reserve and Ca2+ handling.
This study was performed in LDL-receptor (LDLR−/−) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob), double knock-out mice (DKO), featuring obesity, type II diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. Single knock-out LDLR−/−, ob/ob and wild type mice were used as controls. Cellular contractility, Ca2+ handling and their response to in vivo treatment with diet or ACE-I were studied in isolated cardiomyocytes at baseline, during β-adrenergic stimulation or increased extracellular Ca2+, using field stimulation and patch-clamp.
In untreated conditions, prolongation of contraction-relaxation cycle and altered Ca2+ handling are observed in MS. Response to increased extracellular Ca2+ and β-adrenergic stimulation is impaired and could not be rescued by weight loss. ACE-I restored impaired response to β-adrenergic stimulation in MS, but not the decreased response to increased extracellular Ca2+.
Cardiomyocyte contractility and β-adrenergic response are impaired in MS, due to alterations in cellular Ca2+ handling. ACE-I, but not weight loss, is able to restore cardiomyocyte response to β-adrenergic stimulation in MS.
Metabolic syndrome; Cardiomyocyte contractility; β-adrenergic stimulation; Hypocaloric diet; ACE-inhibition
Central renin angiotensin system has an important role on the cerebral microcirculation and metabolism. Our previous work showed that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme () activity prior to induction of ischemia protected the brain from severe ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. This study evaluated the impacts of post-ischemic inhibition of , enalapril, on brain infarction in normotensive rats.
Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60-min intraluminal occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Intraperitoneal injection of enalapril (0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg) was done after MCA reopening (reperfusion). Neurological deficit score (NDS) was evaluated after 24 h and the animals randomly assigned for the assessments of infarction, absolute brain water content (ABWC) and index of brain edema
Severe impaired motor functions (NDS = 2.78 ± 0.28), massive infarction (cortex = 214 ± 19 mm3, striatum = 86 ± 5 mm3) and edema (ABWC = 83.1 ± 0.46%) were observed in non-treated ischemic rats. Non-hypotensive dose of enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) significantly reduced NDS (1.5 ± 0.22), infarction (cortex = 102 ± 16 mm3, striatum = 38 ± 5 mm3) and edema (ABWC = 80.9 ± 0.81%). Enalapril at dose of 0.1 mg/kg significantly lowered arterial pressure could not improve NDS (2.0 ± 0.45) and reduce infarction (cortex = 166 ± 26 mm3, striatum = 71 ± 11 mm3).
Post-ischemic ACE inhibition in the normotensive rats without affecting arterial pressure protects the brain from reperfusion injuries; however, this beneficial action is masked by hypotension.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; Enalapril; Brain edema; Cerebral infarction
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a model of acute kidney injury (AKI) that is characterized by vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Previous studies have shown that activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to these processes. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin-(1–7), and recent studies support a beneficial role for ACE2 in models of chronic kidney disease. However, the role of ACE2 in models of AKI has not been fully elucidated. In order to test the hypothesis that ACE2 plays a protective role in AKI we assessed I/R injury in wild-type (WT) mice and ACE2 knock-out (ACE2 KO) mice. ACE2 KO and WT mice exhibited similar histologic injury scores and measures of kidney function at 48 hours after reperfusion. Loss of ACE2 was associated with increased neutrophil, macrophage, and T cell infiltration in the kidney. mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α, as well as chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, were increased in ACE2 KO mice compared to WT mice. Changes in inflammatory cell infiltrates and cytokine expression were also associated with greater apoptosis and oxidative stress in ACE2 KO mice compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate a protective effect of ACE2 in I/R AKI.
