PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (389531)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Clinical profile of patients with nascent alcohol related seizures 
Aim:
The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS) and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in the same.
Materials and Methods:
100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and at least computed tomography (CT) scan.
Results:
A total of 27 patients (27%) who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001). Twenty-two patients (22%) had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp) of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029). One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest.
Conclusion:
CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures). IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1%) who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.120454
PMCID: PMC3841594  PMID: 24339573
Alcohol use disorders identification test; anti-epileptic drugs; convulsions; electroencephalography; ethanol; magnetic resonance imaging
2.  An audit of blood bank services 
Background:
An audit is a written series of simple, direct questions, which when answered and reviewed, tell whether the laboratory is performing its procedures, activities, and policies correctly and on time.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to briefly highlight the importance of audit in blood bank services.
Materials and Methods:
An Audit of Blood Bank Services was carried out in a Blood bank of the tertiary care hospital, Central India by using the tool kit, (comprised of checklists) developed by Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka WHO, July 2008.
Results:
After going through these checklists, we observed that there is no system for assessing the training needs of staff in the blood bank. There was no provision for duty doctor's room, expert room, medical technologist room and duty care service. There was no checklist for routine check for observation of hemolysis and deterioration of blood and plasma. There was no facility for separate private interview to exclude sexual disease in the donor. Requisition forms were not properly filled for blood transfusion indications. There was no facility for notification of donors who are permanently deferred. There were no records documented for donors who are either temporarily or permanently deferred on the basis of either clinical examination, history, or serological examination. It was found that wearing of apron, cap, and mask was not done properly except in serology laboratory. When the requisition forms for blood transfusions were audited, it was found that many requisition forms were without indications.
Conclusion:
Regular audit of blood bank services needs to be initiated in all blood banks and the results needs to be discussed among the managements, colleagues, and staffs of blood bank. These results will provide a good opportunity for finding strategies in improving the blood bank services with appropriate and safe use of blood.
doi:10.4103/2277-9531.127568
PMCID: PMC3977393  PMID: 24741651
Audit; blood bank; checklists; quality control
3.  Impact of pharmaceutical care on quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
BACKGROUND:
Diabetes mellitus has become an international healthcare crisis that requires new approaches to prevent and treat it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care on quality of life (QOL) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
METHODS:
A prospective study on impact of pharmaceutical care on QOL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted in a private tertiary care teaching hospital in South India for a period of 8 months. Study was done on 120 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled randomly in the intervention group (with pharmaceutical care teachings) or the control (without drug related educations). The intervention group patients received pharmaceutical care through diabetes education, medication counseling, instructions on lifestyle that needed modifications (necessary for better drug function) and dietary regulations regarding their prescribed drugs, whereas the control group patients were deprived of any pharmaceutical care till the end of the study. The “Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life” standard questionnaire was used to assess the relevant parameters (including: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbA1c, Body Mass Index) and to evaluate the impact of the pharmaceutical care on the subjects. Data were analyzed using t-student test.
RESULTS:
The intervention group showed an improvement in the quality of life score from -2.156 ± 0.12 at the baseline to -1.41 ± 0.13 at the final interview (p < 0.01). The average HbA1c values decreased from 8.44 ± 0.29% to 6.73 ± 0.21% (p < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose from 195.57 ± 10.10 mg/dl to 107.25 ± 3.70 mg/dl between the baseline and the final interview in the intervention group (p < 0.01). The findings in the diabetes treatment satisfaction score also changed in a similar pattern.
CONCLUSIONS:
The pharmaceutical care program was effective in improving the clinical outcome and the patients’ QOL with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC3252774  PMID: 22247727
Quality of Life; Pharmaceutical Care; Clinical Pharmacy; Diabetes Mellitus; South India
4.  Oral Morphine Prescribing Practices in Severe Cancer Pain 
Indian Journal of Palliative Care  2009;15(2):127-131.
Background:
Nearly one million cancer patients in India need oral morphine for pain relief. Despite doctors prescribing oral morphine in our center, many cancer patients with severe pain found to be not facilitated with adequate pain relief.
Aim:
This audit was conducted to look at the “oral morphine prescribing practices for severe cancer pain” at a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty case files of patients, who were admitted with severe cancer pain, and receiving oral morphine were analyzed in pre- and posteducational session. Local standards were set to assess the adequacy of pain relief. Deficiency in achieving analgesia was found in preinterventional audit. A clinical audit was conducted before and after the educational session on oral morphine prescribing. The education for doctors and nurses focused on starting patients on morphine, titration, and administering rescue dose. Then local guidelines on oral morphine prescribing were circulated. And analysis of following factors were done following pre- and posteducational session: Pain intensity at the beginning of treatment, starting dose of morphine, increments in morphine dose, number of rescue doses given, and fall in pain intensity at the end of 1 week. The outcomes were compared with the standards.
Results:
Preintervention audit showed that only 50% of patients achieved adequate pain relief. Rescue dose was administered in only 20% of patients. While reaudit following the educational session showed that 80% of patients achieved adequate pain relief and 100% received rescue doses.
Conclusion:
Educational sessions have significant impact on improving oral morphine prescribing practice among doctors and nurses. It was found failing to administer regular as well as rescue doses resulted in inadequate pain relief in patients receiving oral morphine.
doi:10.4103/0973-1075.58458
PMCID: PMC2902113  PMID: 20668591
Cancer pain; Oral morphine; Pain relief; Prescribing practices
5.  Clinical profile, outcomes, and progression to type 2 diabetes among Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a diabetes center in south India 
Aim:
To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India.
Materials and Methods:
Clinical case records of 898 women with GDM seen between 1991 and 2011 were extracted from the Diabetes Electronic Medical Records (DEMR) of a tertiary care diabetes center in Chennai, south India and their clinical profile was analyzed. Follow-up data of 174 GDM women was available. To determine the conversion rates to diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in these women. Glucose tolerance status postpartum was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 criteria.
