The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.
The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty one individuals including normotensives (n = 12) and hypertensives (n = 19) were enrolled for the study and their blood pressure recorded. Hypertensive group was sub divided into two: hypertensives on calcium channel blockers and hypertensives on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Serum calcium levels were measured by Accucare Calcium Arsenazo III kit. Differences between the groups were analyzed using ANOVA.
No significant difference in serum calcium level was found between normotensive and hypertensive groups; and no correlation was found between calcium levels and the blood pressure. Also the difference in serum calcium levels in hypertensive group on calcium channel blockers and those on antihypertensive other than calcium channel blockers was insignificant.
Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. Subtle changes in serum levels do not affect blood pressure.
Antihypertensive medication; Calcium channel blocker; Hypertension; Normotension; Serum calcium
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of hypertension tends to increase with age. Current treatments for hypertension have adverse side effects and poor adherence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of moxibustion on blood pressure in individuals with pre- or stage I hypertension.
Forty-five subjects with pre- or stage I hypertension will be randomized into three groups: treatment group A (2 times/week), treatment group B (3 times/week), and the control group (non-treated group). The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) aged between 19 and 65 years; (2) prehypertension or stage I hypertension (JNC 7, Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure); (3) the participants are volunteers and written consent obtained.
The participants in the treatment group A will undergo indirect moxibustion 2 times per week for 4 weeks, and the participants in the treatment group B will undergo indirect moxibustion 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The participants in the control group (non-treated group) will maintain their current lifestyle, including diet and exercise. The use of antihypertensive medication is not permitted. The primary endpoint will be a change in patient blood pressure. The secondary endpoints will be the body mass index, lipid profile, EuroQol and Heart Rate Variability. The data will be analyzed with the Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p < 0.05).
The results of this study will help to establish the optimal approach for the care of adults with pre- or stage I hypertension.
Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000469
Moxibustion; Hypertension; Prehypertension
The contribution of inflammation to hypertension and target organ damage is under investigation. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are inflammatory mediators that may contribute to hypertension and its target organ consequences. Here we probe MMPs as inflammatory mediators in hypertension, by studying all three MMP classes in uncomplicated hypertension as well hypertension with profound renal damage, such as hypertensive end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We assayed plasma levels of five MMPs: one collagenase (MMP-1), two gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), and two stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10). In hypertension, MMP-9 was elevated versus normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in all three subject groups positively correlated with MMP-9. In hypertensive-ESRD, MMP-2 and MMP-10 were elevated compared to both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Several correlations occurred across MMPs, suggesting coordinate biosynthetic control. Our results suggest discrete patterns of MMP overexpression in hypertension, with MMP-9 elevated early, and MMP-2 and MMP-10 linked to target organ damage.
essential hypertension; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); inflammation
To determine if children with white coat hypertension (WCH) have evidence of target-organ damage by comparing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of subjects with WCH to that of matched normotensive and hypertensive controls.
Each WCH subject was matched by body mass index (± 10%), age (± 1 year), and sex to a normotensive control and to a hypertensive control. Echocardiograms were reviewed to determine LVMI for each subject. These triple matches were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to detect differences in LVMI between the three groups.
Twenty-seven matched triplets were established. The groups were comparable for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Mean LVMI was 29.2, 32.3, and 35.1 g/m2.7, for normotensives, WCH, and sustained hypertensives, respectively (normotensive vs. WCH, p = 0.028; WCH vs. sustained hypertensive, p = 0.07). Left ventricular hypertrophy was not present in any subject in the normotensive or WCH groups, but was present in 26% of the sustained hypertensive subjects (p < 0.001).
After controlling closely for BMI, children with WCH had a LVMI which was intermediate between that of normotensives and sustained hypertensives, suggesting that WCH may be associated with hypertensive end-organ effects.
In community surveys of hypertension control the diagnosis is often based on blood pressure measurements taken on only one visit. The clinical diagnosis of hypertension requires demonstration of sustained blood pressure elevation. We conducted a survey that contrasted the results of these two approaches to determining the prevalence of hypertension and the extent to which hypertension is detected and treated. A multistage random sample of 2737 people was selected, examined and interviewed on up to three occasions. Rates of hypertension prevalence and control were computed from data from one, two and three visits. The prevalence of hypertension was overestimated by 30% when the diagnosis was based on data from one rather than three visits, the rates being 149 and 115/1000. The prevalence of undetected hypertension was overestimated by 350%, the rates being 27 and 6/1000. The proportion of subjects with controlled hypertension was underestimated by 23%, at 56%, compared with 73%. These results confirm the need for follow-up measurements to provide a valid assessment of hypertension control in the community.
