Self-management support is considered to be an essential part of diabetes care. However, the implementation of self-management support within healthcare settings has appeared to be challenging and there is increased interest in “real world” best practice examples to guide policy efforts. In order to explore how different approaches to diabetes care and differences in management structure influence the provision of SMS we selected two healthcare systems that have shown to be comparable in terms of budget, benefits and entitlements. We compared the extent of SMS provided and the self-management behaviors of people living with diabetes in Kaiser Permanente (KP) and the Danish Healthcare System (DHS).
Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a random sample of 2,536 individuals with DM from KP and the DHS in 2006–2007 to compare the level of SMS provided in the two systems and identify disparities associated with educational attainment. The response rates were 75 % in the DHS and 56 % in KP. After adjusting for gender, age, educational level, and HbA1c level, multiple linear regression analyses determined the level of SMS provided and identified disparities associated with educational attainment.
Receipt of SMS varied substantially between the two systems. More people with diabetes in KP reported receiving all types of SMS and use of SMS tools compared to the DHS (p < .0001). Less than half of all respondents reported taking diabetes medication as prescribed and following national guidelines for exercise.
Despite better SMS support in KP compared to the DHS, self-management remains an under-supported area of care for people receiving care for diabetes in the two health systems. Our study thereby suggests opportunity for improvements especially within the Danish healthcare system and systems adopting similar SMS support strategies.
Self-management support; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Health system; International comparison
Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system.
Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed.
The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD). However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as “sacred” work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration.
The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.
Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers.
Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey.
The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome.
Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.
Primary healthcare offers significant benefits to Canadians and to the healthcare system as a whole. The Taber Integrated Primary Healthcare Project (TIPHP) was a three-year primary healthcare renewal initiative involving rural physicians and the Chinook Health Region in Taber, Alberta, Canada. The goal of the project was to improve healthcare services delivery through integration of the services provided by the physician group and the health region in one rural community. Four main enablers emerged as fundamental to the integration process: community assessment and shared planning; evidence-based, interdisciplinary care; an integrated electronic information system; and investment in processes and structures that support change.
The outcome of the project has been the implementation of a new model of healthcare delivery that embraces an integrated collaborative team approach in delivering population-based, primary healthcare. Importantly, the TIPHP has influenced regional healthcare policy related to primary healthcare renewal strategies and partnerships.
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance US business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement, and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice's operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies.
Baldrige program; health care criteria; radiation oncology performance excellence
Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary.
The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals.
Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities.
Level of Evidence:
evaluation; rehabilitation; sport concussion
The major goals of telemedicine today are to develop next-generation telehealth tools and technologies to enhance healthcare delivery to medically underserved populations using telecommunication technology, to increase access to medical specialty services while decreasing healthcare costs, and to provide training of healthcare providers, clinical trainees, and students in health-related fields. Key drivers for these tools and technologies are the need and interest to collaborate among telehealth stakeholders, including patients, patient communities, research funders, researchers, healthcare services providers, professional societies, industry, healthcare management/economists, and healthcare policy makers. In the development, marketing, adoption, and implementation of these tools and technologies, communication, training, cultural sensitivity, and end-user customization are critical pieces to the process. Next-generation tools and technologies are vehicles toward personalized medicine, extending the telemedicine model to include cell phones and Internet-based telecommunications tools for remote and home health management with video assessment, remote bedside monitoring, and patient-specific care tools with event logs, patient electronic profile, and physician note-writing capability. Telehealth is ultimately a system of systems in scale and complexity. To cover the full spectrum of dynamic and evolving needs of end-users, we must appreciate system complexity as telehealth moves toward increasing functionality, integration, interoperability, outreach, and quality of service. Toward that end, our group addressed three overarching questions: (1) What are the high-impact topics? (2) What are the barriers to progress? and (3) What roles can the National Institutes of Health and its various institutes and centers play in fostering the future development of telehealth?
business administration/economics; telehealth tools; technology; National Institutes of Health
The aim of the current study was to analyze the perceptions, knowledge, and practices of primary healthcare professionals in providing patient education to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A total of 23 health professionals working in primary healthcare units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, participated in a focus group in order to discuss their patient education practices and the challenges for effective patient education in diabetes self-management.
The results were categorized as follows: 1) lack of preparation and technical knowledge among the health professionals on some aspects of diabetes mellitus and the health professionals' patient education practices; 2) work conditions and organization; 3) issues related or attributed to the clientele themselves; and 4) diabetes care model.