Results:
The mean maternal age of the women was 29 ± 4 years and mean age of gestation at first visit were 24 ± 8.4 weeks. Seventy percent of the women had a family history of diabetes. Seventy-eight percent of the women delivered full-term babies and 65% underwent a cesarean section. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 10.0 ± 4.2 kg. Macrosomia was present in 17.9% of the babies, hypoglycemia in 10.4%, congenital anomalies in 4.3%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.9%. Mean follow-up duration of the 174 women of whom outcome data was available was 4.5 years. Out of the 174, 101 women who were followed-up developed diabetes, of whom half developed diabetes within 5 years and over 90%, within 10 years of the delivery.
Conclusions:
Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indian women with GDM is rapid. There is an urgent need to develop standardized protocols for GDM care in India that can improve the maternal and fetal outcomes and help prevent future diabetes in women with GDM.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.131205
PMCID: PMC4056142  PMID: 24944938
American Diabetes Association; Asian Indians; gestational diabetes; progression to type 2 diabetes; WHO
6.  The Effect of Rural-to-Urban Migration on Obesity and Diabetes in India: A Cross-Sectional Study 
PLoS Medicine  2010;7(4):e1000268.
Shah Ebrahim and colleagues examine the distribution of obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban migrant factory workers in India, together with their rural siblings. The investigators identify patterns of change of cardiovascular risk factors associated with urban migration.
Background
Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. We tested the hypotheses that rural-to-urban migrants have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes than rural nonmigrants, that migrants would have an intermediate prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with life-long urban and rural dwellers, and that longer time since migration would be associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and of diabetes.
Methods and Findings
The place of origin of people working in factories in north, central, and south India was identified. Migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by interview, examination, and fasting blood samples. Obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular risk factors were compared. A total of 6,510 participants (42% women) were recruited. Among urban, migrant, and rural men the age- and factory-adjusted percentages classified as obese (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m2) were 41.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.1–44.7), 37.8% (95% CI 35.0–40.6), and 19.0% (95% CI 17.0–21.0), respectively, and as diabetic were 13.5% (95% CI 11.6–15.4), 14.3% (95% CI 12.2–16.4), and 6.2% (95% CI 5.0–7.4), respectively. Findings for women showed similar patterns. Rural men had lower blood pressure, lipids, and fasting blood glucose than urban and migrant men, whereas no differences were seen in women. Among migrant men, but not women, there was weak evidence for a lower prevalence of both diabetes and obesity among more recent (≤10 y) migrants.
Conclusions
Migration into urban areas is associated with increases in obesity, which drive other risk factor changes. Migrants have adopted modes of life that put them at similar risk to the urban population. Gender differences in some risk factors by place of origin are unexpected and require further exploration.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
India, like the rest of the world, is experiencing an epidemic of diabetes, a chronic disease characterized by dangerous levels of sugar in the blood that cause cardiovascular and kidney disease, which lower life expectancy. The prevalence of diabetes (the proportion of the population with diabetes) has been increasing steadily in India over recent decades, particularly in urban areas. In 1984, only 5% of adults living in the towns and cities of India had diabetes, but by 2004, 15% of adults in urban areas were affected by diabetes. In rural areas of India, diabetes is less common than in urban areas but even here, the prevalence of diabetes is now 6%. Obesity—too much body fat—is a major risk factor for diabetes and, in parallel with the greater increase in diabetes in urban India compared to rural India, there has been a greater increase in obesity in urban areas than in rural areas.
Why Was This Study Done?
Experts think that the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in India (and in other developing countries) is caused in part by increased consumption of saturated fats and sugars and by reduced physical activity, and that these changes are related to urbanization—urban expansion into the countryside and migration from rural to urban areas. If living in an urban setting is a major determinant of obesity and diabetes risk, then people migrating into urban areas should acquire the high risk of the urban population for these two conditions. In this cross-sectional study (a study in which participants are studied at a single time point), the researchers investigate whether rural to urban migrants in India have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes than rural nonmigrants. They also ask whether migrants have a prevalence of obesity and diabetes intermediate between that of life-long urban and rural dwellers and whether a longer time since migration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers recruited rural-urban migrants working in four Indian factories in north, central, and south regions and their spouses (if they were living in the same town) into their study. Each migrant worker and spouse asked one nonmigrant brother or sister (sibling) still living in their place of origin to join the study. The researchers also enrolled nonmigrant factory workers and their urban siblings into the study. All the participants (more than 6,500 in total) answered questions about their diet and physical activity and had their fasting blood sugar and their body mass index (BMI; weight in kg divided by height in meters squared) measured; participants with a fasting blood sugar of more than 7.0 nmol/l or a BMI of more than 25 kg/m2 were classified as diabetic or obese, respectively. 41.9% and 37.8% of the urban and migrant men, respectively, but only 19.0% of the rural men were obese. Similarly, 13.5% and 14.3% of the urban and migrant men, respectively, but only 6.2% of the rural men had diabetes. Patterns of obesity and diabetes among the women participants were similar. Finally, although the prevalence of diabetes and obesity was lower in the most recent male migrants than in those who had moved more than 10 years previously, this difference was small and not seen in women migrants.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that rural-urban migration in India is associated with rapid increases in obesity and in diabetes. They also show that the migrants have adopted modes of life (for example, reduced physical activity) that put them at a similar risk for obesity and diabetes as the urban population. The findings do not show, however, that migrants have an intermediate prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared to urban and rural dwellers and provide only weak support for the idea that a longer time since migration is associated with a higher risk of obesity and diabetes. Although the study's cross-sectional design means that the researchers could not investigate how risk factors for diabetes evolve over time, these findings suggest that urbanization is helping to drive the diabetes epidemic in India. Thus, targeting migrants and their families for health promotion activities and for treatment of risk factors for obesity and diabetes might help to slow the progress of the epidemic.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000268.