Nocturnal blood pressure abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether they are related to the presence or severity of hypertension.
To determine and compare the prevalence of sleep pattern disturbances in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive patients.
The present cross-sectional study assessed the nocturnal blood pressure profiles from 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of refractory hypertensive (RH) (n=26), controlled hypertensive (CH) (n=52) and NT (n=52) subjects who were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Results are expressed as mean ± SD or proportion, as appropriate.
During sleep, the percentage fall in mean arterial pressure was 15.1±6.1% in the NT group, 11.5±7.0% in the CH group and 7.7±7.7% in the RH group (P<0.0001). The corresponding proportions of nondipping were 25.0%, 42.3% and 61.5%, respectively (P=0.006), and those of nocturnal hypertension were 9.6%, 23.1% and 84.6%, respectively (P<0.0001). All pairwise comparisons of nocturnal blood pressure fall were significant. The proportion of subjects in the RH group who experienced a rise in nocturnal blood pressure (19.2%) was significantly greater than the proportions in the NT and CH groups (P=0.001), as was the proportion of subjects with nocturnal hypertension (P<0.0001). There was less extreme dipping in RH, although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.08).
A significantly higher prevalence of nondipping, nocturnal hypertension and nocturnal blood pressure rising in RH was demonstrated. These sleep disturbances or independently, their cause, may account for the difficulties in attaining blood pressure control.
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Nocturnal blood pressure; Refractory hypertension
Hypertension is the most important public health problem in developing countries and one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and it has been reported that hypertension is in part an inflammatory disorder and several workers have reported elevated levels of CRP in hypertensive individuals. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between blood pressure and serum CRP levels across the range of blood pressure categories including prehypertension. A total of 104 patients and 63 control subjects were included in the present study. The level of CRP in the serum samples was estimated by a high sensitivity immunoturbidometric assay. Standard unpaired student’s ‘t’ test was used for comparison of hs-CRP levels between hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects and between patient groups with different grades of hypertension and different durations of hypertensive histories. The mean serum hs-CRP level in hypertensive patients was 3.26 mg/L compared with 1.36 mg/L among normotensive control subjects (P<0.001). On comparison with normotensive control subjects, the hs-CRP levels vary significantly both with grades and duration of hypertension, with most significant difference found in patients with prehypertension (P<0.001), followed by Stage-I (P=0.01) and Stage-II(P=0.02) hypertensives. Significant difference in hs-CRP levels was also found in patients with shorter duration of hypertensive history (≤ 1year) when compared with those with ≥5 years of hypertensive history (P<0.01). Our study reveals a graded association between blood pressure and CRP elevation in people with hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension or with shorter duration of hypertension (≤1 Year) had significantly a greater likelihood of CRP elevation in comparison to chronic stage-I or stage-II hypertensives.
Hypertension; Inflammatory disorder; hs-CRP; Stage I
This study evaluated the oxidative stress through enzymatic and nonenzymatic biomarkers in diabetic patients with and without hypertension and prediabetics. The SOD and CAT (in erythrocytes) and GPx (in plasma) enzymatic activities, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation, and total thiols were measured in the blood of 55 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 38 subjects without diabetes (9 pre-diabetics and 29 controls) aged 40–86 years. The total SOD activity and the lipid peroxidation were higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetics. In stratified groups, the total SOD activity was different for the hypertensive diabetics compared to the prediabetics and normotensive controls. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in both groups of diabetics (hypertensive and normotensive) compared to prediabetic groups and hypertensive and normotensive controls. There was no significant difference in the CAT and GPx activities, as well as in the concentration of total thiols in the groups studied. Present data strongly suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of diabetes, revealing that the increased lipid peroxidation has a close relationship with high glucose levels, as observed by the fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. The results evidence the correlation between lipid peroxidation and DM, irrespective of the presence of hypertension.
Background: Rarefaction of skin capillaries in people with intermittent borderline essential hypertension suggests a primary or an early abnormality that may antedate the onset of sustained hypertension.
