A major problem for manufacturers of cracked spores Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional functional food/Chinese medicine (TCM), is to ensure that raw materials are consistent as received from the producer. To address this, a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) method assisted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) was developed for the spectroscopic discrimination of cracked spores of Ganoderma lucidum from uncracked spores. 120 samples comprising cracked spores, uncracked spores and concentrate of Ganoderma lucidum were analyzed. Differences in the absorption spectra located at ν1 (1143 - 1037 cm-1), ν2 (1660 - 1560 cm-1), ν3 (1745 - 1716 cm-1) and ν4 (2845 - 2798 cm-1) were identified by applying fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and used as variables for discriminant analysis. The utilization of spectra frequencies offered maximum chemical information provided by the absorption spectra. Uncracked spores gave rise to characteristic spectrum that permitted discrimination from its cracked physical state. Parallel application of variables derived from unsupervised LDA/PCA provided useful (feed-forward) information to achieve 100% classification integrity objective in ANN. 100% model validation was obtained by utilizing 30 independent samples. ν1 was used to construct the matrix-matched calibration curve (n = 10) based on 4 levels of concentration (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% uncracked spores in cracked spores). A coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.97 was obtained. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11% was achieved using 100% uncracked spores (n = 30). These results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing a combination of spectroscopy and prospective statistical tools to perform non destructive food quality assessment in a high throughput environment.
Adulteration; Artificial neural network; Cracked spores; Feed-forward; Ganoderma; Spectroscopy
The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG), in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity.
To examine the composition of lanostanoids in Ganoderma lucidum, we have developed a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method by using the ganoderic acids isolated in our laboratory as reference standards. The identity of 14 peaks in the high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) of G. lucidum has been confirmed. By using the HPLC retention times of these ganoderic acids and their mass fragmentation patterns established in this paper, one can use LC–MS to analyze G. lucidum without requiring the reference standards of these 14 ganoderic acids. Subsequently, only the HPLC–UV method would be needed to analyze routine samples of G. lucidum.
mushroom; Ganoderma lucidum; lanostanoids; triterpenes; ganoderic acids; LC–MS
The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been used for the treatment of various diseases, and is known for the immune-enhancing activity of its polysaccharide. However, little is known about another of its major constituents, triterpene. This study investigated the anticancer mechanism of a triterpene-enriched extract from G. lucidum. The triterpene-enriched extract, GLAI, was prepared from fruiting bodies of G. lucidum by sequential hot water extraction, removal of ethanol-insoluble polysaccharides and gel-filtration chromatography. The mechanisms of GLAI-induced apoptosis on SW620 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were investigated. Tumor cell lines in vitro were treated with different concentrations of GLAI. Cell proliferation was measured by the Alamar blue assay, morphology of cell apoptosis was observed, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and caspase-3 activity was detected by Caspase-3 cellular activity assay. The results showed that GLAI inhibited the growth of different tumor cells and caused significant apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Marked morphological changes of cell apoptosis were observed after the cells had been exposed to GLAI for 24 h. The Caspase-3 assay results showed that the activity of the caspase-3 enzyme increased in both a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas GLAI resulted in the down-regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression at the mRNA level and XIAP protein production at the protein level. Conversely, GLAI up-regulates the expression of the apoptosis enhancer Bax gene and p53 protein. These findings suggest that the triterpenes contained in G. lucidum are potential anticancer agents.
apoptosis; Ganoderma lucidum; triterpene
Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a herbal medicine for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have been reported to exhibit immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. In previous studies, F3, the active component of the polysaccharide extract, was found to activate various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. This gave rise to our investigation on how F3 stimulates immuno-modulating or anti-tumor effects in human leukemia THP-1 cells.
Here, we integrated time-course DNA microarray analysis, quantitative PCR assays, and bioinformatics methods to study the F3-induced effects in THP-1 cells. Significantly disturbed pathways induced by F3 were identified with statistical analysis on microarray data. The apoptosis induction through the DR3 and DR4/5 death receptors was found to be one of the most significant pathways and play a key role in THP-1 cells after F3 treatment. Based on time-course gene expression measurements of the identified pathway, we reconstructed a plausible regulatory network of the involved genes using reverse-engineering computational approach.
Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades.
Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity is an effective defense against metastatic tumor cells or viruses in the blood. However, NK cytotoxicity against tumor cells may be inhibited by a fibrinogen coat adhered to the surface of tumor cells. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides have been reported for their inhibitory ability on the adhesion of type I collagen, hyaluronan, fibronectin and laminin to integrins that were highly expressed on melanoma cells, and were therefore capable of enhancing NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides on fibrinogen's adhesion to melanoma cells and NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Melanoma cells B16 and A375 were cultured and analyzed using flow cytometry. Human NK cells were isolated and analyzed using an NK cytotoxic assay. The results showed that polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum inhibit the adhesion of fibrinogen to melanoma cells, and reverse the blocking effect of the fibrin coat on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells.
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides; NK cytotoxicity; fibrinogen; integrin
Considering the fact that a key factor in tumor development is the evasion of immune detection, the search for natural products, which have reduced toxicity towards normal tissues as well as immunostimulatory capabilities has received growing interest. One attractive source of antitumor products is the Ganoderma lucidum mushroom, which has been used for centuries as an herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer, and has been shown to improve immune function. Interestingly, its methanol soluble triterpenoid extracts, namely Ganoderic Acids (GAs), have been the subject of several recent investigations on their chemotherapeutic effects. While current research has revealed GAs’ role in inducing apoptosis of cancer cells with a much lower toxicity to healthy cells, little information is available on their in vitro and/or in vivo immune activities. In this review, we aim to discuss the current knowledge on GAs, and their potential as apoptosis inducing as well as immune activating molecules that could be a potential alternative approach for designing novel chemoimmunotherapeutics against malignant diseases. We also discuss other new approaches for exploiting the advantages of using a nanoparticle polymer-GA conjugate as a tool for a sustained and targeted delivery of drug in vivo.
Ganoderma lucidum; Ganoderic acids; Cancer; Apoptosis; Cytokines; Immune regulation; Nanoparticles
Differentiation therapy by induction of tumor cells is an important method in the treatment of hematological cancers such as leukemia. Tumor cell differentiation ends cancer cells' immortality, thus stopping cell growth and proliferation. In our previous study, we found that fucose-containing polysaccharide fraction F3 extracted from Ganoderma lucidum can bring about cytokine secretion and cell death in human leukemia THP-1 cells. This prompted us to further investigate on how F3 induces the differentiation in human leukemia cells. We integrated time-course microarray analysis and network modeling to study the F3-induced effects on THP-1 cells. In addition, we determined the differentiation effect using Liu's staining, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, flow cytometer, western blotting and Q-PCR. We also examined the modulation and regulation by F3 during the differentiation process. Dynamic gene expression profiles showed that cell differentiation was induced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, F3-treated THP-1 cells exhibited enhanced macrophage differentiation, as demonstrated by changes in cell adherence, cell cycle arrest, NBT reduction and expression of differentiation markers including CD11b, CD14, CD68, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myeloperoxidase. In addition, caspase cleavage and p53 activation were found to be significantly enhanced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. We unraveled the role of caspases and p53 in F3-induced THP-1 cells differentiation into macrophages. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the differentiation effect of F3 on human leukemia THP-1 cells and offer a prospect for a potential leukemia differentiation therapy.
Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper.
The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively.
Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury.
These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.
Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.
Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004–2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.
Ganoderma sp.; Artificial neural network; Multivariate regression tree; Meteorological parameter
Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete white rot fungus and is of medicinal importance in China, Japan and other countries in the Asiatic region. To date, much research has been performed in identifying the medicinal ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum. Despite its important therapeutic effects in disease, little is known about Ganoderma lucidum at the genomic level. In order to gain a molecular understanding of this fungus, we utilized Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence and analyze the transcriptome of Ganoderma lucidum.
We obtained 6,439,690 and 6,416,670 high-quality reads from the mycelium and fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum, and these were assembled to form 18,892 and 27,408 unigenes, respectively. A similarity search was performed against the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database and a customized database composed of five fungal genomes. 11,098 and 8, 775 unigenes were matched to the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database and our customized database, respectively. All unigenes were subjected to annotation by Gene Ontology, Eukaryotic Orthologous Group terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Differentially expressed genes from the Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and fruiting body stage were analyzed, resulting in the identification of 13 unigenes which are involved in the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the expression levels of these unigenes. Ganoderma lucidum was also studied for wood degrading activity and a total of 22 putative FOLymes (fungal oxidative lignin enzymes) and 120 CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) were predicted from our Ganoderma lucidum transcriptome.