The International Diabetes Federation provides information about all aspects of diabetes, including information on diabetes in Southeast Asia (in English, French, and Spanish)
DiabetesIndia.com provides information on the Indian Task Forces on diabetes care in India
Diabetes Foundation (India) has an international collaborative research focus and provides information about health promotion for diabetes; it has also produced consensus guidelines on dietary change for prevention of diabetes in India
The US National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse provides detailed information about diabetes for patients, health care professionals, and the general public (in English and Spanish)
MedlinePlus provides links to further resources and advice about diabetes (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000268
PMCID: PMC2860494  PMID: 20436961
7.  How Can We Improve Outcomes for Patients and Families Under Palliative Care? Implementing Clinical Audit for Quality Improvement in Resource Limited Settings 
Palliative care in India has made enormous advances in providing better care for patients and families living with progressive disease, and many clinical services are well placed to begin quality improvement initiatives, including clinical audit. Clinical audit is recognized globally to be essential in all healthcare, as a way of monitoring and improving quality of care. However, it is not common in developing country settings, including India. Clinical audit is a cyclical activity involving: identification of areas of care in need of improvement, through data collection and analysis utilizing an appropriate questionnaire; setting measurable quality of care targets in specific areas; designing and implementing service improvement strategies; and then re-evaluating quality of care to assess progress towards meeting the targets. Outcome measurement is an important component of clinical audit that has additional advantages; for example, establishing an evidence base for the effectiveness of services. In resource limited contexts, outcome measurement in clinical audit is particularly important as it enables service development to be evidence-based and ensures resources are allocated effectively. Key success factors in conducting clinical audit are identified (shared ownership, training, managerial support, inclusion of all members of staff and a positive approach). The choice of outcome measurement tool is discussed, including the need for a culturally appropriate and validated measure which is brief and simple enough to incorporate into clinical practice and reflects the holistic nature of palliative care. Support for clinical audit is needed at a national level, and development and validation of an outcome measurement tool in the Indian context is a crucial next step.
doi:10.4103/0973-1075.63128
PMCID: PMC2936087  PMID: 20859465
Audit; Outcomes; Quality improvement; Quality of care
8.  Reporting Emerging Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae from India 
Background:
There are reports of emergence of resistant strains of S. pneumoniae showing resistance to penicillin from all over the world, and now, resistance to multiple drugs (multidrug-resistant strains) has been added to it. However, scanty reports are available so far from India, depicting such resistance.
Aims:
The aim of the present study is to look for the prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci and also the multidrug-resistant strains among S. pneumoniae, isolated from respiratory specimens, in the coastal part of South India.
Settings and Design:
A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2008, in our tertiary care center. Fifty pathogenic clinical isolates were collected from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections.
Materials and Methods:
Penicillin resistance was screened by 1 μg oxacillin disk on Muller-Hinton blood agar followed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) detection by the agar dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antibiotic susceptibility for other antibiotics was carried out by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method followed by an E-test with HiComb test strips from Hi-media.
Results:
Out of 50 isolates, 4% (95% Confidence Interval - 1.4, 9.4) showed total resistance to penicillin, whereas, 10% (95% CI; 1.6, 18.3) showed intermediate resistance. These penicillin-resistant pneumococci (4%) were also found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Maximum resistance was observed for cotrimoxazole and tetracycline (24% each with 95% CI; 12.2, 35.8) followed by erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (14% each with 95%CI; 4.4, 23.6).
Conclusions:
Increasing emergence of the resistant strains of S. pneumoniae in the community set up requires continuous monitoring and a restricted use of antibiotics to keep a check on its resistance pattern, for an effective treatment plan.
doi:10.4103/0974-777X.59245
PMCID: PMC2840964  PMID: 20300412
Minimum inhibitory concentration; Multi-drug resistant strains; Penicillin; Resistance; Streptococcus pneumoniae
9.  Gender-Based Differences in Treatment and Outcome among HIV Patients in South India 
Journal of Women's Health  2008;17(9):1471-1475.
Abstract
Objective
To describe gender-based differences in disease progression, treatment, and outcome among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South India.
Methods
Therapy-naïve patients initiating HAART between February 1996 and June 2006 at a tertiary HIV referral center in Chennai, South India, were analyzed using the YRG CARE HIV Observational Database. Patients with 1 year of follow-up after initiating HAART were examined to investigate immunological and clinical outcomes, including the development of adverse events to therapy and opportunistic infections.
Results
All previously therapy-naïve patients who initiated HAART with at least 1 year of follow-up (n = 1972) were analyzed. At enrollment into care, women had higher CD4 counts, lower hemoglobin, and higher body mass index (BMI) than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). At the time of initiating therapy, women had higher CD4 counts and lower hemoglobin (p < 0.05); women continued to have higher CD4 counts at 12 months (p < 0.05). After 1 year following HAART initiation, significantly more men developed tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (p < 0.05), more women experienced lactic acidosis and nausea, and more men developed immune reconstitution syndrome (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Significant physiological, immunological, and clinical differences exist between men and women initiating HAART in a resource-limited setting in South India. Future studies should examine whether clinical management strategies should be different for men and women in resource-limited settings.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2007.0670
PMCID: PMC2945934  PMID: 18954236
10.  International Classification of Primary Care: An Indian Experience 
Background:
India is in the process of transition to universal health coverage for Indian citizens. The focus is to strengthen the primary and secondary level services. Coupled with this national scenario, the development of Family medicine as a distinct discipline is in a crucial stage. There is a nation-wide urge to build family medicine training units and service centers across the country to fulfill the unmet health needs of the population.
Objectives:
This study aimed to bring out reasons for encounter (RFE) and morbidity pattern of patients seen in a family physician run urban health center in South India.
