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1.  Blood donor incentives: A step forward or backward 
Dramatic increase in blood usage and critical seasonal blood shortages are faced by various countries. Countries which previously reached 100% voluntary nonremunerated donation have been led to offer different kinds of incentives to recruit blood donors and meet their blood demands. In some cases, these incentives are considered monetary and are in complete contrast with International standards like World Health Organization (WHO). It seems that attitudes toward sole dependency on nonremunerated voluntary blood donation have been changed in recent years and experts in some developed countries are reevaluating partial reliance on paid donation. On the other hand, besides the effects of such incentives on blood safety, several economic and psychological studies have shown that incentives have discouraging effects on pro-social behaviors like blood donation and will reduce the number of blood donors in long term. With regard to the results of such studies, it seems that implementing incentive-based blood donor recruitment programs to meet blood requirements by some countries is becoming a challenge for blood banks.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.59385
PMCID: PMC2847338  PMID: 20376260
Blood donor; voluntary non-remunerated blood donation; paid donation; incentive; blood safety
2.  Road blocks in achieving a 100% voluntary blood donation rate in the South Asian region 
Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ‘replacement’ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.28070
PMCID: PMC3168132  PMID: 21938230
Voluntary blood donation; replacement donor; policy; planning; finances
3.  Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Regarding Blood Donation 
Background:
Annually, India meets only half of its blood requirement and half of it from unsafe blood donors. There is a need to increase blood donations from safe and voluntary blood donors. Recruitment and retainment of voluntary blood donors are key challenges for blood agencies.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of mass counseling in the creation of voluntary blood donor.
Subjects and Methods:
Interventional study with intervention of mass counseling of relatives of patients admitted in the wards of Tertiary Care Hospital attached to medical college in Pune. It was carried out during 1st May 2010 to 31st May 2010. 110 relatives were randomly selected for the study. Mass counseling of cases regarding voluntary blood donation was carried out by trained persons. Pre-counseling and post-counseling knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) scores regarding blood donation were assessed using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire.
Results:
Counseling improved knowledge, attitude and behavior score (KAB) regarding blood donation significantly. Pre-counseling and post-counseling KAB scores difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and was not merely by chance. Counseling helped to improve behavior of cases regarding blood donation, too.
Conclusion:
Continuous counseling sessions for blood donation may serve the purpose for institutes dealing with a large number of people every-day. Establishment of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor. Changes in motivation and the development of self-identity as a blood donor are needed to retain voluntary blood donors. Incentive's offered for voluntary blood donation card should be strengthened.
doi:10.4103/2141-9248.126609
PMCID: PMC3952305  PMID: 24669338
Africa; Blood donation; Counseling; Voluntary blood donor
4.  Prevention of Post-Transfusion Hepatitis by Screening of Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Healthy Blood Donors 
Background
Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.
Objective
To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors
Subjects and Methods
The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France). Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.
Results
A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4%) were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18–60 years). Eighty six (0.7%) were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2%) zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1%) were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.
Conclusion
Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2011.062
PMCID: PMC3248339  PMID: 22220259
5.  The challenges of meeting the blood transfusion requirements in Sub-Saharan Africa: the need for the development of alternatives to allogenic blood 
As a resource, allogenic blood has never been more in demand than it is today. Escalating elective surgery, shortages arising from a fall in supply, a lack of national blood transfusion services, policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel, and financial resources to support the running of a voluntary nonremunerated donor transfusion service, and old and emerging threats of transfusion-transmitted infection, have all conspired to ensure that allogenic blood remains very much a vital but limited asset to healthcare delivery particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is further aggravated by the predominance of family replacement and commercially remunerated blood donors, rather than regular benevolent, nonremunerated donors who give blood out of altruism. The demand for blood transfusion is high in Sub-Saharan Africa because of the high prevalence of anemia especially due to malaria and pregnancy-related complications. All stakeholders in blood transfusion have a significant challenge to apply the best available evidenced-based medical practices to the world-class management of this precious product in a bid to using blood more appropriately. Physicians in Sub-Saharan Africa must always keep in mind that the first and foremost strategy to avoid transfusion of allogenic blood is their thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in anemia and coagulopathy, and their thoughtful adherence to the evidenced-based good practices used in the developed world in a bid to potentially reduce the likelihood of allogenic blood transfusion in many patient groups. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ways to recruit and retain voluntary low-risk blood donors. Concerns about adverse effects of allogenic blood transfusion should prompt a review of transfusion practices and justify the need to search for transfusion alternatives to decrease or avoid the use of allogenic blood. These strategies should include the correction of anemia using pharmacological measures (use of antifibrinolytics to prevent bleeding and the use of erythropoietin and oral and intravenous iron to treat anemia) use of nonpharmacologic measures (preoperative autologous blood transfusion, perioperative red blood cell salvage and normothermia to reduce blood loss in surgical patients). All these strategies will help optimize the use of the limited blood stocks.
