Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.
Blood-banks; Blood-storage centres; Blood transfusion; Emergency obstetric care; India
The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services.
To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat.
Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis.
Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health.
The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.
maternal health; policy; implementation; India; Gujarat; health system capacity
Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness.
Health services; Management capacity; Maternal health; Maternal mortality; Morbidity; India
Hemorrhage is the major cause of cardiac arrest developing in the operating room. Many human factors including surgical procedures, transfusion practices, blood supply, and anesthetic management are involved in the process that leads to hemorrhage developing into a critical situation. It is desirable for hospital transfusion committees to prepare hospital regulations on 'actions to be taken to manage critical hemorrhage', and practice the implementation of these regulations by simulated drills. If intraoperative hemorrhage seems to be critical, a state of emergency should immediately be declared to the operating room staff, the blood transfusion service staff, and blood bank staff in order to organize a systematic approach to the ongoing problem and keep all responsible staff working outside the operating room informed of events developing in the operating room. To rapidly deal with critical hemorrhage, not only cooperation between anesthesiologists and surgeons but also linkage of operating rooms with blood transfusion services and a blood bank are important. When time is short, cross-matching tests are omitted, and ABO-identical red blood cells are used. When supplies of ABO-identical red blood cells are not available, ABO-compatible, non-identical red blood cells are used. Because a systematic, not individual, approach is required to prevent and manage critical hemorrhage, whether a hospital can establish a procedure to deal with it or not depends on the overall capability of critical and crisis management of the hospital.
Crisis management; Hemorrhage; Risk management; Transfusion
Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat.
cost-effectiveness; public smoking bans; smoke free public places; secondhand smoke; tobacco smoking
Failure of correct identification and insufficient monitoring of patients receiving transfusions continue to be appreciable and avoidable causes of morbidity and mortality.
A study by a regional transfusion service and a transfusion nurse specialist of the effects of an education programme based on the current national guidelines on identification and monitoring of patients receiving transfusions.
A large United Kingdom teaching hospital which houses the headquarters of the regional transfusion service.
Key measures for improvement
Improvement in compliance with published national guidelines on the prescription and administration of blood transfusions.
Strategy for change
An audit of current compliance followed by dissemination by a transfusion nurse specialist of a clinical skills package (based on the best practice for transfusion) to all staff involved in giving transfusions. This was supported by trained instructors and the display of standard operating procedures for transfusion in all clinical areas.
Effect of change
An improvement in compliance with the national guidelines to over 95% in six out of seven of the recommendations on best practice was seen 18 months after the initial intervention.
The study shows that education of those who prescribe and administer transfusions, as recommended by bodies concerned with the hazards of transfusion, can improve the safety of transfusions.
This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais.
A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais.
Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes.
The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required.
Blood transfusion; Blood safety; Professional staff committees; Blood banks
Blood transfusion is a life-saving component of health care systems. Nevertheless, it can also be a quick and easy method of exposing patients to risks, particularly the transmission of infectious agents to recipients. Despite substantial improvements in the safety of transfusion services worldwide, the presence of paid and replacement blood donors are still of cause concern for ensuring sustainable safe blood donations. Although the Eastern Mediterranean region consists of a heterogeneous group of countries that vary in their levels of development, they all share common concerns regarding blood safety. In the region, concerns regarding the spread of Hepatitis B and C through blood transfusion continue to exist. Therefore, there is an urgent need for further improvements in both organization and safety measures of blood transfusion activities in the region. Although establishing a centralized blood transfusion system might not be achievable in the short term in some of the countries in the region, the implementation of centralized test kit procurement, data collection, and donation testing could be considered feasible approaches.
Blood transfusion; Blood donors; Mediterranean region
This review examines the current state of transfusion services in sub‐Saharan Africa and presents the argument for and against the Western model of a centralised blood service with 100% voluntary non‐remunerated blood donors as advocated by the World Health Organization. The current practice of family replacement donors in hospital‐based blood service is the most economical option, but in the face of high child and maternal mortality rates the blood supply has proved to be insufficient. With estimates of 5–10% of HIV transmission in Africa being the result of contaminated blood transfusions, there is a need to improve testing for transfusion transmissible diseases and the selection of blood donors. Of major concern, with respect to testing, is the quality of kits being used and the continuity of supply. The need to produce components is discussed in the context of the transfusion needs in sub‐Saharan Africa. The running costs of establishing and maintaining centralised blood services need careful consideration as such projects need to be sustainable in the future. It is concluded that both options are viable while centralised programmes are being developed, and a pragmatic approach should be taken to ensure that the patients' needs are met and that resources are suitably utilised to ensure sustainability.