Methods:
The study was conducted in an urban health center of a tertiary care hospital. Clinicians entered the data using International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes. Data included were demographics, 3 RFE, 3 diagnoses, 3 outcomes of care that include prescriptions, investigations, procedures, and referrals made.
Results:
During 47,590 patient encounters, 59,647 RFE, 62,283 diagnoses and 68269 outcomes of care were recorded. The majority of RFEs and diagnoses are in the following ICPC chapters: Endocrinology (38.6%), cardiovascular (35.91%), respiratory (20.26%), digestive (7.68% and musculo-skeletal (6.8%). The most frequent outcome of care was prescriptions, followed by counseling and nebulization.
Conclusion:
This study is the first to report on the RFE in India. This study demonstrated the breadth of clinical conditions seen by family physicians across all ages and in both genders. This study attempts to highlight the need for family physician based services as a training ground for trainees.
doi:10.4103/2249-4863.148111
PMCID: PMC4311343  PMID: 25657944
Family medicine; multi - morbidity; reason for encounter
11.  Trauma care — a participant observer study of trauma centers at Delhi, Lucknow and Mumbai 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2009;71(3):133-141.
Background
Trained doctors and para-medical personnel in accident and emergency services are scant in India. Teaching and training in trauma and emergency medical system (EMS) as a specialty accredited by the Medical Council of India is yet to be started as a postgraduate medical education program. The MI and CMO (casualty medical officer) rooms at military and civilian hospitals in India that practice triage, first-aid, medico-legal formalities, reference and organize transport to respective departments leads to undue delays and lack multidisciplinary approach. Comprehensive trauma and emergency infrastructure were created only at a few cities and none in the rural areas of India in last few years.
Aim
To study the infrastructure, human resource allocation, working, future plans and vision of the established trauma centers at the 3 capital cities of India — Delhi (2 centres), Lucknow and Mumbai.
Setting and design
Participant observer structured open ended qualitative research by 7 days direct observation of the facilities and working of above trauma centers.
Material and methods
Information on, 1. Infrastructure; space and building, operating, ventilator, and diagnostic and blood bank facilities, finance and costs and pre-hospital care infrastructure, 2. Human resource; consultant and resident doctors, para-medical staff and specialists and 3. Work style; first responder, type of patients undertaken, burn management, surgical management and referral system, follow up patient management, social support, bereavement and postmortem services were recorded on a pre-structured open ended instrument interviewing the officials, staff and by direct observation. Data were compressed, peer-analyzed as for qualitative research and presented in explicit tables.
Results
Union and state governments of Delhi, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have spent heavily to create trauma and emergency infrastructure in their capital cities. Mostly general and orthopedics surgeons with their resident staff were managing the facilities. Comprehensively trained accident and emergency (AandE) personnel were not available at any of the centers. Expert management of cardiac peri-arrest arrhythmias, peripheral and microvascular repair were occasionally available. Maxillo-facial, dental and prosthodontic facilities, evenomation grading and treatment of poisoning — anti venom were not integrated. Ventilators, anesthetist, neuro and plastic surgeons were available on call for emergency care at all the 4 centers. Emergency diagnostic radiology (X-ray, CT scan, and ultrasound) and pathology were available at all the 4 centers. On the spot blood bank and component blood therapy was available only at the Delhi centers. Pre-hospital care, though envisioned by the officials, was lacking. Comprehensively trained senior A and E personnel as first responders were unavailable. Double barrier nursing for burn victims was not witnessed. Laparoscopic and fibreoptic endoscopic emergency procedures were also available only at Delhi. Delay in treatment on account of incomplete medico-legal formalities was not seen. Social and legal assistance, bereavement service and cold room for dead body were universally absent. Free treatment at Delhi and partial financial support at Lucknow were available for poor and destitute.
Conclusion
Though a late start, evolution of trauma services was observed and huge infrastructure for trauma have come up at Delhi and Lucknow. Postgraduate accreditation in Trauma and EMS and creation of National Injury Control Program must be mandated to improve trauma care in India. Integration of medical, non traumatic surgical and pediatric emergency along with pre-hospital care is recommended.
doi:10.1007/s12262-009-0037-0
PMCID: PMC3452474  PMID: 23133136
Trauma Care; India; Trauma Centers; Participant observer
12.  Temporal arteritis: A case series from south India and an update of the Indian scenario 
Objective:
To study the clinical, pathological and prognostic profile of patients with temporal arteritis in India.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted in a tertiary care center from south India from 2005 to 2010 in the departments of neurology and medicine. The details of all patients that satisfied the ACR 1990 criteria for diagnosis of temporal arteritis were reviewed. The clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and biopsy findings of the patients were analyzed and compared with other studies from India done over the last decade.
Results:
A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with temporal arteritis. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of onset was 67.58 years. Mean time for detection after onset of symptoms was 2.56 months. Typical manifestations included headache (100%), temporal artery tenderness (100%), jaw claudication (20%), polymyalgia rheumatica (53%) and visual manifestations (20%). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in all patients. Biopsy was done in 13 patients, with 11 of them being positive. All patients responded to steroids well, with most patients being symptom-free within the first 48 h of treatment.
Conclusions:
Temporal arteritis seems to be underdiagnosed in India, with all patients previously misdiagnosed, and with a mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis of 2.5 months. The clinical presentation of temporal arteritis in India appears to be similar to that of the West, with no gender preference and a slightly younger age group.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.93272
PMCID: PMC3299067  PMID: 22412269
Blindness; giant cell arteritis; headache
13.  Inhalant Dependence: Data from a Tertiary Care Center in South India 
Background:
This study aims to understand the sociodemographic and clinical profile of inhalant abusers seeking treatment from a tertiary care psychiatric hospital in South India.
Materials and Methods:
The clinical charts of patients who utilized the psychiatric services of a tertiary care center in India for over 10 years were examined for the study.