This study highlights the importance of reorienting the patient education practices, health professionals' skills and work goals, and evaluation of the educational interventions, in order to establish strategies for health promotion and prevention and control of the disease.
Health Education; Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus; Primary Healthcare
Moral distress — the physical and emotional response to feeling prevented from carrying out ethically proper action — can have serious consequences for health professionals and healthcare organizations. We investigated perceived moral distress qualitatively with managers in two BC health authorities.
Respondents described conditions under which they experienced distress: when they set priorities within highly resource-constrained environments, when they observed inequities between budget allocations and management responsibilities, and when organizational priorities did not align with their personal values. When coping proved insufficient, managers would respond by leaving positions, organizations or the healthcare field altogether.
Respondents asked for leadership development and the creation of spaces in which moral distress could be openly discussed. However, formal training in priority setting did not appear to be helpful on its own. Rather, it increased managers' awareness of the ethical dimensions of resource allocation without (in this instance) entrenching supports that would help them resolve these concerns.
Interpersonal communications related to healthcare delivery, called clinical
communications, take up a considerable amount of time. Nonetheless, there
exist few tools in electronic health record systems that support
clinical communications. We describe a framework for clinical communications
and describe our experiences implementing tools to manage
and document them within an electronic health record system. Categories
of clinical communications include communications between patients and
healthcare providers, among healthcare providers on a single clinical
team, between healthcare providers in different clinical teams and
different institutions, and between healthcare providers and individuals
who can provide additional educational or evidence based materials
to support care delivery.
Federal legislation (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act) has provided funds to support an unprecedented increase in health information technology (HIT) adoption for healthcare provider organizations and professionals throughout the U.S. While recognizing the promise that widespread HIT adoption and meaningful use can bring to efforts to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare, the American Medical Informatics Association devoted its 2009 Annual Health Policy Meeting to consideration of unanticipated consequences that could result with the increased implementation of HIT. Conference participants focused on possible unintended and unanticipated, as well as undesirable, consequences of HIT implementation. They employed an input–output model to guide discussion on occurrence of these consequences in four domains: technical, human/cognitive, organizational, and fiscal/policy and regulation. The authors outline the conference's recommendations: (1) an enhanced research agenda to guide study into the causes, manifestations, and mitigation of unintended consequences resulting from HIT implementations; (2) creation of a framework to promote sharing of HIT implementation experiences and the development of best practices that minimize unintended consequences; and (3) recognition of the key role of the Federal Government in providing leadership and oversight in analyzing the effects of HIT-related implementations and policies.
Disease management programs (DMP) aim at improving coordination and quality of care and reducing healthcare costs for specific chronic diseases. This paper investigates to what extent total healthcare utilization of type 2 diabetes patients is actually related to diabetes and its implications for diabetes management programs.
Research design and methods
Healthcare utilization for diabetes patients was analyzed using 2008 self-reported data (n=316) and data from electronic medical records (EMR) (n=9023), and divided whether or not care was described in the Dutch type 2 diabetes multidisciplinary healthcare standard.
On average 4.3 different disciplines of healthcare providers were involved in the care for diabetes patients. Ninety-six percent contacted a GP-practice and 63% an ophthalmologist, 24% an internist, 32% a physiotherapist and 23% a dietician. Diabetes patients had on average 9.3 contacts with GP-practice of which 53% were included in the healthcare standard. Only a limited part of total healthcare utilization of diabetes patients was included in the healthcare standard and therefore theoretically included in DMPs.
Organizing the care for diabetics in a DMP might harm the coordination and quality of all healthcare for diabetics. DMPs should be integrated in the overall organization of care.
diabetes; disease management program; healthcare standards
The current healthcare quality improvement infrastructure is a product of a century long experience of cumulative efforts. It began with an acknowledgement of the role of quality in healthcare, and gradually evolved to encompass the prioritization of quality improvement and the development of systems to monitor, quantify, and incentivize quality improvement in healthcare. We review the origins and the evolution of the US healthcare quality movement, identify existing initiatives specific to musculoskeletal care, outline significant challenges and opportunities, and propose recommendations for the future. Elements noted to be associated with successful healthcare quality improvement efforts include the presence of physician leadership, infrastructural support, and prioritization of healthcare quality within the culture of the organization. Issues that will require continued work include the development of a valid and reliable evidence base, accurate and replicable performance measurement and data collection methods, and development of a standard set of specialty specific performance metrics, with accurate provider attribution, risk adjustment and reporting mechanisms.