blood transfusion; sub‐Saharan Africa; models; economic
Blood transfusion is an essential part of healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. However, like most therapies, it is also associated with significant clinical risks. In addition, there is some evidence of overuse. Understanding the potential barriers and enablers to reduced prescribing of blood products will facilitate the selection of intervention components likely to be effective, thereby reducing the number of costly trials evaluating different implementation strategies. Using a theoretical basis to understand behaviours targeted for change will contribute to a 'basic science' relating to determinants of professional behaviour and how these inform the selection of techniques for changing behaviour. However, it is not clear which theories of behaviour are relevant to clinicians' transfusing behaviour. The aim of this study is to use a theoretical domains framework to identify relevant theories, and to use these theories to identify factors that predict the decision to transfuse.
The study involves two steps: interview study and questionnaire study. Using a previously identified framework, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with clinicians to elicit their views about which factors are associated with waiting and further monitoring the patient rather than transfusing red blood cells. Interviews will cover the following theoretical domains: knowledge; skills; social/professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; motivation and goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social influences; emotion; behavioural regulation; nature of the behaviour. The interviews will take place independently in Canada and the UK and involve two groups of physicians in each country (UK: adult and neonatal intensive care physicians; Canada: intensive care physicians and orthopaedic surgeons). We will: analyse interview transcript content to select relevant theoretical domains; use consensus processes to map these domains on to theories of behaviour; develop questionnaires based on these theories; and mail them to each group of physicians in the two countries. From our previous work, it is likely that the theories will include: theory of planned behaviour, social cognitive theory and the evidence-based strategy, implementation intention. The questionnaire data will measure predictor variables (theoretical constructs) and outcome variables (intention and clinical decision), and will be analysed using multiple regression analysis. We aim to achieve 150 respondents in each of the four groups for each postal survey.
Maternal mortality is an important public-health issue in India, specifically in Gujarat. Contributing factors are the Government's inability to operationalize the First Referral Units and to provide an adequate level of skilled birth attendants, especially to the poor. In response, the Gujarat state has developed a unique public-private partnership called the Chiranjeevi Scheme. This scheme focuses on institutional delivery, specifically emergency obstetric care for the poor. The objective of the study was to explore the targeting of the scheme, its coverage, and socioeconomic profile of the beneficiaries and to assess financial protection offered by the scheme, if any, in Dahod, one of the initial pilot districts of Gujarat. A household-level survey of beneficiaries (n=262) and non-users (n=394) indicated that the scheme is well-targeted to the poor but many poor people do not use the services. The beneficiaries saved more than Rs 3,000 (US$ 75) in delivery-related expenses and were generally satisfied with the scheme. The study provided insights on how to improve the scheme further. Such a financing scheme could be replicated in other states and countries to address the cost barrier, especially in areas where high numbers of private specialists are available.
Chiranjeevi scheme; Delivery; Emergency obstetric care; Maternal mortality; Obstetric care; Private-public relationship; India
Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) continue to be a problem in many parts of world and multi-transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major are at a particularly increased risk of TTI. This study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of blood TTI in multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major. Cross-sectional study of 200 multi-transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major, who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and history was taken regarding sero-status of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HBV (Hepatitis B Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infection from their case papers. This study was conducted at the department of Pathology, M.P. Shah medical college, Jamnagar and Thalassemia ward, G.G. Hospital, Jamnagar (Gujarat, India) from March to May 2010. Out of 200 multiple blood transfused patients 7% patients were infected with TTI. Total 9 male patients and 5 female patients were infected with TTI. The seroreactivity for HIV was 3% (06/200); 1% (02/200) were males and 2% (04/200) were females. The seroreactivity for HBV was 2% (04/200) all were males. The seroreactivity for HCV was 2% (04/200); 1.5% (03/200) were males and 0.5% (01/200) was female. HIV, HBV, HCV infections are most prevalent TTI among multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassemia major, and remains a major health problem for these patients.