Results:
The sample had an urban predominance, was mostly unemployed, and was all male. Most of them had an adolescent age of onset of inhalant use (mean — 16.23 years). All patients reported the use of volatile solvents as inhalants. One other substance dependence was identified in more than half of the sample. The psychiatric comorbidity included psychosis and depression. A comparison was made between patients who presented with inhalant dependence only (I) and inhalant-dependent individuals who also used other psychoactive substances apart from nicotine (IP). The inhalant-only group (I) had an earlier mean age at onset of substance use as compared to the IP group. All patients in the I group reported withdrawal symptoms compared to 77% of patients in the (IP) group (P=0.048). The IP group reported a significantly higher occurrence of aggression (54.5 vs. 19%, P=0.02), externalizing symptoms (77.3 vs. 42.9%, P=0.03), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (50 vs. 14.3%, P=0.02).
Conclusion:
Inhalant dependence is a serious health problem in adolescent subjects and is associated with high comorbidity of other substance dependence, psychiatric disorder, and externalizing spectrum disorder. There is a need for community-based prospective studies in this area from India.
doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106017
PMCID: PMC3573573  PMID: 23439435
Comorbidity; externalizing symptoms; inhalant abuse; substance dependence; volatile solvents
14.  A retrospective study of clinico-pathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in a West Delhi, India 
South Asian Journal of Cancer  2014;3(3):179-181.
Background:
Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8%) is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%), gallbladder (7.2%), ovary (7.1%), and uterus (3.3%).
Aims and Objectives:
A retrospective audit of breast cancer patients presenting at a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2011.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 328 cases diagnosed as carcinoma breast on histopathology from year 2004 to 2011 were retrieved and studied retrospectively with regards to demographic profile and their histological features with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2neu status.
Results:
The median age of presentation was 49 years of age. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, not otherwise specified (NOS)) was the commonest histopathological variant (81.40%) followed by medullary carcinoma (10.36%) and mucinous carcinoma (2.74%). Triple negative were found to be the commonest group comprising 39.4% of all the cases followed by ER and PR both positive. Pathological tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging showed most common group was T2N0M0 (19.5%) followed by T2N1M0 (17.1%) and T2N2M0 (14%).
Conclusion:
The incidence of breast cancer in the India and include a higher incidence of ER, PR, and Her2neu negative disease in west Delhi.
doi:10.4103/2278-330X.136804
PMCID: PMC4134611  PMID: 25136527
Breast cancer; demography; triple negative; West Delhi
15.  Keratoconus - a Review from a Tertiary Eye-Care Center☆ 
Journal of Optometry  2010;2(4):166-172.
Purpose
To understand the clinical pattern of keratoconus in patients visiting a tertiary eye-care center. This may improve the knowledge of the disease and treatment options.
Methods
The records from a tertiary eye-care hospital-based center were reviewed retrospectively to collect the required data. Medical records from 187 patients who had visited the contact lens clinic in the course of a three-month period were reviewed. The data available on demographics, year of diagnosis of keratoconus, topographic measurements, slit-lamp biomicroscopic findings, previously used or currently advised refractive correction, visual acuity and contact lens parameters were reviewed and recorded.
Results
Of the 187 patients, 365 eyes were included in the study. Six eyes that had previous corneal grafting and 3 eyes that were fellow normal eyes of unilateral keratoconus were excluded. The patients’ mean age was 21.3±6.96 years. There were 172 (47.12%) eyes previously diagnosed as keratoconus and 193 (52.87%) eyes that had been newly diagnosed as keratoconus. In the newly diagnosed group, 188 eyes were fitted with different types of contact lenses and 5 eyes were advised surgery. In the previously diagnosed group, 138 eyes and 6 eyes continued wearing conventional and multicurve custom rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, respectively. Of the remaining 28 eyes, 3 eyes were fitted with RGP lenses, 16 were refitted with piggyback, 2 with multicurve custom RGP and 7 were advised for scleral lenses or surgery.
Conclusion
This study brings out the clinical profile of keratoconus patients in a tertiary eye-care center in south India. The findings in this study stresses out the importance of defining the treatment options in keratoconus with the appropriate contact lenses.
doi:10.3921/joptom.2009.166
PMCID: PMC3974279
keratoconus; India; contact lenses; tertiary eye clinic; queratocono; India; lentes de contacto; clínica especializada
16.  Developing a framework to review near-miss maternal morbidity in India: a structured review and key stakeholder analysis 
Background
In India there is a thrust towards promoting institutional delivery, resulting in problems of overcrowding and compromise to quality of care. Review of near-miss obstetric events has been suggested to be useful to investigate health system functioning, complementing maternal death reviews. The aim of this project was to identify the key elements required for a near-miss review programme for India.
Methods
A structured review was conducted to identify methods used in assessing near-miss cases. The findings of the structured review were used to develop a suggested framework for conducting near-miss reviews in India. A pool of experts in near-miss review methods in low and middle income countries (LMICs) was identified for vetting the framework developed. Opinions were sought about the feasibility of implementing near-miss reviews in India, the processes to be followed, factors that made implementation successful and the associated challenges. A draft of the framework was revised based on the experts’ opinions.
Results
Five broad methods of near-miss case review/audit were identified: Facility-based near-miss case review, confidential enquiries, criterion-based clinical audit, structured case review (South African Model) and home-based interviews. The opinion of the 11 stakeholders highlighted that the methods that a facility adopts should depend on the type and number of cases the facility handles, availability and maintenance of a good documentation system, and local leadership and commitment of staff. A proposed framework for conducting near-miss reviews was developed that included a combination of criterion-based clinical audit and near-miss review methods.