Quality; Healthcare; Musculoskeletal; Orthopedics; History; Improvement; Performance measurement; Standards; Reporting; Reimbursement; Cost; Value; Public; Private; Government; Evidence-base; Structure; Process; Outcome; Monitoring and evaluation
The provision of healthcare generates waste which can be detrimental to health and environment. Staff who provide healthcare ought to be aware of the proper handling and the system of management of healthcare waste used by different hospitals.
Materials and Methods:
A survey of doctors, nurses and allied medical staff for their awareness of the hospital generation and handling of waste was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was used.
Lack of awareness, ignorance of policy and procedure on the handling of healthcare waste and failure to attend educational activities were major defects found among healthcare staff in the study.
There is a need for a plan to improve the awareness of healthcare workers about hospital generated waste and its proper handling.
Hospital waste; Medical waste; Healthcare waste; Hospital management; Environmental services
To explore the needs and expectations of diabetic patients and healthcare professionals in the canton of Vaud.
Development and implementation of a diabetes cantonal program.
We conducted one focus group (FG) with diabetic patients and one with healthcare professionals (general practitioners, diabetologists, pharmacists, home healthcare managers, podologists) in each of the four health regions of the canton (n=8 FG). FGs were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis performed.
Results and conclusion
Perceived quality of diabetes care varies, depending on participants and regions considered. Participants describe a lack of collaboration and communication between professionals, problems linked to self-management education, and a lack of information on diabetes for the general population.
They propose to improve the quality of care by strengthening existing structures, by developing centralization of care and information, and by reinforcing teamwork and self-management education. They also suggest implementing information and prevention campaigns for the general population.
Diabetics and healthcare professionals express the need to develop a cantonal program at a local level and adapted to patients’ needs. For patients, such a program would represent an opportunity to have access to comprehensive care. For healthcare professionals, it would favor the development of teamwork and of local networks.
Participants point out similar problems and solutions, even if not similarly expressed. These results should help the development and implementation of a program adapted to the patients’ and professionals’ needs.
diabetes; chronic disease management; qualitative methods; Switzerland
Experience with Information Systems (IS) staff, interactions with healthcare senior management, and discussions with faculty and students have led us to the conclusions that few healthcare organizations have conceptualized and articulated an optimal organizational role for IS (particularly for IS leadership). In this paper we will describe the multi-polar, often conflicting "expectations" faced by many of today's healthcare IS departments, and define a set of useful and sustainable institutional model roles for IS. Then, we will formulate the set of challenges which IS professionals in these roles must be prepared to address. We will use this to propose a challenge-oriented, skills-based, methodology-focussed curriculum in Applied Healthcare Informatics, and delivery mechanisms that suit potential candidates.
As in many European countries, undocumented migrants in Denmark have restricted access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse undocumented migrants' experiences of access to healthcare, use of alternative health-seeking strategies; and ER nurses' experiences in encounters with undocumented migrants.
Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and observations. The participants included ten undocumented South Asian migrants and eight ER nurses.
Undocumented migrants reported difficulties accessing healthcare. The barriers to healthcare were: limited medical rights, arbitrariness in healthcare professionals' attitudes, fear of being reported to the police, poor language skills, lack of network with Danish citizens, lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and lack of knowledge about informal networks of healthcare professionals. These barriers induced alternative health-seeking strategies, such as self-medication, contacting doctors in home countries and borrowing health insurance cards from Danish citizens. ER nurses expressed willingness to treat all patients regardless of their migratory status, but also reported challenges in the encounters with undocumented migrants. The challenges for ER nurses were: language barriers, issues of false identification, insecurities about the correct standard procedures and not always being able to provide appropriate care.
Undocumented migrants face formal and informal barriers to the Danish healthcare system, which lead to alternative health-seeking strategies that may have adverse effects on their health. This study shows the need for policies and guidelines, which in accordance with international human rights law, ensure access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and give clarity to healthcare professionals.
Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia.
We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia.
No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success.
No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare.