doi:10.2147/JBM.S17194
PMCID: PMC3262349  PMID: 22287859
challenges; blood transfusion; Sub-Saharan Africa; alternatives
6.  Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India 
Journal of Medical Ethics  2007;33(3):140-142.
The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion‐transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.
doi:10.1136/jme.2005.015644
PMCID: PMC2598246  PMID: 17329382
7.  Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors 
Background:
Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors.
Aim:
The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year.
Materials and Methods:
Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb) levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and >50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in >50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio × 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value.
Statistical Analysis:
Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, χ2 and anova (F-test).
Results:
Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating <20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for >20 times (P < 0.001), compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors (P < 0.05) compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times.
Conclusion:
Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.39504
PMCID: PMC2798760  PMID: 20041071
Depletion of iron stores; iron deficiency; regular voluntary donors
8.  Development of blood transfusion service in Sultanate of Oman 
Background:
Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region.
Study design:
Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums.
Results:
A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme.
Conclusion:
Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.59390
PMCID: PMC2847343  PMID: 20376265
Blood transfusion services; voluntary blood donation; national blood transfusion services; Sultanate of Oman
9.  Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections Among Voluntary Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Rural Area of India 
Background:
Blood transfusion is a life-saving measure in various medical and surgical emergencies. Transfusion medicine, apart from being important for the medical treatment of each patient, also has great public health importance.
Objectives:
The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in voluntary blood donors at a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in western Maharashtra, India.
Materials and Methods:
All voluntary donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HBsAg, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), HIV and Syphilis by using the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV infection was confirmed using a standard immunoblotting technique. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) was tested for surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV by the immunechromatographic method. The Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. The study was designed for a duration of two years between January 2009 to December 2010. Medical reports of the donors were accessed from the hospital records and analyzed.
Results:
A total of 5661 voluntary blood donors were screened, of which 5394 (95.28%) were males and 267 (4.72%) were females. The overall seroprevalence of HBV and HCV were 1.09% and 0.74% respectively; for HIV and syphilis the seroprevalence was estimated to be 0.07% for each.
Conclusion:
Blood is still one of the main sources of transmission of infections. HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses and syphilis are prevalent among voluntary donors in rural India.
doi:10.4103/2249-4863.94452
PMCID: PMC3893947  PMID: 24479001
Seroprevalence; transfusion transmissible infections; voluntary blood donors
10.  Tissue Banking: Relationship with Blood Donor and Organ Donor Card Status 
ISRN Urology  2012;2012:475729.
Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours—donating blood and carrying an organ donor card—and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.
doi:10.5402/2012/475729
PMCID: PMC3329732  PMID: 22567418
11.  Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia 
Background and Objectives:
The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males.
Results:
Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood.
Conclusion:
These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.83235
PMCID: PMC3159239  PMID: 21897588
Attitude to blood donation; donor compensation; donor motivation; Saudi blood donors
12.  Profile of blood donors and reasons for deferral in coastal South India 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(7):379-385.
Background
A blood transfusion is a life-saving procedure in many instances. An adequate supply of safe blood is ensured by exercising donor deferral criteria and screening for Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTI). The aim of this paper is to study the profile of blood donors and reasons for donor deferral in coastal South India.
Method
The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore. All those who donated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2008 were included in the study. Data was collected using a pre-tested semi-structured proforma and analysed using SPSS version 11.5.
Results
Most of the donors were under the age of 25 (42.92%).
Donors were predominantly male (95.20%). In terms of occupation, most subjects were students (28.01%) followed by businessmen (18.61%). Slightly more than three-quarters of the donors (77.20%) were replacement donors. The main reasons for deferral were consumption of medication in the past 72 hours (15.15%), hypertension (13.18%), a low haemoglobin level (12.34%) and alcohol intake in the past 72 hours (12.20%). Among the TTIs identified, most samples were positive for Hepatitis B surface Antigen – HBsAg (0.87%) or tested positive for Anti-Hepatitis C (HCV antibodies (0.36%).
