The black mould Alternaria alternata produces a wide diversity of mycotoxins which are of particular health concern. Since no maximum allowable limits are set for Alternaria toxins in food and feed, prevention of Alternaria infestations and mycotoxin spoilage is the only way to avoid health risks. Thus, the understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis is essential. For that purpose, a reliable batch process in a 2 L bioreactor was established which enables the study of several parameters influencing the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata DSM 12633. Modified Czapek-Dox medium was used with glucose as carbon source and ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources. Consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as formation of the three mycotoxins were monitored; the average data of five independent fermentations was plotted and fitted using a logistic equation with four parameters. Maximum mycotoxin concentrations of 3.49 ± 0.12 mg/L AOH, 1.62 ± 0.14 mg/L AME and 38.28 ± 0.1 mg/L TA were obtained.
In this system the effect of different aeration rates (0.53 vvm-0.013 vvm) was tested which exerted a great influence on mycotoxin production. The use of the semi-synthetic Czapek-Dox medium allowed the exchange of carbon and nitrogen sources for acetate and aspartic acid. The use of acetate instead of glucose resulted in the sole production of alternariol whereas the exchange of ammonium and nitrate for aspartate enhanced the production of both AOH and AME while TA production was not affected.
Alternaria alternata; Mycotoxin; Batch process; Aeration rate
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability to produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata and A. infectoria strains recovered from wheat kernels obtained from one of the main production area in Argentina; to confirm using AFLPs molecular markers the identify of the isolates up to species level, and to evaluate the intra and inter-specific genetic diversity of these two Alternaria species. Among all the Alternaria strains tested (254), 84% of them were able to produce mycotoxins. The most frequent profile of toxin production found was the co-production of AOH and AME in both species tested. TA was only produced by strains of A. alternata. Amplified fragment polymorphism (AFLPs) analysis was applied to a set of 89 isolates of Alternaria spp (40 were A. infectoria and 49 were A. alternata) in order to confirm the morphological identification. The results showed that AFLPs are powerful diagnostic tool for differentiating between A. alternata and A. infectoria. Indeed, in the current study the outgroup strains, A. tenuissima was consistently classified. Characteristic polymorphic bands separated these two species regardless of the primer combination used. Related to intraspecific variability, A. alternata and A. infectoria isolates evaluated seemed to form and homogeneous group with a high degree of similarity among the isolates within each species. However, there was more scoreable polymorphism within A. alternata than within A. infectoria isolates. There was a concordance between morphological identification and separation up to species level using molecular markers. Clear polymorphism both within and between species showed that AFLP can be used to asses genetic variation in A. alternata and A. infectoria. The most important finding of the present study was the report on AOH and AME production by A. infectoria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Argentina on a semisynthetic media for the first time. Also, specific bands for A. alternata and A. infectoria have been identified; these may be useful for the design of specific PCR primers in order to differentiate these species and to detect them in cereals.
Alternaria alternata; Alternaria infectoria; alternariol; alternariol monomethyl ether; tenuazonic acid; AFLPs; wheat; genetic variation
Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME) are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS). In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production.
The fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin (50 to 100 micrograms/ml) inhibited production of the polyketide mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by the mold Alternaria alternata. The results suggested that AOH synthesis was inhibited by a direct mechanism by cerulenin, whereas production of AME was probably limited by a shortage of the precursor AOH.
Both water activity (aW) and temperature affected the production of altenuene (AE), alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by Alternaria alternata on wheat extract agar and wheat grain. Greatest production of all three mycotoxins occurred at 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C on both substrates. At 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C, a single colony of A. alternata grown on wheat extract agar produced 807 micrograms of AOH, 603 micrograms of AME, and 169 micrograms of AE ml in 30 days. However, production of all three mycotoxins at 0.95 aW was less than 40% of these amounts. Little toxin was produced at 0.90 aW. Changing temperature and aW altered the relative amounts of the different toxins produced on agar. At 15 degrees C and 0.98 aW, maxima of 52 micrograms of AOH and 25 micrograms of AME per ml were produced after 15 and 30 days, respectively, whereas AE continued to increase and reached 57 micrograms/ml after 40 days. At 15 degrees C and 0.95 aW, production was, respectively, 62, 10, and 5 micrograms/ml after 40 days. All three metabolites were produced at 5 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW and at 30 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.90 aW. On wheat grain at 25 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW, more AME was produced than AOH or AE, but at 15 degrees C there was less AME than AOH or AE. Only trace amounts of AE, AOH, and AME were found at 15 to 25 degrees C and 0.90 aW, but production of AME was inhibited at 30 degrees C and 0.95 aW or less.