The number of frail elderly people is increasing. Unfortunately, the number of caregivers is not increasing at the same pace, which affects older people, caregivers and healthcare systems. Because of these developments, self-management is becoming more important in healthcare. To support community-dwelling elderly people in their self-management, a system was developed that monitors their physical functioning. This system provides feedback to elderly people and their caregivers regarding physical indicators of frailty. The feedback is provided to elderly people via the screen of a mobile phone. It is important that elderly people understand the content of the feedback and are able to use the mobile phone properly. If not, it is unlikely that the system can support self-management. Many interactive health technologies that have been developed do not fulfil their promises. An important reason for this is that human and other non-technology issues are not sufficiently taken into consideration during the development process.
To collaborate with elderly people during the development and evaluation of a feedback system for community-dwelling elderly people regarding physical functioning.
An iterative user-centered design that consists of five phases was used to develop and evaluate the feedback system. These five phases were: 1) Selection of users, 2) Analysis of users and their context, 3) Identification of user needs, 4) Development of a prototype, and 5) Evaluation of the prototype. Three representatives of a target group panel for elderly people were selected in phase 1. They shared their needs and preferences during three expert group meetings that took place during the development process. This resulted in the development of a prototype which was first evaluated in a heuristic evaluation. Once adjustments were made, 11 elderly people evaluated the adjusted prototype using a think aloud procedure. They rated the usability and acceptability of the developed interface on a scale from 1 till 7 using an adapted version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ).
A feedback system was developed that provides feedback regarding physical indicators of frailty via a touch screen mobile phone. The interface uses colours, smiley’s, and spoken/written messages to provide feedback that is easy to understand. The heuristic evaluation revealed that there were some problems with consistency and the use of user language. The think aloud evaluation showed that the 11 elderly people were able to navigate through the interface without much difficulty despite some small problems related to the lay-out of the interface. The mean score on an adapted version of the PSSUQ was 5.90 (SD 1.09) which indicates high user satisfaction and good usability.
The involvement of end-users significantly influenced the lay-out of the interface that was developed. This resulted in an interface that was accepted by the target group. Evaluation of the prototype revealed that the usability of the interface was good. The feedback system will only succeed in supporting self-management when elderly people are able to use the interface and understand the feedback. The input of elderly people during the development process contributed to this.
user-centered design; elderly people; self management; physical functioning, usability
Shared decision making (SDM) is a process by which a healthcare choice is made jointly by the healthcare professional and the patient. SDM is the essential element of patient-centered care, a core concept of primary care. However, SDM is seldom translated into primary practice. Continuing professional development (CPD) is the principal means by which healthcare professionals continue to gain, improve, and broaden the knowledge and skills required for patient-centered care. Our international collaboration seeks to improve the knowledge base of CPD that targets translating SDM into the clinical practice of primary care in diverse healthcare systems.
Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), our project is to form an international, interdisciplinary research team composed of health services researchers, physicians, nurses, psychologists, dietitians, CPD decision makers and others who will study how CPD causes SDM to be practiced in primary care. We will perform an environmental scan to create an inventory of CPD programs and related activities for translating SDM into clinical practice. These programs will be critically assessed and compared according to their strengths and limitations. We will use the empirical data that results from the environmental scan and the critical appraisal to identify knowledge gaps and generate a research agenda during a two-day workshop to be held in Quebec City. We will ask CPD stakeholders to validate these knowledge gaps and the research agenda.
This project will analyse existing CPD programs and related activities for translating SDM into the practice of primary care. Because this international collaboration will develop and identify various factors influencing SDM, the project could shed new light on how SDM is implemented in primary care.
Racial/ethnic minority patients are more likely to report experiences with discrimination in the healthcare setting, potentially leading to reduced access to appropriate care; however, few studies evaluate reports of discrimination with objectively measured quality of care indicators.
To evaluate whether patient-reported racial/ethnic discrimination by healthcare providers was associated with evidence of poorer quality care measured by medication intensification.
Research Design and Participants
Baseline data from the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), a random, race-stratified sample from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry from 2005–2006, including both survey and medical record data.
Self-reported healthcare provider discrimination (from survey data) and medication intensification (from electronic prescription records) for poorly controlled diabetes patients (A1c ≥9.0%; systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ≥130 mg/dl).
Of 10,409 eligible patients, 21% had hyperglycemia, 14% had hyperlipidemia, and 32% had hypertension. Of those with hyperglycemia, 59% had their medications intensified, along with 40% with hyperlipidemia, 33% with hypertension, and 47% in poor control of any risk factor. In adjusted log-binomial GEE models, discrimination was not associated with medication intensification [RR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.24) for hyperglycemia, RR = 1.23 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.63) for hyperlipidemia, RR = 1.06 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.61) for hypertension, and RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.33) for the composite cohort].