Conclusion
The approach allowed for development of a framework for researchers and planners seeking to improve quality of maternal care not only at the facility level but also beyond, encompassing community health workers and referral. Further work is needed to evaluate the implementation of this framework to determine its efficacy in improving the quality of care and hence maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1186/s12913-014-0553-x
PMCID: PMC4232644  PMID: 25391999
Near-miss; Audit; Quality of care; Framework; India
17.  Serum Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin as A Sensitive Marker in Diagnosing Alcohol Abuse: A Case – Control Study 
Background: Alcoholism is a major problem in India thereby causing a heavy toll on the health related expenditure of the country. Detection of alcohol abuse rely mainly on clinical details which is sometimes inaccurate or unreliable and hence using a specific diagnostic parameter might be of immense use not only for early diagnosis but also during follow up of the cases.
Aims and Objectives: This case control study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (CDT) as a sensitive marker to diagnose alcohol abuse.
Materials and Methods: The study was approved by Institutional research and ethical committee. Twenty five known male alcoholics who attended to the OPD (Out Patient Department) of Alcohol de-addiction centre of a tertiary care hospital were selected as cases. All of them were diagnosed to have a strong likely hood of hazardous alcohol consumption based on ‘Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test” (AUDIT) questionnaire. Twenty five age matched, gender matched healthy individuals who were teetotalers were selected as controls. They scored zero in AUDIT questionnaire. Informed consent was obtained from all the cases and controls. The following tests were done: Liver function tests including Serum Bilirubin, Total Proteins, Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST), Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) and Blood glucose levels were estimated using a fully automated biochemistry analyser, XL – 300 (Trans Asia Biomedical systems) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) was done using an automated hematology analyser Sysmex KX-21. Percentage of Serum Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin (%CDT) was assessed using immuno Turbidimetric assay, ELISA method (iMark, Bio-Rad Laboratories,).
Statistical analysis of the data obtained was done using SPSS 16.0.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference in values of AST, ALT, ALP, MCV, GGT and % CDT in cases as compared to controls. ROC curves drawn to assess the sensitivity and specificity of each parameter showed that %CDT has the highest sensitivity and specificity (84% and 92% respectively) and MCV (48% and 52% respectively) had the least. GGT when compared to % CDT had a lower sensitivity and specificity (64% and 72% respectively).
Conclusion: % CDT is a sensitive biomarker which can be used to diagnose alcohol abuse and is superior to GGT in terms of sensitivity as well as specificity.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5137.2726
PMCID: PMC3592273  PMID: 23542570
GGT,; % CDT; Diagnostic marker; Alcohol abuse
18.  Low use of statins and other coronary secondary prevention therapies in primary and secondary care in India 
Objective:
To determine the frequency of use of pharmacotherapy with aspirin, beta blocker, statin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) among physicians at different levels of health care in Rajasthan state, India.
Methods:
Physicians practicing at tertiary hospitals and clinics at tertiary, secondary and primary levels were contacted. Prescriptions of CHD patients were audited and descriptive statistics reported.
Results:
We evaluated 2,993 prescriptions (tertiary hospital discharge 711, tertiary 688, secondary 1,306, and primary 288). Use of aspirin was in 2,713 (91%) of prescriptions, beta blockers 2,057 (69%), ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) 2,471 (82%), and statins 2,059 (69%). Any one of these drugs was prescribed in 2,991 (100%), any two in 2,880 (96%), any three in 1,740 (58%), and all four in 1,062 (35.5%) (P < 0.001). As compared to tertiary hospital, prescriptions at tertiary, secondary, and primary levels were lower: aspirin (96% vs 95%, 91%, 67%), beta blockers (80% vs 62%, 66%, 70%), statins (87% vs 82%, 62%, 21%): two drugs (98% vs 96%, 98%, 85%), three drugs (75% vs 58%, 55%, 28%), or four drugs (54% vs 44%, 28%, 7%) (P < 0.01). Use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs was similar while nitrates (43% vs 23%, 43%, 70%), dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (12% vs 15%, 30%, 47%), and multivitamins (6% vs 26%, 37%, 47%) use was more in secondary and primary care.
Conclusions:
There is suboptimal use of various evidence-based drugs (aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins) for secondary prevention of CHD in India.
PMCID: PMC2788593  PMID: 19997570
statins; coronary heart disease; aspirin; beta blockers; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
19.  Improving diabetes care: Multi-component CArdiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Strategies for People with Diabetes in South Asia - The CARRS Multi-center Translation Trial 
Aims
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes in South Asia. The CARRS translation trial tests the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a clinic-based multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention among people with diabetes in India and Pakistan.
Methods
We randomly assigned 1,146 adults with diabetes recruited from 10 urban clinic sites, to receive usual care by physicians or to receive an integrated multi-component CVD risk reduction intervention. The intervention involves electronic health record management, decision-support prompts to the healthcare team, and the support of a care coordinator to actively facilitate patient and provider adherence to evidence-based guidelines. The primary outcome is a composite of multiple CVD risk factor control (blood glucose and either blood pressure or cholesterol, or all three). Other outcomes include control of the individual CVD risk factors, process and patient-centered measures, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability/feasibility.
Conclusion
The CARRS translation trial tests a low-cost diabetes care delivery model in urban South Asia to achieve comprehensive cardio-metabolic disease case-management of high-risk patients (clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01212328).
doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2012.09.023
PMCID: PMC3544938  PMID: 23084280
diabetes; cardiovascular risk; South Asia; translation research; healthcare delivery
20.  Platelet audit: Assessment and utilization of this precious resource from a tertiary care hospital 
Background:
To assess the appropriate utilization of platelet transfusions [random donor platelets (RDP) and single donor platelets (SDP)]; a six-month retrospective audit was carried out in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A six-month retrospective platelet audit was carried out from May to October 2005 to estimate its preparation, appropriate utilization and wastage rate. Patient's demographics, transfusion triggers and episodes and ABO and Rh (D) group specific or non-group specific transfusions were also assessed.