Light inhibits production of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, both polyketids produced by Alternaria alternata. This effect seems to be general because seven isolates of A. alternata with different alternariol- and alternariol monomethyl ether-producing abilities all respond to continuous light with reduced levels of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether when the mycotoxins were calculated on a microgram-per-milligram (dry weight) basis. Blue light inhibited alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether production 69 and 77%, respectively. Red light gave no reduction of toxin levels. Total lipids were increased 25% when mycelium was grown in blue light as compared with red light or darkness. In white or blue light, but not in red light or darkness, a red-brown pigment accumulated by the mycelium.
Among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. The toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or T-2 toxin. Ethyl acetate extracts of five Alternaria isolates and one Fusarium isolate were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains. In ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin-producing isolates and incubated at 25 degrees C, one Alternaria alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid in seven of seven tomatoes at levels of up to 106 micrograms/g and alternariol methyl ether in one of the seven tomatoes at 0.8 microgram/g. Another A. alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid or alternariol methyl ether at much lower levels in only three of seven tomatoes. Patulin and citrinin were produced by a Penicillium expansum isolate at levels of up to 8.4 and 0.76 microgram/g, respectively. In tomatoes incubated at 15 degrees C, a Fusarium sulphureum isolate produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and neosolaniol at levels of up to 37.5, 37.8 and 5.6 micrograms/g, respectively. If these mycotoxins are thermostable, they may occur at detectable levels in tomato products whenever partially moldy tomatoes are used as raw material.
Alternaria alternata produces the polyketides alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) during the stationary growth phase. Addition of 12 mM NaNO3 to the cultures before initiation of polyketide production reduced the AOH and AME content to 5 to 10% of that of controls. Glutamate and urea also reduced AOH and AME accumulation, whereas increasing the ionic strength did not affect the polyketide content. Adding NaNO3 after polyketide production had started did not inhibit further AOH accumulation, although over 90% of the added NO3- disappeared from the medium within 24 h. Activity of an AME-synthesizing enzyme, alternariol-O-methyltransferase (AOH-MT), appeared in control mycelia during the early stationary growth phase. No AOH-MT activity appeared in mycelia blocked in polyketide synthesis by addition of NaNO3. Later addition of NaNO3 reduced the AOH-MT specific activity to 50% of that of the control, whereas the total of activity per mycelium was the same. The AOH-MT activity in vitro was not affected by 100 mM NaNO3. The results suggest that nitrogen in some way inhibited the formation of active enzymes in the polyketide-synthesizing pathway in A. alternata when it was added before these enzymes were formed.
Cultures of Alternaria alternata (three isolates) and Alternaria tenuissima (three isolates) obtained from cottonseeds and bolls were toxigenic when cultured on various laboratory media. A mycotoxin was isolated and identified as tenuazonic acid by using solvent partition, thin-layer chromatography, and instrument analyses. Toxicity was monitored with brine shrimp and chicken embryo bioassays. All cultures except A. alternata 938 produced tenuazonic acid when grown on cottonseed and on yeast extract-sucrose broth. The most toxin (266 mg/kg) was produced by A. tenuissima 843 on cottonseed.
The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either lethal or sublethal doses.
Although the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on pollen production has been established in some plant species, impacts on fungal sporulation and antigen production have not been elucidated.
Our purpose was to examine the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the quantity and quality of fungal spores produced on timothy (Phleum pratense) leaves.
Timothy plants were grown at four CO2 concentrations (300, 400, 500, and 600 μmol/mol). Leaves were used as growth substrate for Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium phlei. The spore abundance produced by both fungi, as well as the size (microscopy) and antigenic protein content (ELISA) of A. alternata, were quantified.