Increasing evidence suggests that local Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) plays an important role in cardiac diseases. Elevated p90 ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) activity has been observed in diabetic animal, as well as in human failing hearts. We hypothesize that RSK mediates cardiac dysfunction by up regulating local RAS signaling. In the present study, we show that the prorenin mRNA level was significantly increased (~5.6-fold) in transgenic mouse hearts with cardiac specific expression of RSK (RSK-Tg). The RSK-Tg mice were more vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury than non-transgenic littermate controls (NLC). To further understand the direct contribution of cardiac renin to I/R injury, we used a Langendorff system to evaluate the effect of renin inhibition by aliskiren in RSK-Tg mouse hearts. In the vehicle-perfused group, I/R significantly decreased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) in RSK-Tg hearts compared to NLC (7% versus 60% of the baseline). However, aliskiren perfusion significantly increased LVDP in RSK-Tg (7% to 61%, p<0.01) but not in NLC hearts (60% to 62%, n.s.). The protective effect of aliskiren in RSK-Tg hearts was further demonstrated with positive (contraction) dp/dt (6.5% to 63%, p<0.01) and rate pressure product (RPP) (5% to 51%, p<0.01). Moreover, aliskiren significantly decreased I/R induced infarction in RSK-Tg (60% to 32%, p<0.01), compared to NLC hearts (37% to 32%, n.s.). These results suggest that RSK plays a crucial role in regulating local cardiac renin, which contributes to I/R induced cardiac injury and dysfunction. Thus, renin inhibition may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy under conditions of increased RAS.
Renin-Angiotensin System; RSK; Aliskiren; Ischemia-Reperfusion
Obesity and diabetes are frequently associated with cardiovascular disease. When a normal heart is subjected to brief/sublethal repetitive ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), adaptive responses are activated to preserve cardiac structure and function. These responses include but are not limited to alterations in cardiac metabolism, reduced calcium responsiveness, and induction of antioxidant enzymes. In a model of ischemic cardiomyopathy inducible by brief repetitive I/R, we hypothesized that dysregulation of these adaptive responses in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice would contribute to enhanced myocardial injury. DIO C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 15 min of daily repetitive I/R while under short-acting anesthesia, a protocol that results in the development of fibrotic cardiomyopathy. Cardiac lipids and candidate gene expression were analyzed at 3 days, and histology at 5 days of repetitive I/R. Total free fatty acids (FFAs) in the cardiac extracts of DIO mice were significantly elevated, reflecting primarily the dietary fatty acid composition. Compared with lean controls, cardiac fatty acid oxidation capacity of DIO mice was significantly higher, concurrent with increased expression of fatty acid metabolism gene transcripts. Following 15 min of daily repetitive I/R for 3 or 5 days, DIO mice exhibited increased susceptibility to I/R and, in contrast to lean mice, developed microinfarction, which was associated with an exaggerated inflammatory response. Repetitive I/R in DIO mice was associated with more profound significant downregulation of fatty acid metabolism gene transcripts and elevated FFAs and triglycerides. Maladaptive metabolic changes of fatty acid metabolism contribute to enhanced myocardial injury in diet-induced obesity.
fatty acids; hibernating; myocardium; metabolism; reperfusion
Aims. We evaluated the effects of RU28318 (RU), a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, Captopril (Capt), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and Losartan (Los), an angiotensin receptor blocker, alone or in combination with ischemia/reperfusion- (I/R-) induced cardiac dysfunction in hearts obtained from normal and diabetic rats. Methods. Isolated hearts were perfused for 30 min and then subjected to 30 min of global ischemia (I) followed by a period of 30 min of reperfusion (R). Drugs were administered for 30 min either before or after ischemia. Drug regimens tested were RU, Capt, Los, RU + Capt, RU + Los, Capt + Los, and RU + Capt + Los (Triple). Recovery of cardiac hemodynamics was evaluated. Results. Recovery of cardiac function was up to 5-fold worse in hearts obtained from diabetic animals compared to controls. Treatment with RU was generally better in preventing or reversing ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction in normal hearts compared to treatment with Capt or Los alone. In diabetic hearts, RU was generally similarly effective as Capt or Los treatment. Conclusions. RU treatment locally might be considered as an effective therapy or preventative measure in cardiac I/R injury. Importantly, RU was the most effective at improving −dP/dt (a measure of diastolic function) when administered to diabetic hearts after ischemia.
Since diabetic cardiomyopathy was first reported four decades ago, substantial information on its pathogenesis and clinical features has accumulated. In the heart, diabetes enhances fatty acid metabolism, suppresses glucose oxidation, and modifies intracellular signaling, leading to impairments in multiple steps of excitation–contraction coupling, inefficient energy production, and increased susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Loss of normal microvessels and remodeling of the extracellular matrix are also involved in contractile dysfunction of diabetic hearts. Use of sensitive echocardiographic techniques (tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy enables detection of diabetic cardiomyopathy at an early stage, and a combination of the modalities allows differentiation of this type of cardiomyopathy from other organic heart diseases. Circumstantial evidence to date indicates that diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common but frequently unrecognized pathological process in asymptomatic diabetic patients. However, a strategy for prevention or treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy to improve its prognosis has not yet been established. Here, we review both basic and clinical studies on diabetic cardiomyopathy and summarize problems remaining to be solved for improving management of this type of cardiomyopathy.