Conclusion
From the study it was concluded that the majority of the donor population was young and educated. The reason for donation was mainly replacement rather than voluntary. This issue needs to be addressed by exercising proactive measures to increase the number of voluntary, nonremunerated, low-risk donors.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011.641
PMCID: PMC3562939  PMID: 23393523
Blood donors; deferral; transfusion transmitted infections; South India
13.  Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre-donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:141.
Background
The World Health Organization recommends universal and quality-controlled screening of blood donations for the major transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs): human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. The study objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donors at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique, and to assess the local pre-donation screening performance.
Methods
All consenting voluntary and replacement candidate blood donors were consecutively included from February to May 2009. Sera of all candidates, independent of deferral by questionnaire, were submitted to screening with quality-assured rapid or simple assays for HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV and syphilis. Assays locally used by the blood bank for HBV and syphilis screening were run in parallel to quality-assured external assays supplied during the study, and all discordant samples were submitted to confirmation testing in reference laboratories in Mozambique and Belgium.
Results
Of 750 consenting candidates (50.5% of voluntary donors), 71 (9.5%) were deferred by the questionnaire, including 38 specifically because of risk behavior for TTI. Of the 679 non-deferred candidates, 127 (18.7%) had serological confirmation of at least one TTI, with a lower prevalence in voluntary than in replacement donors (15.2% versus 22.4%, p = 0.016). Seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg and syphilis infections was 8.5%, 10.6 % and 1.2%. No confirmed HCV infection was found. Seroprevalence of TTIs was similar in the 38 candidates deferred for TTI risk as in the non-deferred group, except for HBsAg (26.3 % versus 10.6 %; p = 0.005). The local assays used for HBV and syphilis had sensitivities of 98.4% and 100% and specificities of 80.4% and 98.8% respectively. This resulted in the rejection of 110 of the 679 blood donations (16.2%) because of false positive results.
Conclusions
The seroprevalence of TTIs after questionnaire screening is high in Tete, Mozambique, but HCV infection does not appear as a major issue. The questionnaire did not exclude effectively HIV-infected donor candidates, while the locally used assays led to unnecessary rejection of many safe donations. A contextualized questionnaire and consistent use of quality-assured assays would considerably improve the current screening procedure for blood donation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-141
PMCID: PMC3120673  PMID: 21605363
14.  Demanding pure motives for donation: the moral acceptability of blood donations by haemochromatosis patients 
Journal of Medical Ethics  2005;31(2):69-72.
Blood banks all over the world attempt to cover the demand for blood by donations from voluntary non-remunerated donors. The discussion regarding the acceptability of blood donations by haemochromatosis patients focuses on the question of whether health benefits violate the rule of the altruistic donor. Utilitarian and deontological arguments for and against the policy of accepting blood donors who need to let blood regularly in order to stay healthy are considered by this article. A closer look at the procedure reveals that the confusion is due to the conflation of, on the one hand the phlebotomy, and on the other hand, the decision about the destination of the blood afterwards. The health benefits are connected to the phlebotomy and not to the donation. The morally relevant point in the decision as to whether the candidate is a truly altruistic donor is whether he donates without asking for a benefit in return. It is concluded that haemochromatosis patients can be free, voluntary, and altruistic blood donors.
doi:10.1136/jme.2002.001271
PMCID: PMC1734081  PMID: 15681668
15.  The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Blood Donation Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Chennai, India 
Introduction: An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors.
Material and Methods: A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test.
Results: Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood.
Conclusion: A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/4851.3033
PMCID: PMC3708194  PMID: 23905099
Blood donation; Knowledge; Motivation; Voluntary donors
16.  Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway 
Journal of blood transfusion  2012;2012:813231.
Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%). The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n = 182) (15.6%), skin ulcers (n = 170) (14.6%), and risk behaviour (n = 127) (10.9%). In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.
doi:10.1155/2012/813231
PMCID: PMC3779598  PMID: 24089651
17.  Analysis of efforts to maintain safe donor in main donor pool after completion of temporary deferral period 
Background:
Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD). However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period.
Aims:
The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily.
Design:
The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors.
Materials and Methods:
From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again.
Statistical Analysis:
Chi-square test is applied.
Result:
A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32%) deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32%) donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%). Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%), graduate (82.90%), from low income group (62.90%) and profession was service (48.10%).