Leaf carbon-to-nitrogen ratio was greater at 500 and 600 μmol/mol, and leaf biomass was greater at 600 μmol/mol than at the lower CO2 concentrations. Leaf carbon-to-nitrogen ratio was positively correlated with A. alternata spore production per gram of leaf but negatively correlated with antigenic protein content per spore. At 500 and 600 μmol/mol CO2 concentrations, A. alternata produced nearly three times the number of spores and more than twice the total antigenic protein per plant than at lower concentrations. C. phlei spore production was positively correlated with leaf carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, but overall spore production was much lower than in A. alternata, and total per-plant production did not vary among CO2 concentrations.
Elevated CO2 concentrations often increase plant leaf biomass and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Here we demonstrate for the first time that these leaf changes are associated with increased spore production by A. alternata, a ubiquitous allergenic fungus. This response may contribute to the increasing prevalence of allergies and asthma.
allergic rhinitis; Alternaria alternata; asthma; Cladosporium phlei; elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); fungal antigenic protein; fungal sporulation; global climate change; plant carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N); timothy grass (Phleum pratense)
During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the 13C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, or [1,2-13C]acetate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones.
Alternaria alternata has been reported to be the most common fungus on Canadian Western wheat. The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are mutagenic in vitro and there is also limited evidence for carcinogenic properties. They have been found in wheat from Europe, Argentina, China and Australia, but they have not been looked for in Canadian grains or grain foods. In the present study, 83 samples of grain-based food sold in Canada, including flour, bran, breakfast cereals, infant cereals and bread, were analysed for AOH and AME using extraction with methanol, clean-up on combined aminopropyl/C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and liquid chromatography (LC) with tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) determination. The overall average recoveries of AOH and AME from a variety of spiked cereal foods (n = 13) were 45 ± 9 % and 53 ± 9 %, which could be attributed mainly to MS matrix effects The instrumental limits of detection (LOD) were 0.34 ng/g and 0.13 ng/g for AOH and AME, respectively, and the instrumental limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 1.1 and 0.43 ng/g. Of 83 samples analysed, 70 were positive for AOH (up to 63 ng/g, in a soft wheat bran) and 64 contained AME (up to 12 ng/g in a bran-based breakfast cereal). Of particular interest was the presence of AOH and/or AME in 27 out of 30 infant foods (up to 4.4 ng/g and 9.0 ng/g, respectively, in a sample of multigrain cereal).
Alternariol; Alternariol monomethyl ether; Liquid chromatography; Tandem mass spectrometry; Grain foods
Tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, induces chlorosis in certain seedling plants. It can be extracted from culture filtrates of the fungus. Tentoxin production is stimulated and increased by using a mixture of aged culture filtrates and modified Richards solution. Aged culture filtrates can be obtained from 3-week-old or older cultures of A. alternata in modified Richards solution or Pratts solution. A mixture of aged culture filtrate and fresh medium in the ratio 2:3 gives the maximal enhancement of tentoxin production. This growth system provided us with a model for studying the effects of protein synthesis inhibitors on tentoxin production. Two antibiotics which inhibit protein synthesis at the ribosomal level were tested on growth, protein synthesis, and tentoxin production in A. alternata cultures. Cycloheximide at concentrations of 500 μg/ml or emetine at concentrations of 250 μg/ml did not inhibit tentoxin synthesis, although they stopped mycelial growth and protein synthesis of the fungus at the logarithmic growth stage in the enhancement medium. These results led us to conclude that tentoxin, like certain other bioactive cyclic peptides, is synthesized by a nonribosomal peptide synthesis mechanism.