Transfusion transmitted infection; Multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassemia major; Human immunodeficiency virus; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus
The management of massively transfused trauma patients has improved with a better understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy, the limitations of crystalloid infusion, and the implementation of massive transfusion protocols (MTPs), which encompass transfusion management and other patient care needs to mitigate the “lethal triad” of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy. MTPs are currently changing in the United States and worldwide because of recent data showing that earlier and more aggressive transfusion intervention and resuscitation with blood components that approximate whole blood significantly decrease mortality. In this context, MTPs are a key element of “damage control resuscitation,” which is defined as the systematic approach to major trauma that addresses the lethal triad mentioned above. MTPs using adequate volumes of plasma, and thus coagulation factors, improve patient outcome. The ideal amounts of plasma, platelet, cryoprecipitate and other coagulation factors given in MTPs in relationship to the red blood cell transfusion volume are not known precisely, but until prospective, randomized, clinical trials are performed and more clinical data are obtained, current data support a target ratio of plasma:red blood cell:platelet transfusions of 1:1:1. Future prospective clinical trials will allow continued improvement in MTPs and thus in the overall management of patients with trauma.
Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens.
Blood transfusion services are a vital part of the national health delivery system. The responsibility for ensuring a continuous supply of blood rests with health administrators, who need to galvanize entire communities towards regular and non-remunerated blood donation.
The present study aimed to examine the prevailing global regulations and practices related to blood transfusion and press the case for a dedicated blood law in India.
Materials and Methods:
We attempted a comprehensive, annotated assembly of published studies on blood transfusion services in India.
Data Abstraction and Synthesis:
Laws related to blood transfusion services exist in India as a part of the Drugs and Cosmetics Law. In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who give blood for a community supply. In order to augment safe blood transfusion services in India, we have to develop operational legal guidelines on recruitment and retention of voluntary blood donors to direct related organizations for this imperative activity.
Several factors, such as political will and a professional and ethical approach can help in formulating a common vision, building trust, by providing optimum information towards a social movement for the rational blood transfusion services. We have to come together for a dedicated blood law in order to improve the quality of blood transfusion services in India.
Blood law; India; Drugs and Cosmetics Act India
Background and Objectives:
Risk of vertical transmission (largest source of HIV in children) reduces from 33% to 3% with effective prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions. NACP-III has got an objective of testing all pregnant women for earliest linkage with PMTCT. Study was carried out to find out PPTCT service coverage, dropouts, intervention efficacy with other determinants.
Materials and Methods:
At ICTCs, registered ANCs are counseled and tested for HIV. HIV +ve ANCs are additionally linked to services and followed-up for institutional delivery, sdNVP, nutrition and children testing. HIV +ve ANCs since 2005 subsequently delivered till June 2008 and their exposed children in Gujarat’s category A, B districts constituted study cohort.
259622 pregnant women registered, 72.1% were counseled pre-test, 83.4% of them tested, 74.4% received post-test counseling. 541 ANCs were detected HIV+ve. 45.5% delivered institutionally, 12.8% were unregistered. 12.1% were cesarian section and 66% delivered vaginally. 96.8% were live births, 92.13% mother-baby pair received sdNVP. 35% children could be traced till 18 months, 89% were alive. 90% were tested, 3 were found HIV +ve. Of them, none received MB Pair. Two were delivered vaginally, two received mixed feeding, two children’s mothers were not linked with ART.
PMTCT services – counseling and testing should be provided to all ANCs. EDD-based tracking, institutional deliveries, postnatal counseling to be encouraged along with complete MB pair coverage, capacity building of concerned staff regarding delivery of HIV+ve ANCs and exposed children tracking.
HIV in exposed children; HIV testing of pregnant women; MB pair; prevention of mother to child transmission
Average risk of acquiring HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV infected blood is 0.3%. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV refers to a set of comprehensive services to prevent HIV infection in exposed individuals where the exposure can be occupational/ non occupational and a provision of short term (28 days) antiretroviral drugs are given depending on the risk assessment. It also includes counselling and relevant laboratory investigations after taking informed consent of the exposed person and source. PEP inhibits the replication of the initial inoculum of virus and thereby prevents establishment of chronic HIV infection, and is best effective when initiated within 2 hours but certainly within 72 hours. Present communication deals with the registry of 278 cases of PEP from Gujarat in terms of various determinants, their status and the outcome in terms of HIV sero positivity.
Antiretroviral drugs; health care personals; HIV; post exposure prophylaxis
Transfusion and clinical laboratory services are high-volume activities involving complicated workflows across both ambulatory and inpatient environments. As a result, there are many opportunities for safety lapses, leading to patient harm and increased costs. Organizational techniques such as voluntary safety event reporting are commonly used to identify and prioritize risk areas across care settings. Creation of functional, standardized safety data structures that facilitate effective exploratory examination is therefore essential to drive quality improvement interventions. Unfortunately, voluntarily reported adverse event data can often be unstructured or ambiguously defined.