Conclusion:
Low hemoglobin (78.30%) was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%). Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.106742
PMCID: PMC3613667  PMID: 23559769
Donor return; hemoglobin; retrieval; temporary deferral; voluntary non-remunerated blood donors/ blood donor
18.  An analysis of a preoperative pediatric autologous blood donation program 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2000;43(2):125-129.
Objective
To determine the efficacy of a pediatric autologous blood donation program.
Design
A retrospective study of patient charts and blood-bank records.
Setting
The Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, a tertiary care, pediatric centre.
Patients
One hundred and seventy-three children who received blood transfusions for a total of 182 procedures between June 1987 and June 1997.
Interventions
Autologous and homologous blood transfusion required for major surgical intervention, primarily spinal fusion.
Main outcome measures
Surgeons’ accuracy in predicting the number of autologous blood units required for a given procedure, compliance rate (children’s ability to donate the requested volume of blood), utilization rate of autologous units and rate of allogeneic transfusion.
Results
The surgeons’ accuracy in predicting the number of autologous units required for a given procedure was 53.8%. The compliance rate of children to donate the requested amount of blood was 80.3%. In children below the standard age and weight criteria for blood donation the compliance rate was 75.5%. The utilization rate of autologous units obtained was 84.4% and the incidence of allogeneic transfusion was 26.6%.
Conclusions
There was a high rate of compliance and utilization of predonated autologous blood in the children in the study. Preoperative blood donation programs are safe and effective in children, even in those below the standard age and weight criteria of 10 years and 40 kg.
PMCID: PMC3695125  PMID: 10812347
19.  Comparison of the prevalence of major transfusion-transmitted infections among Iranian blood donors using confidential unit exclusion in an Iranian population 
Hepatitis Monthly  2011;11(1):11-13.
Background
Nucleic acid amplification testing is recommended for screening blood donations; however, they are not widely available in developing countries such as Iranian. Confidential unit exclusion (CUE) gives blood donors the opportunity to confidentially indicate whether their blood is or is not suitable for transfusion to others. Hoewever, its effectiveness in improving blood safety has recently been questioned by the blood banking community.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of CUE in Iran.
Patients and Methods
Data on transfusion-transmitted disease markers (HBs Ag, HCV Ab, HIV Ab, RPR) were extracted from a database of voluntary blood donations in 2006 at the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. The prevalence of markers were compared between CUE-positive ("should not use") and CUE-negative ("can be used") donations.
Results
CUE-positive donations had significantly higher risk of HBV and HCV markers (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)7.5 (5.4-10.5) and 5.3 (2.5-11.3), respectively). No HIV or syphilis markers were detected in either group.
Conclusions
CUE is an effective option for identifying donors with increased risk of HBV and HCV markers.
PMCID: PMC3206660  PMID: 22087109
Confidential unit; Exclusion; Risk factors; Iranian; Blood donors
20.  Seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of north India 
Background & objectives:
Transfusion of blood and blood products although considered as a life saving treatment modality, but may lead to certain infectious and non-infectious complications in the recipients. The purpose of this analysis was to monitor the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in the blood donor population in a hospital based blood bank in north India, to evaluate the trends over the years (2001-2011).
Methods:
Relevant information of all the blood donors who donated whole blood at the department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi from the January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the departmental records. The number of donors who were found reactive for anti-HCV anatibodies was calculated.
Results:
Of the 2,06,022 blood donors, 1,93,661 were males and 12,361 were females. The percentage of whole blood donors found seroreactive for anti-HCV antibodies was 0.39 per cent (n=795). The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in male blood donors was 0.38 per cent (n=750) and the respective seroprevalence in female blood donors was 0.36 per cent (n=45). No significant change in the trend of HCV seroprevalence was observed over the period under consideration. Maximum seroprevalence of anti-HCV was observed in the age group of 18 to 30 yr (0.41%) and the minimum in the age group of 51 to 60 yr (0.26%).
Interpretation & conclusion:
HCV seroprevalence in our study was 0.39 per cent and a decreasing trend with age was observed. No significant change in the trend of anti-HCV seroprevalence was seen over a decade. Since, no vaccine is presently available for immunization against HCV infection, transfusion transmitted HCV infection remains a potential threat to the safety of the blood supply.