We found no evidence that patient–reported healthcare discrimination was associated with less medication intensification. While not associated with this technical aspect of care, discrimination could still be associated with other aspects of care (e.g., patient-centeredness, communication).
diabetes; healthcare disparities; managed care; race/ethnicity; quality; discrimination
Ensuring access to timely and appropriate primary healthcare for people living in poverty is an issue facing all countries, even those with universal healthcare systems. The transformation of healthcare practices and organization could be improved by involving key stakeholders from the community and the healthcare system in the development of research interventions. The aim of this project is to stimulate changes in healthcare organizations and practices by encouraging collaboration between care teams and people living in poverty. Our objectives are twofold: 1) to identify actions required to promote the adoption of professional practices oriented toward social competence in primary care teams; and 2) to examine factors that would encourage the inclusion of people living in poverty in the process of developing social competence in healthcare organizations.
This study will use a participatory action research design applied in healthcare organizations. Participatory research is an increasingly recognized approach that is helpful for involving the people for whom the research results are intended. Our research team consists of 19 non-academic researchers, 11 academic researchers and six partners. A steering committee composed of academic researchers and stakeholders will have a decision-making role at each step, including knowledge dissemination and recommendations for new interventions. In this project we will adopt a multiphase approach and will use a variety of methods, including photovoice, group discussions and interviews.
The proposed study will be one of only a few using participatory research in primary care to foster changes aimed at enhancing quality and access to care for people living in poverty. To our knowledge this will be the first study to use photovoice in healthcare organizations to promote new interventions. Our project includes partners who are targeted for practice changes and improvements in delivering primary care to persons living in poverty. By involving knowledge users, including service recipients, our study is more likely to produce a transformation of professional practices and encourage healthcare organizations to take into account the needs of persons living in poverty.
Participatory research; Poverty; Primary care; Photovoice; Knowledge transfer
Outcomes research is a major topic of discussion relative to professional practice and education. Combining outcomes research and evidence based practice can provide a structure for the improvement of the cost/quality ratio in healthcare and hence should be a major factor in health informatics education and practice. As healthcare organizations begin to adopt electronic medical record systems and information management systems to increase efficiency and improve quality of care, attention must be paid to the elements of an information system that will allow for data collection to examine outcomes, effectiveness, and performance monitoring. This poster provides an overview of outcomes research definitions, methods, and criticisms, and explores the implications for the design and management of information systems to facilitate valid and valuable outcomes research.
Process orientation is one of the essential elements of quality management systems, including those in use in healthcare. Business processes in hospitals are very complex and variable. BPMN (Business Process Modelling Notation) is a user-oriented language specifically designed for the modelling of business (organizational) processes. Previous experiences of the use of this notation in the processes modelling within the Pathology in Spain or another country are not known. We present our experience in the elaboration of the conceptual models of Pathology processes, as part of a global programmed surgical patient process, using BPMN.
With the objective of analyzing the use of BPMN notation in real cases, a multidisciplinary work group was created, including software engineers from the Dep. of Technologies and Information Systems from the University of Castilla-La Mancha and health professionals and administrative staff from the Hospital General de Ciudad Real. The work in collaboration was carried out in six phases: informative meetings, intensive training, process selection, definition of the work method, process describing by hospital experts, and process modelling.
The modelling of the processes of Anatomic Pathology is presented using BPMN. The presented subprocesses are those corresponding to the surgical pathology examination of the samples coming from operating theatre, including the planning and realization of frozen studies.
The modelling of Anatomic Pathology subprocesses has allowed the creation of an understandable graphical model, where management and improvements are more easily implemented by health professionals.
In order to provide more effective and personalized healthcare services to patients and healthcare professionals, intelligent active knowledge management and reasoning systems with semantic interoperability are needed. Technological developments have changed ubiquitous healthcare making it more semantically interoperable and individual patient-based; however, there are also limitations to these methodologies. Based upon an extensive review of international literature, this paper describes two technological approaches to semantically interoperable electronic health records for ubiquitous healthcare data management: the ontology-based model and the information, or openEHR archetype model, and the link to standard terminologies such as SNOMED-CT.
Ubiquitous Healthcare; Electronic Health Record; Ontology; OpenEHR Archetype; SNOMED-CT