Our study provides comprehensive gene expression information on Ganoderma lucidum at the transcriptional level, which will form the foundation for functional genomics studies in this fungus. The use of Illumina sequencing technology has made de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis possible in species that lack full genome information.
Two species of Ganoderma, G. sinense and G. lucidum, are used as Lingzhi in China. Howerver, the content of triterpenoids and polysaccharides, main actives compounds, are significant different, though the extracts of both G. lucidum and G. sinense have antitumoral proliferation effect. It is suspected that other compounds contribute to their antitumoral activity. Sterols and fatty acids have obvious bioactivity. Therefore, determination and comparison of sterols and fatty acids is helpful to elucidate the active components of Lingzhi.
Ergosterol, a specific component of fungal cell membrane, was rich in G. lucidum and G. sinense. But its content in G. lucidum (median content 705.0 μg·g-1, range 189.1-1453.3 μg·g-1, n = 19) was much higher than that in G. sinense (median content 80.1 μg·g-1, range 16.0-409.8 μg·g-1, n = 13). Hierarchical clustering analysis based on the content of ergosterol showed that 32 tested samples of Ganoderma were grouped into two main clusters, G. lucidum and G. sinense. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on the contents of ten fatty acids showed that two species of Ganoderma had no significant difference though two groups were also obtained. The similarity of two species of Ganoderma in fatty acids may be related to their antitumoral proliferation effect.
The content of ergosterol is much higher in G. lucidum than in G. sinense. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid are main fatty acids in Ganoderma and their content had no significant difference between G. lucidum and G. sinense, which may contribute to their antitumoral proliferation effect.
Mushrooms are an important natural source represents a major and untapped potent pharmaceutical product. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) an important medicinal mushroom has been shown to contain high amount of antioxidant. However, in vivo studies on G. lucidum fruiting bodies are lacking.
To determine the effects of G. lucidum fruiting bodies ethanolic extract (GLEet) on expression of xenobiotic enzymes, oxidant-antioxidant and hormonal status on 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]antheracene (DMBA) induced experimental breast cancer was investigated in female Sprague dawley rats.
Materials and Methods:
Cancer bearing female Sprague dawley rats was orally treated with GLEet (500mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Incidence and tumor volume in each groups, and biochemical parameters were carried out in plasma, liver, and mammary tissues of animals. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were also determined.
Oral administration of GLEet on tumor bearing animals significantly diminished the levels of lipid peroxidation thereby enhancing the nonenzymatic antioxidants and also positively regulated the estrogen receptor hormones level to near normal when compared with DMBA treated rats. Moreover, it also positively modulates the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, the dietary administration of G. lucidum may be efficiently used as a chemopreventive agent against mammary carcinogenesis.
We concluded that G. lucidum is a potent chemopreventive agent, thereby it offers maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
Antioxidant; 7; 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; Ganoderma lucidum; mammary cancer; xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes
Senescence of the neurons is believed to be a focal factor in the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Diminutions in the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to major declines in brain cell performance. Functional foods, believed to mitigate this deficiency, will be reaching a plateau in the near future market of alternative and preventive medicine. In the search for neuroactive compounds that mimic the NGF activity for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, the potential medicinal values of culinary and medicinal mushrooms attract intense interest.
Cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of three medicinal mushrooms basidiocarps, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma neo-japonicum and Grifola frondosa towards rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The potentiation of neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay. Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) in mushrooms-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Alteration of neuronal morphology by inhibitors was visualized by immunofluorescence staining of the neurofilament.
All the aqueous extracts tested caused a marked stimulation of neuritogenesis with no detectable cytotoxic effects towards PC-12 cells. The aqueous extract of G. neo-japonicum triggered maximal stimulation of neurite outgrowth at a lower concentration (50 μg/ml) with 14.22 ± 0.43% of neurite-bearing cells, compared to G. lucidum and G. frondosa that act at a higher concentration (75 μg/ml), with 12.61 ± 0.11% and 12.07 ± 0.46% of neurite-bearing cells, respectively. The activation of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were necessary for the NGF and aqueous extracts to promote neuritogenesis.