Results:
About 5525 units of platelets [PRP-PC, 3,813 (69%); BC-PC, 983 (17.8%); PRP, 648 (11.7%) and SDP 81 (1.5%)] were prepared and transfused to 853 patients (RDP to 814 patients and SDP to 39 patients) in 2,093 transfusion episodes. Adult and pediatric hemato-oncology were the main user specialties utilizing 39.1 and 87.6% of the RDPs and SDPs prepared. Of the patients receiving RDPs, 95% were transfused ABO and Rh (D) group specific platelets whereas 100% SDPs transfusions were of group specific platelets. 88% of prophylactic platelet transfusions were appropriate as per the recommended BCSH guidelines. However, 12% of the prophylactic platelets were transfused inappropriately in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgeries with normal platelet counts and no evidence of bleeding related to platelets. Out of 5,444 RDPs prepared 1,585 (29.11%) units were not utilized.
Conclusions:
Regular audit of blood and blood components is a must so that necessary remedial measures can be taken to maximize appropriate and judicious utilization of each component.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.28066
PMCID: PMC3168134  PMID: 21938226
Appropriate utilization; platelet transfusion; transfusion audit
21.  Identifying Aboriginal-specific AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 cutoff scores for at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent drinkers using measures of agreement with the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test 
Background
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is a 10-item alcohol screener that has been recommended for use in Aboriginal primary health care settings. The time it takes respondents to complete AUDIT, however, has proven to be a barrier to its routine delivery. Two shorter versions, AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3, have been used as screening instruments in primary health care. This paper aims to identify the AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 cutoff scores that most closely identify individuals classified as being at-risk drinkers, high-risk drinkers, or likely alcohol dependent by the 10-item AUDIT.
Methods
Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted from June 2009 to May 2010 and from July 2010 to June 2011. Aboriginal Australian participants (N = 156) were recruited through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service, and a community-based drug and alcohol treatment agency in rural New South Wales (NSW), and through community-based Aboriginal groups in Sydney NSW. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each score on the AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 were calculated, relative to cutoff scores on the 10-item AUDIT for at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent drinkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to measure the detection characteristics of AUDIT-C and AUDIT-3 for the three categories of risk.
Results
The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were high for drinkers classified as being at-risk, high-risk, and likely dependent.
Conclusions
Recommended cutoff scores for Aboriginal Australians are as follows: at-risk drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 5, AUDIT-3 ≥ 1; high-risk drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 6, AUDIT-3 ≥ 2; and likely dependent drinkers AUDIT-C ≥ 9, AUDIT-3 ≥ 3. Adequate sensitivity and specificity were achieved for recommended cutoff scores. AUROC curves were above 0.90.
doi:10.1186/1940-0640-9-17
PMCID: PMC4158391  PMID: 25179547
AUDIT; AUDIT-C; AUDIT-3; Alcohol; Measures; Aboriginal
22.  Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit) 
Background
The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring “important, simple things are done right all the time.” Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components: an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting.
Methods
Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality.
Results
QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2–90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation.
Conclusions
International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for diabetes care is a freely available in the public domain encompassing patient education, care plans, and educational resources for healthcare professionals including summary guidelines. The AS may provide a unique approach in delivering high quality diabetes care in countries with limited resources.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-467) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-467
PMCID: PMC4283094  PMID: 25306156
Diabetes mellitus; Chronic disease management; Alphabet strategy; Quality of care; Checklist; Multifactorial intervention
23.  Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in High Burden Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(11):e1001120.
A cost-effectiveness study by Frank Cobelens and colleagues reveals that Xpert MTB/RIF is a cost-effective method of tuberculosis diagnosis that is suitable for use in low- and middle-income settings.
Background
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a promising new rapid diagnostic technology for tuberculosis (TB) that has characteristics that suggest large-scale roll-out. However, because the test is expensive, there are concerns among TB program managers and policy makers regarding its affordability for low- and middle-income settings.
Methods and Findings
We estimate the impact of the introduction of Xpert on the costs and cost-effectiveness of TB care using decision analytic modelling, comparing the introduction of Xpert to a base case of smear microscopy and clinical diagnosis in India, South Africa, and Uganda. The introduction of Xpert increases TB case finding in all three settings; from 72%–85% to 95%–99% of the cohort of individuals with suspected TB, compared to the base case. Diagnostic costs (including the costs of testing all individuals with suspected TB) also increase: from US$28–US$49 to US$133–US$146 and US$137–US$151 per TB case detected when Xpert is used “in addition to” and “as a replacement of” smear microscopy, respectively. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for using Xpert “in addition to” smear microscopy, compared to the base case, range from US$41–$110 per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Likewise the ICERS for using Xpert “as a replacement of” smear microscopy range from US$52–$138 per DALY averted. These ICERs are below the World Health Organization (WHO) willingness to pay threshold.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that Xpert is a cost-effective method of TB diagnosis, compared to a base case of smear microscopy and clinical diagnosis of smear-negative TB in low- and middle-income settings where, with its ability to substantially increase case finding, it has important potential for improving TB diagnosis and control. The extent of cost-effectiveness gain to TB programmes from deploying Xpert is primarily dependent on current TB diagnostic practices. Further work is required during scale-up to validate these findings.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease that infects one-third of the world's population. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that most commonly infects the lungs (known as pulmonary TB) and is transmitted from person to person when an infected individual coughs, sneezes, or talks. The symptoms of TB include chest pain, weight loss, fever, and a persistent cough that sometimes contains blood. Only 5%–10% of people who are infected with TB become sick or infectious, but people with weakened immune systems, such as individuals who are HIV-positive, are more likely to develop the disease. TB is estimated to have killed 1.7 million people in 2009 and is currently the leading cause of death among people infected with HIV.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although TB can be treated with a six-month course of antibiotics, effectively diagnosing TB is not always straightforward and drug resistance is becoming an increasing problem. One of the most common and simple methods to diagnose TB is a technique called sputum smear microscopy, which involves examining matter from the lungs under a microscope for the presence of TB-causing bacteria. However, despite being cheap and relatively simple, the test does not always detect active TB (smear-negative) and cannot determine whether the TB-causing bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. The World Health Organization has recently endorsed a new rapid test, called Xpert MTB/RIF (referred to as Xpert), for the initial diagnosis of TB. The test uses DNA amplification methods to reliably and quickly detect TB and whether infecting bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin. The new test is expensive so there are concerns that the test might not be cost-effective in low- and middle-income countries.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used a technique called modeling to simulate the outcome of 10,000 individuals with suspected TB as they went through a hypothetical diagnostic and treatment pathway. The model compared the costs associated with the introduction of Xpert to a base case for two different scenarios. In the base case all individuals with suspected TB had two sputum smear microscopy examinations followed by clinical diagnosis if they were smear-negative. For the different scenarios Xpert was either used in addition to the two sputum smear microscopy examinations (if the patient was smear-negative) or Xpert was used as a replacement for sputum smear microscopy for all patients. Different input parameters, based on country-specific estimates, were applied so that the model reflected the implementation of Xpert in India, South Africa, and Uganda.