To address this problem, we sought to create a “best-of-breed” patient safety classification for data contained in the Duke University Health System Safety Reporting System (SRS). Our approach was to implement the internationally recognized World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety Framework, supplemented with additional data points relevant to our organization. Data selection and integration into the hierarchical framework is discussed, as well as placement of the classification into the SRS. We evaluated the impact of the new SRS classification on system usage through comparisons of monthly average report rates and completion times before and after implementation. Monthly average inpatient transfusion reports decreased from 102.1 ± 14.3 to 91.6 ± 11.2, with the proportion of transfusion reports in our system remaining consistent before and after implementation. Monthly average transfusion report rates in the outpatient and homecare environments were not significantly different. Significant increases in clinical lab report rates were present across inpatient and outpatient environments, with the proportion of lab reports increasing after implementation. Report completion times increased modestly but not significantly from a practical standpoint.
A common safety vocabulary can facilitate integration of information from disparate systems and processes to permit meaningful measurement and interpretation of data to improve safety within and across organizations. Formation of a “best-of-breed” classification for voluntary reporting necessitates an internal examination of localized data needs and workflow in order to design a product that enables comprehensive data capture. A team of clinical, safety, and information technology experts is necessary to integrate the data structures into the reporting system. We have found that a “best-of-breed” patient safety classification provides a solid, extensible model for adverse event analysis, healthcare leader communication, and intervention identification.
Despite importance of blood transfusion services as life saving procedures, some countries are unable to meet their national requirements for blood and blood components in a timely manner. Since establishment of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) in 1974 as an integral part of national health system, Iran has experienced a drastic improvement both in availability and safety of blood and blood products. Iran now has not only reached to a 100% non remunerated voluntary blood donation but also secured a national self sufficiency of blood and blood components. Efforts of IBTO as the sole player of transfusion medicines in Iran enabled the country for timely providing of life saving blood transfusion services for all Iranian patients in need of such services. In order to meet the country’s demand in 2011 about 2 million units of whole blood for a population of about 75 million collected by IBTO. This indicates 26.2 donations per 1000 population. Currently about 94% of blood donors in Iran are 25–35 years old males and contribution of female donors in blood donation is less than 6%. IBTO screen all donated blood for important transfusion transmissible infections such as HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis. Prevalence of HBsAg, HCV and HIV in donated blood in IBTO in 2011 was 0.20%, 0.06% and 0.004% respectively.
Iran Blood Transfusion Organization; Blood safety; Blood donation
In 284 US intensive care units the CRIT study (Anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill – Current clinical practice in the United States) assessed allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and outcome in 4892 patients. As in the former European ABC study (Anemia and blood transfusion in the critically ill), the mean pretransfusion hemoglobin was approximately 8.5 g/dl and RBC transfusions were independently associated with an increased mortality. These studies were purely observational and, therefore, despite the finest statistical models indicating that RBC transfusions were independently associated with a higher mortality, it remains possible that this adverse outcome is not due to a harmful effect of RBC transfusion in itself, but merely reflects the fact that transfused patients were sicker to start with. The definitive call is still out, but one mechanism by which RBC transfusion might be harmful now appears less likely; namely, storage lesion. In the CRIT study, mortality was not increased in patients receiving 'old' RBCs (>14 days stored) versus 'fresh' RBCs. The effect of leukoreduction could not be assessed since mainly nonleukoreduced RBCs were transfused. The evidence is mounting, however, that RBC transfusions are efficacious only when oxygen delivery is compromised. What can be done to diminish the use of RBC transfusions, its costs and side effects in intensive care medicine? There are two important options available today: decreasing blood loss for diagnostic purposes using pediatric sampling tubes, and establishing restrictive multidisciplinary transfusion guidelines and implementing them in daily clinical practice.
blood transfusion; morbidity; mortality
Transfusion therapy is currently an effective therapeutic intervention in a number of diseases, including sickle cell disease. However, its use is complicated by a high incidence of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in the transfusion recipients. The identification of T regulatory cells (Tregs) among the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset as key regulators of peripheral tolerance in mice as well as humans has opened an exciting era in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune disease and for improving organ transplantation. However, their potential in inducing transfusion tolerance remains to be explored. We used red cells from mice transgenic for human glycophorin A blood group antigen as donor cells and transfused wild-type mice to induce alloantibodies, as an experimental system to study RBC alloimmunization. We found that depletion with anti-CD25 enhanced the alloantibody production, indicating that CD25 Tregs play an important role in regulation of alloantibody responses. More importantly, adoptive transfer of purified population of CD4+CD25+ but not CD4+CD25– cells from naïve mice prevented the induction of IgG and IgM alloantibody production in transfusion recipients, with a concomitant reduction in activated splenic B cells and macrophages. Similarly, adoptive transfer of purified populations of CD4+CD25+ cells from naïve mice into naïve syngeneic recipients inhibited the anti-Ig response to rat RBCs in the recipients but transfer of control CD4+CD25– cells did not. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Tregs participate in the control of trans-fusion-associated RBC alloantibody responses, opening up the possibility that Treg immunotherapy may be exploited for suppressing transfusion immunization events.