Ganoderma lucidum, G. neo-japonicum and G. frondosa may contain NGF-like bioactive compound(s) for maintaining and regenerating the neuronal communications network. The present study reports the first evidence of the neuritogenic effects of aqueous extracts of basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum in-vitro and showed the involvement of MEK/ERK1/2 and P13K/Akt signaling pathways for neuritogenesis in PC-12 cells.
Ganoderma lucidum; Ganoderma neo-japonicum; Grifola frondosa; Neuritogenesis; Neurodegenerative disease; Nerve growth factor; MEK/ERK signaling pathway; PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
More and more medicinal mushrooms have been widely used as a miraculous herb for health promotion, especially by cancer patients. Here we report screening thirteen mushrooms for anti-cancer cell activities in eleven different cell lines. Of the herbal products tested, we found that the extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity in killing most of these cancer cell lines. Amauroderma rude is a fungus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family. The Amauroderma genus contains approximately 30 species widespread throughout the tropical areas. Since the biological function of Amauroderma rude is unknown, we examined its anti-cancer effect on breast carcinoma cell lines. We compared the anti-cancer activity of Amauroderma rude and Ganoderma lucidum, the most well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-cancer activity and found that Amauroderma rude had significantly higher activity in killing cancer cells than Ganoderma lucidum. We then examined the effect of Amauroderma rude on breast cancer cells and found that at low concentrations, Amauroderma rude could inhibit cancer cell survival and induce apoptosis. Treated cancer cells also formed fewer and smaller colonies than the untreated cells. When nude mice bearing tumors were injected with Amauroderma rude extract, the tumors grew at a slower rate than the control. Examination of these tumors revealed extensive cell death, decreased proliferation rate as stained by Ki67, and increased apoptosis as stained by TUNEL. Suppression of c-myc expression appeared to be associated with these effects. Taken together, Amauroderma rude represented a powerful medicinal mushroom with anti-cancer activities.
The present study investigated whether a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (MAK) is able to protect the small intestine against damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. Six-week-old male B6C3F1/Crlj mice were fed a basal diet (MF) alone or with various doses of MAK or Agarics blazei Murrill (AGA) beginning one week before treatment with the anti-cancer drugs. Mice were sacrificed 3.5 days after injection of the anti-cancer drug, the small intestine was removed and tissue specimens were examined for the regeneration of small intestinal crypts. In experiment 1, the number of regenerative crypts after the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intravenously (250 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (250 or 500 mg/kg) was compared after treatment with MAK or AGA. MAK protected against 5FU-induced small intestinal injury whereas AGA did not. In experiment 2, we investigated the protective effect of MAK against small intestinal injury induced by the anti-cancer drugs: UFT (tegafur with uracil; 1,000 mg/kg, orally), cisplatin (CDDP; 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), cyclophosphamide (CPA; 250 mg/kg, orally) and gefitinib (Iressa; 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, orally). UFT and CDDP decreased the number of regenerative crypts, but treatment with MAK attenuated the extent of UFT- or CDDP-induced small intestinal injury. CPA or Iressa plus MAK up-regulated crypt regeneration. The present results indicate that MAK ameliorates the small intestinal injury caused by several anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that MAK is a potential preventive agent against this common adverse effect of chemotherapy.
small intestinal injury; anti-cancer drugs; Ganoderma lucidum; B6C3F1 mice
The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated with a multimodal approach that includes non-targeted systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy. Our previous studies demonstrate these selective anti-cancer effects of Reishi, where IBC cell viability and invasion, as well as the expression of key IBC molecules, including eIF4G is compromised. Thus, herein we define the mechanistic effects of Reishi focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a regulator of cell survival and growth. The present study demonstrates that Reishi treated IBC SUM-149 cells have reduced expression of mTOR downstream effectors at early treatment times, as we observe reduced eIF4G levels coupled with increased levels of eIF4E bound to 4E-BP, with consequential protein synthesis reduction. Severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with IBC cells treated with Reishi for 13 weeks show reduced tumor growth and weight by ∼50%, and Reishi treated tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin, mTOR, eIF4G, and p70S6K, and activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses protein synthesis and tumor growth by affecting survival and proliferative signaling pathways that act on translation, suggesting that Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.
Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA production. Aspirin was able to induce cell apoptosis in G. lucidum, which was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUPT nick end labeling assay positive staining and a condensed nuclear morphology. The maximum induction of lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-3α-01-26-oic acid (ganoderic acid 24, GA24) production and total GA production by aspirin were 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, after 1 day. Significantly lower levels of GA 24 and total GAs were obtained after regular fungal culture for 1.5 months. ROS accumulation and phosphorylation of Hog-1 kinase, a putative homolog of MAPK p38 in mammals, occurred after aspirin treatment indicating that both factors may be involved in GA biosynthetic regulation. However, aspirin also reduced expression of the squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase coding genes, suggesting that these genes are not critical for GA induction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi.
In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ). Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.
By using 1,4-dioxane as the sole source of carbon, a 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganism was isolated from soil. The fungus, termed strain A, was able to utilize 1,4-dioxane and many kinds of cyclic ethers as the sole source of carbon and was identified as Cordyceps sinensis from its 18S rRNA gene sequence. Ethylene glycol was identified as a degradation product of 1,4-dioxane by the use of deuterated 1,4-dioxane-d8 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A degradation pathway involving ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid was proposed, followed by incorporation of the glycolic acid and/or oxalic acid via glyoxylic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Cordyceps sinensis is a medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Asian countries as a health supplement and tonic. Hirsutella sinensis—the anamorphic, mycelial form of C. sinensis—possesses similar properties, and is increasingly used as a health supplement. Recently, C. sinensis extracts were shown to inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process has remained unclear. In addition, whether H. sinensis mycelium (HSM) extracts also inhibit the production of IL-1β has not been investigated. In the present study, the HSM extract suppresses IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, and ATP-induced activation of caspase-1. Notably, we observed that HSM not only reduced expression of the inflammasome component NLRP1 and the P2X7R but also reduced the activation of caspase-4, and ATP-induced ROS production. These findings reveal that the HSM extract has anti-inflammatory properties attributed to its ability to inhibit both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes.
The present study examined the acute effects of a nutritional supplement intended to improve adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance.
Twenty-four healthy men (mean age ± SD = 23 ± 4 yrs, stature = 181 ± 7 cm, and body mass = 82 ± 12 kg) volunteered to complete a familiarization trial plus 2 randomly-ordered experimental trials separated by a 7-day washout period. Participants received either 6 (body mass < 91 kg) or 8 (body mass ≥ 91 kg) tablets of the treatment (TR; 625 mg of adenylpyrophosphoric acid and calcium pyruvate, 350.8 mg of cordyceps sinensis extract and yohimbine hydrochloride) or placebo (PL; 980 mg of microcrystalline cellulose) 1 hour prior to the following tests: countermovement vertical jump (CVJ), forearm flexion repetitions to exhaustion, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg extensors, and a 50-repetition maximal concentric isokinetic leg extension endurance test.
There were no differences between the TR and PL trials for CVJ height (P > 0.05), isometric MVC peak torque (P > 0.05), maximal concentric isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05), percent decline during the leg extension endurance tests (P > 0.05), or repetitions to exhaustion during the forearm flexion endurance tests (P > 0.05).
These findings indicated no improvements in the measured variables as a result of ingesting this nutritional supplement. Future studies should examine whether chronic supplementation or a loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of this supplement.
The present study aims to investigate whether the combination treatment of cordycepin (an extracted pure compound from Cordyceps sinensis) and cisplatin (a platinum-based chemotherapy drug) has better apoptotic effect in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
The apoptotic influences of cordycepin and/or cisplatin treatments to human OC3, OEC-M1, and FaDu HNSCC cells were investigated by morphological observations, viability assay, flow cytometry assay, and Western blotting methods.
Data showed that the cell death phenomenon increased as the dosage of cordycepin or cisplatin increased, and it appeared more in cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment among three cell lines. Cell survival rates significantly decreased as the dosage of cordycepin or cisplatin increased, and the better apoptotic effects were observed in cotreatment. Cell cycle analysis further demonstrated that percentages of subG1 cells in cordycepin or cisplatin treatments significantly increased, suggesting that cells underwent apoptosis, and cordycepin plus cisplatin induced many more subG1 cells. Furthermore, cordycepin or cisplatin induced caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase protein cleavages, and stimulated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 protein phosphorylations. Moreover, cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment significantly activated those proteins with much better effects among three cell lines.
Cordycepin plus cisplatin have better apoptotic effect by activating caspase activation with possible MAPK pathway involvement in HNSCC cells.
cordycepin; cisplatin; apoptosis; caspase; MAPK; HNSCC
The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.