In the researcher's model the introduction of Xpert increased the proportion of TB-infected patients who were correctly diagnosed with TB in any of the settings. However, the cost per TB case detected increased by approximately US$100 in both scenarios. Although the cost of detection increased significantly, the cost of treatment increased only moderately because the number of false-positive cases was reduced. For example, the percentage of treatment costs spent on false-positive diagnoses in India was predicted to fall from 22% to 4% when Xpert was used to replace sputum smear microscopy. The model was used to calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs—the additional cost of each disability-adjusted life year [DALY] averted) for the different scenarios of Xpert implementation in the different settings. In comparison to the base case, introducing Xpert in addition to sputum smear microscopy produced ICERs ranging from US$41 to US$110 per DALY averted, while introducing Xpert instead of sputum smear microscopy yielded ICERs ranging from US$52 to US$138 per DALY averted.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The findings suggest that the implementation of Xpert in addition to, or instead of, sputum smear microscopy will be cost-effective in low- and middle-income countries. The calculated ICERs are below the World Health Organization's “willingness to pay threshold” for all settings. That is the incremental cost of each DALY averted by introduction of Xpert is below the gross domestic product per capita for each country ($1,134 for India, $5,786 South Africa, and $490 for Uganda in 2010). However, the authors note that achieving ICERs below the “willingness to pay threshold” does not necessarily mean that countries have the resources to implement the test. The researchers also note that there are limitations to their study; additional unknown costs associated with the scale-up of Xpert and some parameters, such as patient costs, were not included in the model. Although the model strongly suggests that Xpert will be cost-effective, the researchers caution that initial roll-out of Xpert should be carefully monitored and evaluated before full scale-up.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001120.
The World Health Organization provides information on all aspects of tuberculosis, including tuberculosis diagnostics and the Stop TB Partnership (some information is in several languages)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has information about tuberculosis, including information on the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease
MedlinePlus has links to further information about tuberculosis (in English and Spanish)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001120
PMCID: PMC3210757  PMID: 22087078
24.  Evaluation of POSSUM and P-POSSUM as a tool for prediction of surgical outcomes in the Indian population 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(7):366-373.
Background
Increased scrutiny and the need to institute a truly patient centered approach to surgical care has motivated the growing interest in measuring the quality of surgical care through comparative surgical audit. This study aimed to assess the validity of the POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity) and P-POSSUM (Portsmouth-POSSUM) score in predicting the risk of morbidity and mortality respectively in general surgical patients presenting with conditions of various operative severities at a tertiary care centre in Haryana, a northern state of India.
Method
A prospective study was performed in 100 general surgical patients including an equal number of patients in each of the four groups of operative severity i.e. minor, moderate, major, major plus. The risks of mortality and morbidity were calculated by using the POSSUM equation for morbidity and the P-POSSUM equation for mortality in each patient. The predicted risks were compared with the observed risks of mortality and morbidity and statistically analysed.
Results
The difference in p value of predicted risk of morbidity by POSSUM equation and observed morbidity; calculated by chi square test was 0.756 which was not statistically significant. The difference in p value of predicted mortality by P-POSSUM equation and observed mortality; calculated by chi square test was 0.472 which was also not statistically significant.
Conclusion
POSSUM and P-POSSUM appear to be good and valid indices for use in the risk prediction of morbidity and mortality in the north Indian population.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011558
PMCID: PMC3562937  PMID: 23393521
POSSUM; P-POSSUM; Surgical outcome
25.  Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Profiling of Group C Employees in JIPMER, Puducherry 
Background:
Settings-based approach for health promotion includes conducting risk factor surveillance as one of its component. It was aimed to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors among group C employees of tertiary care hospital in south India.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 group C employees aged ≥20 years using the WHO “STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases” (STEPS) methodology. Standardized international protocols were used to measure behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity) and physical characteristics (weight, waist and hip circumferences, height, and blood pressure). Multivariate analysis was done to predict the factors, which carry independent risk of hypertension. Risk factor profiling of the staff was done using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart to calculate the 10-year risk of a fatal or non-fatal major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke), according to age, gender, blood pressure, smoking status, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus.
Results:
Mean age in years was 40.9 (±10.4), and men constituted 81.3% of study population. Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors was as follows: Current smokers 12.3% men, regular alcohol intake 33.2% among men, overweight (≥23 kg/m2) 74.5%, central obesity 78.7%, hypertension 38.8%, and history of diabetes mellitus 13.2%. Age, gender, physical inactivity, obesity, and family history of hypertension were found to be independently associated with hypertension. Four percent participants had a >10% risk of developing CVD in next 10 years.
Conclusion:
The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high in the sample population. Employee wellness program should be started in the institute to combat the burden of cardiovascular diseases.
doi:10.4103/2249-4863.141624
PMCID: PMC4209683  PMID: 25374865
Cardio-vascular disease; employee; risk factor profile

Results 1-25 (389531)