We tested a novel colorimetric toxicity test, based on inhibition of β-galactosidase activity in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, for sensitivity to a range of mycotoxins. A variety of trichothecene mycotoxins could be detected. The order of toxicity established with this bioassay was verrucarin A > roridin A > T-2 toxin > diacetoxyscirpenol > HT-2 toxin > acetyl T-2 toxin > neosolaniol > fusarenon X > T-2 triol > scirpentriol > nivalenol > deoxynivalenol > T-2 tetraol. The sensitivity of detection was high, with the most potent trichothecene tested, verrucarin A, having a 50% effective concentration (concentration of toxin causing 50% inhibition) of 2 ng/ml. Other mycotoxins (cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, tenuazonic acid, and zearalenone) could not be detected at up to 10 μg/ml, nor could aflatoxins B1 and M1 be detected at concentrations up to 25 μg/ml. This test should be useful for trichothecene detection and for studies of relevant interactions—both between trichothecenes themselves and between trichothecenes and other food constituents.
The mycotoxin fumonisin B1, originally described as being produced by Fusarium moniliforme, was detected in liquid cultures of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici, a host-specific pathogen of tomato plants. The metabolite was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Its identity was confirmed by fast atom bombardment and ion spray mass spectrometry, as well as parent-daughter tandem mass spectrometry. In three separate experiments, the concentrations found ranged between 5 and 140 ppm (μg/ml).
Fifty-seven of 87 isolates of Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler grown on autoclaved, moist corn-rice substrate and fed to rats were lethal. The major toxin produced was isolated and characterized as tenuazonic acid. Twenty of 23 toxigenic Alternaria isolates examined produced tenuazonic acid. No tenuazonic acid could be detected in either of the field samples of sorghum or blackeyed peas, which were heavily invaded by Alternaria.
Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether are commonly associated with weathered grain sorghum. Production of these metabolites and altenuene by isolates of Alternaria alternata was evaluated on various sterile grain substrates. At 35% moisture content and 25 C, metabolite yields were highest on rice, intermediate on sorghums, and lowest on wheat and yellow corn. Fourteen-to 21-day cultures on milled rice were best in terms of ease of metabolite recovery, even though yields were higher on 28-day cultures of rough and brown rice. Metabolite production was reduced when rice was supplemented with yeast extract or yeast extract plus Czapek-Dox broth.
Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, grown in drop culture, produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in late growth phase. Production was almost completely inhibited when the fungal cultures were exposed to white light (180 W/m2), although mycelial dry weight was not significantly affected. The fungus was most sensitive to light during the exponential growth phase. Twelve hours of light exposure was sufficient to decrease significantly the production of the secondary metabolites. In light the fungus produced a red-brown pigment of unknown nature.
The principal objective of this study was to determine the optimal liquid culture conditions in shake flasks for maximal sporulation of Beauveria bassiana. The optimal initial pH for the spore production of B. bassiana using Potato Dextrose Broth was 5.2. The screening in shake flasks of carbon and nitrogen sources resulted in the identification of an optimal medium based on 3% sucrose and 1% casamino acid, with a C : N ratio of 22 : 4. Using this medium, a production level of 5.65 × 107 spores per ml was obtained after 5 days of culture. Using 3% corn meal, 2% corn steep powder, and 2% rice bran, the maximum spore concentration of 8.54 × 108/ml was achieved 8 days after inoculation at 25℃ in a rotary shaking incubator operated at 200 rpm. This represents a yield gain of approximately 2.89 times that of pre-optimization.
Beauveria bassiana; Blastospore production; Liquid medium; Optimal culture conditions
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and in immunity to certain organisms. Associations between exposure to an environmental fungus, such as Alternaria, and asthma have been recognized clinically. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein-coupled receptors that are cleaved and activated by serine proteases, but their roles in innate immunity remain unknown. We previously found that human eosinophils respond vigorously to Alternaria organisms and to the secretory product(s) of Alternaria with eosinophils releasing their pro-inflammatory mediators. Herein, we investigated the roles of protease(s) produced by Alternaria and of PARs expressed on eosinophils in their immune responses against fungal organisms. We found that Alternaria alternata produces aspartate protease(s) and that human peripheral blood eosinophils degranulate in response to the cell-free extract of A. alternata. Eosinophils showed an increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to Alternaria that was desensitized by peptide and protease ligands for PAR-2 and inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonistic peptide. Alternaria-derived aspartate protease(s) cleaved PAR-2 to expose “neo-ligands”; these neo-ligands activated eosinophil degranulation in the absence of proteases. Finally, treatment of Alternaria extract with aspartate protease inhibitors, which are conventionally used for HIV-1 and other microbes, attenuated the eosinophils’ responses to Alternaria. Thus, fungal aspartate protease and eosinophil PAR-2 appear critical for the eosinophils’ innate immune response to certain fungi, suggesting a novel mechanism for pathologic inflammation in asthma and for host-pathogen interaction.