Diabetes mellitus; Heart failure; Pathophysiology; Infarct size; Signal transduction; Therapy
Oxygen is routinely administered to patients undergoing acute myocardial infarction as well as during revascularization procedures and cardiac surgery. Because reactive oxygen species are mediators of ischemia/reperfusion injury, increased oxygen availability might theoretically aggravate myocardial injury during reperfusion. We hypothesized that ventilation with a hyperoxic gas at start of reperfusion might increase ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and ventilated with 40% oxygen. The animals were subjected to 40 min of regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In the test group, rats (n = 11) were ventilated with a normobaric hyperoxic gas (95% O2) during the last 10 min of ischemia and the first 10 min of reperfusion. Control rats (n = 14) were ventilated with 40% O2 throughout the experiments. Due to irreversible reperfusion arrhythmias, one animal in the hyperoxia group and six animals in the control group were excluded. Hearts (n = 8 in the control group and n = 10 in the test group) were harvested for measurement of infarct size.
The incidence of lethal arrhythmias was 1/11 in the test group and 6/14 in the control group (p = 0.06). Reperfusion with normobaric hyperoxia did not influence infarct size (20 ± 8% of area at risk) compared with the normoxia group (24 ± 8% and of area at risk), respectively (mean ± SD, p > 0.2).
Normobaric hyperoxia during early reperfusion did not increase ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Heart; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Hyperoxia
Diabetes is associated with higher incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and increased propensity for subsequent events post-MI. Here we conducted a temporal analysis of the influence of diabetes on cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin and IR performed by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for up to 42 days. We first evaluated changes in cardiac function using echocardiography after 24 hours reperfusion and observed IR injury significantly decreased the systolic function, such as ejection fraction, fractional shortening and end systolic left ventricular volume (LVESV) in both control and diabetic mice. The longitudinal systolic and diastolic strain rate were altered after IR, but there were no significant differences between diabetic mice and controls. However, a reduced ability to metabolize glucose was observed in the diabetic animals as determined by PET-CT scanning using 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose. Interestingly, after 24 hours reperfusion diabetic mice showed a reduced infarct size and less apoptosis indicated by TUNEL analysis in heart sections. This may be explained by increased levels of autophagy detected in diabetic mice hearts. Similar increases in IR-induced macrophage infiltration detected by CD68 staining indicated no change in inflammation between control and diabetic mice. Over time, control mice subjected to IR developed mild left ventricular dilation whereas diabetic mice exhibited a decrease in both end diastolic left ventricular volume and LVESV with a decreased intraventricular space and thicker left ventricular wall, indicating concentric hypertrophy. This was associated with marked increases in fibrosis, indicted by Masson trichrome staining, of heart sections in diabetic IR group. In summary, we demonstrate that diabetes principally influences distinct IR-induced chronic changes in cardiac function and remodeling, while a smaller infarct size and elevated levels of autophagy with similar cardiac function are observed in acute phase.
Diabetic patients are at increased risk of cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction and loss of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but the aetiology is poorly understood. We hypothesised a significant role for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in cardiomyopathies associated with hyperglycaemia.
The role of MBL in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury was investigated in wild-type (WT) and MBL-null mice following 2 weeks of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia.
Hyperglycaemic WT mice presented with significantly decreased left ventricular ejection fractions and increased serum troponin I levels and myocardial inflammation compared with non-diabetic WT mice following MI/R. Hyperglycaemic MBL-null mice or insulin-treated diabetic WT mice were significantly protected from MI/R injury compared with diabetic WT mice. In an additional study using diabetic WT mice, echocardiographic measurements demonstrated signs of dilative cardiomyopathy, whereas heart:body weight ratios suggested hypertrophic cardiac remodelling after 2 weeks of hyperglycaemia. Immunohistochemical analysis of CPCs showed significantly lower numbers in diabetic WT hearts compared with non-diabetic hearts. Insulin-treated diabetic WT or untreated diabetic MBL-null mice were protected from dilative cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic remodelling and loss of CPCs.