PMCID: PMC3767252  PMID: 24056566
Anti-HCV; blood donors; north India; seroprevalence
21.  Donating umbilical cord blood to a public bank or storing it in a private bank: knowledge and preference of blood donors and of pregnant women 
Blood Transfusion  2012;10(3):331-337.
Background.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women.
Materials and methods.
This study was conducted at the “Sapienza” University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women.
Results.
Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use.
Discussion.
The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and institutions.
doi:10.2450/2012.0081-11
PMCID: PMC3417732  PMID: 22507856
umbilical cord blood; public cord blood banking; cord blood donation; private cord blood banking
22.  Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Voluntary Blood Donation among Healthcare Workers at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria 
Journal of blood transfusion  2013;2013:797830.
Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher's tests where appropriate. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18–56) with females accounting for 55.6% (90). A total of 74.8% (122) attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91) of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (P < 0.05). There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers.
doi:10.1155/2013/797830
PMCID: PMC3810036  PMID: 24222890
23.  Adult intussusception: a six-year experience at a single center 
Annals of Gastroenterology  2012;25(2):128-132.
Objective
Adult intussusception (AI) is a rare entity and differs from childhood intussusception in its presentation, etiology, and treatment. It accounts for 1/30,000 of all hospital admissions, 1/1300 of all abdominal operations, 1/30-1/100 of all cases operated for intestinal obstruction and one case of AI for every 20 childhood ones. This study was designed to review the mode of presentation, diagnosis and appropriate treatment and finally the etiology of cases presenting in our hospital over a period of 6 years.
Methods
A retrospective review of 15 cases of intussusceptions in individuals older than 18 years presenting to a tertiary referral center of South India during a period of 6 years (2004-2010) was done in respect to mode of presentation, diagnosis, etiology and treatment.
Results
There were 15 cases of AI. Mean age was 45.5 years. Abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were the commonest symptoms. There were 8 enteric, 6 ileocolic, and 1 colonic intussusceptions. 73% of AIs were associated with a definable lesion. Only 1 case of enteric lesions had malignancy. All ileocolic lesions were malignant. Twelve of 15 patients underwent surgical intervention.
Conclusion
AI is a rare entity and requires a high index of suspicion. Small-bowel intussusception should be reduced before resection whenever possible if the underlying etiology is suspected to be benign or if the resection required without reduction is deemed to be massive. Large bowel should generally be resected without reduction because pathology is mostly malignant.
PMCID: PMC3959399
intussusception; benign; malignant; surgery
24.  Regional transfusion centre preoperative autologous blood donation programme: the first two years. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;305(6867):1470-1473.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the efficacy of a regional autologous blood donation programme. DESIGN--Clinical and laboratory data were collected and stored prospectively. Transfusion data were collected retrospectively from hospital blood bank records. SETTING--Northern Region Blood Transfusion Service and 14 hospitals within the Northern Regional Health Authority. SUBJECTS--505 patients referred for autologous blood donation before elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient eligibility, adverse events from donation, autologous blood units provided, and autologous and allogeneic blood units transfused within 10 days of operation. RESULTS--Of 505 patients referred, 354 donated at least one unit. 78 of 151 referred patients who did not donate were excluded at the autologous clinic, mostly because of anaemia or ischaemic heart disease. In 73 cases the patient, general practitioner, or hospital consultant decided against donation. 363 autologous procedures were undertaken. In 213 (59%) cases all requested units were provided. The most common reasons for incomplete provision were late referral or anaemia. Adverse events accompanied 24 of 928 donations (2.6%). Transfusion data were obtained for 357 of the 363 procedures. 281 donors were transfused; autologous blood only was given to 225, autologous and allogeneic blood was given to 52, and allogeneic blood only was given to four. 648 of 902 (72%) units of autologous blood were transfused. Complete provision of requested autologous units was followed by allogeneic transfusion in 12 of 208 procedures (5.8%). Incomplete provision was followed by allogeneic transfusion in 44 of 149 procedures (30%). CONCLUSIONS--This study shows the feasibility of a regional autologous transfusion programme. Autologous donors only infrequently received allogeneic transfusion. Patients should be appropriately selected and referred early.
PMCID: PMC1884093  PMID: 1493393
25.  US Public Cord Blood Banking Practices: Recruitment, Donation, and the Timing of Consent 
Transfusion  2012;53(3):679-687.
BACKGROUND
Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS
Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks.
RESULTS
13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors.
CONCLUSION
Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking.
doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03785.x
PMCID: PMC3477280  PMID: 22803637

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