In the course of exploring new microbial sources of extracellular β-d-galactosidase (EC. 220.127.116.11), Alternaria alternata was found to excrete elevated quantities of a thermostable form of the enzyme when cultivated in whey growth medium. Optimum cultural conditions for maximum enzyme production were a whey lactose concentration of 6%, supplementation of the medium with 0.050 M (NH4)2SO4, an inoculum size of 103 conidia per ml, and a cultivation time at 28 to 30°C of 5 days. The fungus utilized whey lactose for the production of the enzyme most efficiently, and the observed maximum yield, 280 nanokatals of hydrolyzed o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside per g of whey lactose, was comparable to maximum yields reported for certain commercial fungi. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzymatic reaction were 4.5 to 5.5 and 60 to 70°C, respectively, and the enzyme lost half of its activity when heated at 65°C for 84 min. These properties make the enzyme particularly suitable for processing acid and less-acid (pH 5 to 6) dairy products and by-products.
An experiment with a full factorial design was used to study the effects of and interactions among temperature, water activity (a(infw)), incubation period, and substrate on coproduction of aflatoxins (AF) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) by an isolate of Aspergillus flavus. Analysis of variance showed that there was a complex interaction among all of these factors and that this influenced the relative concentrations of the mycotoxins produced. The optimum temperatures for the production of AF and CPA were 30(deg)C and 25(deg)C, respectively. Both mycotoxins were maximally produced (0.306 to 0.330 (mu)g of AF(middot)ml of medium(sup-1), 4.040 to 6.256 (mu)g of CPA(middot)ml of medium(sup-1)) at an a(infw) of 0.996 and after 15 days of incubation. No AF were produced in either yeast extract agar or Czapek yeast autolysate agar medium at an a(infw) of 0.90 at 20 or 37(deg)C after 15 days (minimum conditions), while 0.077 to 0.439 (mu)g of CPA(middot)ml of medium(sup-1) was produced under the same conditions. Yeast extract agar favored maximum AF production, and Czapek yeast autolysate agar favored maximum CPA production.
To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in dried beans, the mold flora of 114 samples was determined both before and after surface disinfection of the beans with 5% NaOCl. Surface disinfection substantially reduced mold incidence, indicating that contamination was mainly on the surface. The flora, both before and after disinfection, was dominated by species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, the toxicogenic species A. ochraceus, Penicillium cyclopium, and P. viridicatum, and species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. The toxicogenic species Aspergillus flavis, A. versicolor, Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. islandicum, and P. urticae were encountered less frequently. Of 209 species of Aspergillus and Penicillium screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate, 114 produced one or more of the following mycotoxins: A. flavus, aflatoxins; A. ochraceus, ochratoxins; A. nidulans, A. unguis, and A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin; P. cyclopium, penicillic acid; P. citrinum and P. viridicatum, citrinin; P. urticae, patulin and griseofulvin. Sterigmatocystin production by A. unguis is reported for the first time.
Twenty known penicillic acid (PA)-producing Aspergillus and Penicillium cultures were grown under various conditions in shaken flasks to determine the highest yielding strains and their requirements for maximum toxin production. Abilities of the cultures to utilize eight different carbon sources in Raulin-Thom medium for mycotoxin synthesis were determined at four different incubation temperatures: 15, 20, 25, and 28 degrees C. Of the 20 cultures, P. cyclopium NRRL 1888 was superior, yielding up to 4 mg of PG per ml, with mannitol as the carbon source and 25 degrees C as the incubation temperature. Fifteen of the cultures elaborated lesser amounts of PA, whereas four strains yielded none under the test conditions. Whey from the manufacture of cottage cheese by the cultured process was also a satisfactory medium for PA production. In whey medium, yields up to 3 mg/ml were obtained with P. cyclopium NRRL 1888.