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a common intervention in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Anemia is frequent in this population and is associated with poor outcomes, especially in patients with ischemic heart disease. Although blood transfusions are generally given to improve tissue oxygenation, they do not systematically increase oxygen consumption and effects on oxygen delivery are not always very impressive. Blood transfusion may be lifesaving in some circumstances, but many studies have reported increased morbidity and mortality in transfused patients. This review focuses on some important aspects of RBC transfusion in the ICU, including physiologic considerations, a brief description of serious infectious and noninfectious hazards of transfusion, and the effects of RBC storage lesions. Emphasis is placed on the importance of personalizing blood transfusion according to physiological endpoints rather than arbitrary thresholds.
Background and Objective:
The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention.
Study Designs and Methods:
Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed.
The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353).
Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance.
Discard blood; National Blood Centre Kuala Lumpur; quality indicators
Hemoglobin (Hb) solutions are potential alternatives to blood transfusion when native oxygen (O2) carrying capacity is lacking. Polymerized bovine Hb (PBH) solutions are characterized by its vasoactivity, low O2 affinity, oncotic effect, prolonged shelf life and stability. Responses to facilitated O2 transport, after exchange transfusion with PBH, were studied in the hamster window chamber model during acute extreme anemia to determine how PBH affects microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation.
Study Design and Methods
An anemic state was induced by hemodilution with a plasma expander (dextran 70 kDa). After hemodilution animals were randomly assigned to exchange transfusion groups based on the concentration of PBH used, namely: PBH at 13gHb/dl [PBH13], PBH diluted to 8 or 4 gHb/dl in albumin solution at matching colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) [PBH8 and PBH4], and no PBH only albumin solution at matching COP [PBH0]. Measurement of systemic parameters, microvascular hemodynamics, capillary perfusion and intravascular and tissue O2 levels were performed at 11% Hct.
Restitution of O2 carrying capacity with PBH13, restored higher arterial pressure, triggered vasoconstriction, low perfusion and higher peripheral resistance. PBH4 and PBH0 had lower arterial pressure than PBH13. PBH4 and PBH8 maintained higher perfusion and functional capillary density than PBH13 and PBH0. In all groups, blood gas parameters and acid-base balance were recovered proportional to microvascular perfusion. Arterial O2 tensions were improved for PBH4 and PBH8 by preventing O2 precapillary release and increasing O2 reserve.
Further studies to establish acellular Hb optimal dosage, efficacy, safety, and effects on outcome are indicated before these solutions are implemented in routine practice.
Microcirculation; red blood cells; hemodilution; functional capillary density; hemodilution; hemoglobin oxygen affinity; tissue oxygen
The Transfusion Medicine Service (TMS) covers diverse clinical and laboratory-based services that must be delivered with accuracy, efficiency and reliability. TMS oversight is shared by multiple regulatory agencies that cover product manufacturing and validation standards geared toward patient safety. These demands present significant informatics challenges. Over the past few decades, TMS information systems have improved to better handle blood product manufacturing, inventory, delivery, tracking and documentation. Audit trails and access to electronic databases have greatly facilitated product traceability and biovigilance efforts. Modern blood bank computing has enabled novel applications such as the electronic crossmatch, kiosk-based blood product delivery systems, and self-administered computerized blood donor interview and eligibility determination. With increasing use of barcoding technology, there has been a marked improvement in patient and specimen identification. Moreover, the emergence of national and international labeling standards such as ISBT 128 have facilitated the availability, movement and tracking of blood products across national and international boundaries. TMS has only recently begun to leverage the electronic medical record to address quality issues in transfusion practice and promote standardized documentation within institutions. With improved technology, future growth is expected in blood bank automation and product labeling with applications such as radio frequency identification devices. This article reviews several of these key informatics issues relevant to the contemporary practice of TMS.
Blood bank; barcode; computer; donor; electronic crossmatch; FDA; informatics; transfusion medicine; virtual