These data demonstrate that MBL may play a critical role in diabetic MI/R injury. Further, the absence of MBL appears to inhibit hypertrophic remodelling and hyperglycaemia-induced loss of CPCs after just 2 weeks of hyperglycaemia in mice.
Animal; Complement; Mannose-binding lectin; Type 1 diabetes
Hyperglycemia and reduced insulin actions affect many biological processes. One theory is that aberrant metabolism of glucose via several pathways including the polyol pathway causes cellular toxicity. Aldose reductase (AR) is a multifunctional enzyme that reduces aldehydes. Under diabetic conditions AR converts glucose into sorbitol, which is then converted to fructose.
This article reviews the biology and pathobiology of AR actions.
AR expression varies considerably among species. In humans and rats, the higher level of AR expression is associated with toxicity. Flux via AR is increased by ischemia and its inhibition during ischemia reperfusion reduces injury. However, similar pharmacologic effects are not observed in mice unless they express a human AR transgene. This is because mice have much lower levels of AR expression, probably insufficient to generate toxic byproducts. Human AR expression in LDL receptor knockout mice exacerbates vascular disease, but only under diabetic conditions. In contrast, a recent report suggests that genetic ablation of AR increased atherosclerosis and increased hydroxynonenal in arteries. It was hypothesized that AR knockout prevented reduction of toxic aldehydes.
Like many in vivo effects found in genetically manipulated animals, interpretation requires the reproduction of human-like physiology. For AR, this will require tissue specific expression of AR in sites and at levels that approximate those in humans.
diabetes; macrovascular disease; atherosclerosis; fructose
Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the greek isch-, restriction and -haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite of the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. In the current review, we will discuss the most striking basic science findings made during the last decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia and reperfusion associated tissue injury.
Insulin resistance impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and obesity promotes a state of chronic inflammation and damages the vascular endothelium. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors restore NO signaling and may reduce circulating inflammatory markers, and improve metabolic parameters through a number of mechanisms. We hypothesized that daily administration of the PDE-5 inhibitor, tadalafil (TAD) will attenuate inflammation, improve fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, body weight, and reduce infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion injury in obese, diabetic mice.
Twenty leptin receptor null (db/db) mice underwent treatment with TAD (1 mg/Kg) or 10% DMSO for 28 days. Body weight and fasting plasma glucose levels were determined weekly. Upon completion, hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 60 min reperfusion in a Langendorff model. Plasma samples were taken for cytokine analysis and fasting triglyceride levels. Infarct size was measured using computer morphometry of tetrazolium stained sections. Additionally, ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated and subjected to 40 min of simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. Necrosis was determined using trypan blue exclusion and LDH release assay and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay after 1 h or 18 h of reoxygenation, respectively.
Treatment with TAD caused a reduction in infarct size in the diabetic heart (23.2±1.5 vs. 47.8±3.7%, p<0.01, n = 6/group), reduced fasting glucose levels (292±31.8 vs. 511±19.3 mg/dL, p<0.001) and fasting triglycerides (43.3±21 vs. 129.7±29 mg/dL, p<0.05) as compared to DMSO, however body weight was not significantly reduced. Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were reduced after treatment compared to control (257±16.51 vs. 402.3±17.26 and 150.8±12.55 vs. 264±31.85 pg/mL, respectively; P<0.001) Isolated cardiomyocytes from TAD-treated mice showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis.
We have provided the first evidence that TAD therapy ameliorates circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a diabetic animal model while improving fasting glucose levels and reducing infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart.
Ischemia postconditioning (IpostC) is an effective way to alleviate ischemia and reperfusion injury; however, the protective effects seem to be impaired in candidates with diabetes mellitus. To gain deep insight into this phenomenon, we explored the role of DJ-1, a novel oncogene, that may exhibit powerful antioxidant capacity in postconditioning cardioprotection in a rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Compared with normal group, cardiac DJ-1 was downregulated in diabetes. Larger postischemic infarct size as well as exaggeration of oxidative stress was observed, while IpostC reversed the above changes in normal but not in diabetic rats. DJ-1 was increased after ischemia and postconditioning contributed to a further elevation; however, no alteration of DJ-1 was documented in all subgroups of diabetic rats. Alteration of the cardioprotective PI3K/Akt signaling proteins may be responsible for the ineffectiveness of postconditioning in diabetes. There is a positive correlation relationship between p-Akt and DJ-1 but a negative correlation between infarct size and DJ-1, which may partially explain the interaction of DJ-1 and IpostC cardioprotection. Our result indicates a beneficial role of DJ-1 in myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Downregulation of cardiac DJ-1 may be responsible for the compromised diabetic heart responsiveness to IpostC cardioprotection.
The small GTPase RhoA serves as a nodal point for signaling through hormones and mechanical stretch. However, the role of RhoA signaling in cardiac pathophysiology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated mice with cardiomyocyte-specific conditional expression of low levels of activated RhoA (CA-RhoA mice) and demonstrated that they exhibited no overt cardiomyopathy. When challenged by in vivo or ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), however, the CA-RhoA mice exhibited strikingly increased tolerance to injury, which was manifest as reduced myocardial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and infarct size and improved contractile function. PKD was robustly activated in CA-RhoA hearts. The cardioprotection afforded by RhoA was reversed by PKD inhibition. The hypothesis that activated RhoA and PKD serve protective physiological functions during I/R was supported by several lines of evidence. In WT mice, both RhoA and PKD were rapidly activated during I/R, and blocking PKD augmented I/R injury. In addition, cardiac-specific RhoA-knockout mice showed reduced PKD activation after I/R and strikingly decreased tolerance to I/R injury, as shown by increased infarct size and LDH release. Collectively, our findings provide strong support for the concept that RhoA signaling in adult cardiomyocytes promotes survival. They also reveal unexpected roles for PKD as a downstream mediator of RhoA and in cardioprotection against I/R.
Patient's myocardium with post-infarction ventricular septum defect (VSD) is characterized by severe dysfunction. The "additive ischemia" caused by the operating process of cross-clamp ischemia and reperfusion injury, has a significant aggravation to the myocardium and overall negative impact to patient's outcome. We present a useful, safe and advantageous methodology in order to abolish "the toxic phase" of ischemia-reperfusion which is adopted by most as the "classic repair method" of myocardial protection. This abolition is in our opinion, particularly beneficial in order to reverse postoperatively the Low Cardiac Output Syndrome (LOS) and achieve better short and long term results. By using this method we avoid the aortic occlusion, the use of systematic hypothermia and any cardioplegic arrest. Furthermore, the total cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) time is significantly reduced, tissue debridement and stitching is much easier and safer. We think the method is applicable for every anterior and apical case of post-infarction septum rupture. After application of method in 3 patients with anterior post-myocardial infarction VSD, we are convinced that the patient will have a better postoperative haemodynamic condition and therefore a better outcome.
Aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme mediating the first step in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, is associated with complications of diabetes mellitus and increased cardiac ischemic injury. We investigated whether deleterious effects of AR are due to its actions specifically in cardiomyocytes. We created mice with cardiac specific expression of human AR (hAR) using the α–myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter and studied these animals during aging and with reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation. hAR transgenic expression did not alter cardiac function or glucose and FA oxidation gene expression in young mice. However, cardiac overexpression of hAR caused cardiac dysfunction in older mice. We then assessed whether hAR altered heart function during ischemia reperfusion. hAR transgenic mice had greater infarct area and reduced functional recovery than non-transgenic littermates. When the hAR transgene was crossed onto the PPAR alpha knockout background, another example of greater heart glucose oxidation, hAR expressing mice had increased heart fructose content, cardiac fibrosis, ROS, and apoptosis. In conclusion, overexpression of hAR in cardiomyocytes leads to cardiac dysfunction with aging and in the setting of reduced FA and increased glucose metabolism. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of AR will be beneficial during ischemia and in some forms of heart failure.
Ischemia/reperfusion occurs in myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction during sepsis, cardiac transplantation and coronary artery bypass grafting, and results in injury to the myocardium. Although reperfusion injury is related to the nature and duration of ischemia, it is also a separate entity that may jeopardize viable cells and ultimately may impair cardiac performance once ischemia is resolved and the organ heals.
The present study was conducted in an ex vivo murine model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. After 20 min of ischemia, isolated hearts were perfused for up to 2 hours with solution (modified Kreb's) only, solution plus insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, or solution plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Cardiac contractility was monitored continuously during this period of reperfusion.
On the basis of histologic evidence, IGF-1 prevented reperfusion injury as compared with TNF-α; TNF-α increased perivascular interstitial edema and disrupted tissue lattice integrity, whereas IGF-1 maintained myocardial cellular integrity and did not increase edema. Also, there was a significant reduction in detectable creatine phosphokinase in the perfusate from IGF-1 treated hearts. By recording transduced pressures generated during the cardiac cycle, reperfusion with IGF-1 was accompanied by markedly improved cardiac performance as compared with reperfusion with TNF-α or modified Kreb's solution only. The histologic and functional improvement generated by IGF-1 was characterized by maintenance of the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA within heart tissue.
We conclude that IGF-1 protects ischemic myocardium from further reperfusion injury, and that this may involve mitochondria-dependent mechanisms.
apoptosis; mitochondrial DNA; myocardium; reperfusion injury; sepsis
Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as potential mediators of this process. Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract) possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic hyperglycemia-mediated pathophysiologic molecular events (oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP, UPS) and thereby improves contractile function in response to ischemia-reperfusion. We employed several experimental systems: 1) H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to 33 mM glucose for 48 hr vs. controls (5 mM glucose); and subsequently treated with two OA doses (20 and 50 µM) for 6 and 24 hr, respectively; 2) Isolated rat hearts were perfused ex vivo with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 33 mM glucose vs. controls (11 mM glucose) for 60 min, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 60 min reperfusion ± OA treatment; 3) In vivo coronary ligations were performed on streptozotocin treated rats ± OA administration during reperfusion; and 4) Effects of long-term OA treatment (2 weeks) on heart function was assessed in streptozotocin-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that OA treatment blunted high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart cells. OA therapy also resulted in cardioprotection, i.e. for ex vivo and in vivo rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion under hyperglycemic conditions. In parallel, we found decreased oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP flux and proteasomal activity following ischemia-reperfusion. Long-term OA treatment also improved heart function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These findings are promising since it may eventually result in novel therapeutic interventions to treat acute hyperglycemia (in non-diabetic patients) and diabetic patients with associated cardiovascular complications.
Sphingolipids are known to play a significant physiological role in cell growth, cell differentiation, and critical signal transduction pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of sphingolipids and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our laboratory has investigated the cytoprotective effects of N,N,N-Trimethylsphingosine chloride (TMS), a stable N-methylated synthetic sphingolipid analogue on myocardial and hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in clinically relevant in vivo murine models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. TMS administered intravenously at the onset of ischemia reduced myocardial infarct size in the wild-type and obese (ob/ob) mice. Following myocardial I/R, there was an improvement in cardiac function in the wild-type mice. Additionally, TMS also decreased serum liver enzymes following hepatic I/R in wild-type mice. The cytoprotective effects did not extend to the ob/ob mice following hepatic I/R or to the db/db mice following both myocardial and hepatic I/R. Our data suggests that although TMS is cytoprotective following I/R in normal animals, the cytoprotective actions of TMS are largely attenuated in obese and diabetic animals which may be due to altered signaling mechanisms in these animal models. Here we review the therapeutic role of TMS and other sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and their possible mechanisms of cardioprotection.
myocardial infarction; N,N,N-Trimethylsphingosine; Diabetes; Obesity; db/db; ob/ob
OBJECTIVE—Subjects with diabetes experience an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiac failure compared with nondiabetic age-matched individuals. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is upregulated in diabetic tissues. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that RAGE affected ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the diabetic myocardium. In diabetic rat hearts, expression of RAGE and its ligands was enhanced and localized particularly to both endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—To specifically dissect the impact of RAGE, homozygous RAGE-null mice and transgenic (Tg) mice expressing cytoplasmic domain-deleted RAGE (DN RAGE), in which RAGE-dependent signal transduction was deficient in endothelial cells or mononuclear phagocytes, were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin. Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to I/R.
RESULTS—Diabetic RAGE-null mice were significantly protected from the adverse impact of I/R injury in the heart, as indicated by decreased release of LDH and lower glycoxidation products carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and pentosidine, improved functional recovery, and increased ATP. In diabetic Tg mice expressing DN RAGE in endothelial cells or mononuclear phagocytes, markers of ischemic injury and CML were significantly reduced, and levels of ATP were increased in heart tissue compared with littermate diabetic controls. Furthermore, key markers of apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and cytochrome c release, were reduced in the hearts of diabetic RAGE-modified mice compared with wild-type diabetic littermates in I/R.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings demonstrate novel and key roles for RAGE in I/R injury in the diabetic heart.
Acute administration of ethanol can reduce cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Previous studies demonstrated that the acute cytoprotective effect of ethanol on the myocardium is mediated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). We recently identified aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an PKCε substrate, whose activation is necessary and sufficient to confer cardioprotection in vivo. ALDH2 metabolizes cytotoxic reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which accumulate during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Here, we used a combination of PKCε knockout mice and a direct activator of ALDH2, Alda-44, to further investigate the interplay between PKCε and ALDH2 in cardioprotection. We report that ethanol preconditioning requires PKCε, whereas direct activation of ALDH2 reduces infarct size in both wild type and PKCε knockout hearts. Our data suggest that ALDH2 is downstream of PKCε in ethanol preconditioning and that direct activation of ALDH2 can circumvent the requirement of PKCε to induce cytoprotection. We also report that in addition to ALDH2 activation, Alda-44 prevents 4-HNE induced inactivation of ALDH2 by reducing the formation of 4-HNE-ALDH2 protein adducts. Thus, Alda-44 promotes metabolism of cytotoxic reactive aldehydes that accumulate in ischemic myocardium. Taken together, our findings suggest that direct activation of ALDH2 may represent a method of harnessing the cardioprotective effect of ethanol without the side effects associated with alcohol consumption.
Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a myocyte-derived secreted protein that is upregulated in the heart in response to ischemic insult. Here, we investigated the therapeutic impact of FSTL1 on acute cardiac injury in small and large preclinical animal models of ischemia/reperfusion and dissected its molecular mechanism.
Methods and Results
Administration of human FSTL1 protein significantly attenuated myocardial infarct size in a mouse or pig model of ischemia/reperfusion, which was associated with a reduction of apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the ischemic heart. Administration of FSTL1 enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischemia/reperfusion–injured heart. In cultured cardiac myocytes, FSTL1 suppressed apoptosis in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes through its ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase. Ischemia/reperfusion led to enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the heart, and FSTL1 suppressed the increased phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in ischemic myocardium. Treating cardiac myocytes with FSTL1 abolished the bone morphogenetic protein-4 –stimulated increase in apoptosis, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, and proinflammatory gene expression. In cultured macrophages, FSTL1 diminished lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and abolished bone morphogenetic protein-4 – dependent induction of proinflammatory mediators.
Our data indicate that FSTL1 can prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase– and bone morphogenetic protein-4 – dependent mechanisms, suggesting that FSTL1 could represent a novel therapeutic target for post-myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome.
apoptosis; inflammation; ischemia; myocytes; cardiac; reperfusion
Coagulation disorders and reperfusion of ischemic myocardium are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Lectin pathway initiation complexes are composed of multimolecular carbohydrate recognition subcomponents and three lectin pathway specific serine proteases. We have recently shown that the lectin pathway specific carbohydrate recognition subcomponent mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of thrombosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, we hypothesized that the endogenous MBL associated protein, MAP-1, that inhibits complement activation in vitro also could be an in vivo regulator by attenuating myocardial schema/reperfusion injury and thrombogenesis when used at pharmacologic doses in wild type mice.
Methods and Results
MAP-1, in two mouse models, preserves cardiac function, decreases infarct size, decreases C3 deposition, inhibits MBL deposition and prevents thrombogenesis. Further, we also demonstrate that MAP-1 displaces MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3 from the MBL complex.
Our results suggest that the natural, endogenous inhibitor, MAP-1effectively inhibits lectin pathway activation in vivo. MAP-1 at pharmacologic doses represents a novel therapeutic approach for human diseases involving the lectin pathway and its associated MASPs.
myocardial infarction; coagulation; infarction; immunology