Objective: To compare skin capillary density in subjects with and without a family history of essential hypertension.
Subjects: 21 normotensive individuals, one or both of whose parents had essential hypertension (mean age 39.3 years; blood pressure 124/79 mm Hg); 21 normotensive controls with no family history of hypertension (age 46.3 years; blood pressure 124/78 mm Hg).
Methods: The skin of the dorsum of the fingers was examined by intravital capillary microscopy before and after venous congestion at 60 mm Hg for two minutes.
Results: By analysis of variance, both baseline and maximum skin capillary density were lower in subjects with a family history of essential hypertension than in those with no family history (baseline: 67 v 79 capillaries per field, p = 0.008; maximum: 74 v 93 capillaries per field, p < 0.0005).
Conclusions: Capillary rarefaction in essential hypertension may occur before the increase in blood pressure and could, at least in part, reflect a primary rather than a secondary abnormality.
essential hypertension; microcirculation; capillaries
Masked hypertension is associated with metabolic risks and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of and risk factors of masked hypertension in Korean workers.
The study was conducted among 121 employees at a hotel in Gyeongju, Korea, from December 2008 to February 2009. We measured blood pressure (BP) both in the clinic and using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitors for all subjects. Hypertension was defined independently by both methods, and subjects were classified into four groups: true normotension, masked hypertension, white coat hypertension, and sustained hypertension.
The frequency of masked hypertension in our study group was 25.6%. Compared with true normotension, the factors related to masked hypertension were male gender (odds ratio [OR], 10.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 81.09), aging one year (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99), clinic BP 120-129/80-84 mmHg (OR, 8.42; 95% CI, 1.51 to 46.82), clinic BP 130-139 / 85-89 mmHg (OR, 12.14; 95% CI, 1.80 to 81.85), smoking (OR, 5.51; 95% CI, 1.15 to 26.54), and increase of total cholesterol 1 mg / dL (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.08). In males only, these factors were clinic BP 120-129 / 80-84 mmHg (OR, 15.07; 95% CI, 1.55 to 146.19), clinic BP 130-139 / 85-89 mmHg (OR, 17.16; 95% CI, 1.56 to 189.45), smoking (OR, 11.61; 95% CI, 1.52 to 88.62), and increase of total cholesterol 1 mg/dL (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09).
The frequency of masked hypertension was high in our study sample. Detection and management of masked hypertension, a known strong predictor of cardiovascular risk, could improve prognosis for at-risk populations.
Hypertension; Masked hypertension; Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Worksite
Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypertension on cognition, particularly in midlife, are unclear. We examined whether hypertension modifies genetic influences on individual differences in cognition. Nine cognitive domains and general cognitive ability were assessed in a sample of 1237 male twins aged 51–60 who were divided into three blood pressure groups: non-hypertensive; medicated hypertensive; and unmedicated hypertensive. Heritability was significantly lower among unmedicated hypertensives compared to medicated hypertensives and non-hypertensives for visual-spatial ability (p=0.013) and episodic memory (p=0.004). There were no heritability differences between non-hypertensives and medicated hypertensives. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean level cognition across the three blood pressure groups. These results suggest that in middle-aged men, untreated hypertension suppresses normal genetic influences on individual differences in certain domains of cognition prior to the emergence of hypertension-related effects on cognitive performance. These results further suggest that antihypertensive medication may protect against or reverse this effect.
hypertension; cognition; twins; heritability; aging
Incidence of preoperative rise in blood pressure (BP) in cataract surgery among hypertensive and normotensive patients.
To study the incidence of preoperative rise in BP in cataract surgery among normotensive individuals and hypertensive patients with historic good BP control in a population without other major chronic diseases.
Ophthalmology Service of a University Hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study with 822 patients older than 40 years of age, with cataract surgery indication, and without major chronic diseases other than hypertension. The patients were divided in two groups: hypertensive and normotensive. Preoperative data, physical exams and medical adverse events were recorded in an evaluation questionnaire.
The sample included 427 normotensive (52%) and 395 hypertensive patients (48%). The two groups had similar proportions of operations that were cancelled and not subsequently rescheduled, 2% (eight patients) in each group. The incidence of preoperative rise in BP was 3.7% in the normotensive group and 10.9% in the hypertensive group (P < 0.001).
Hypertensive patients with historic good BP control and without other major co-morbidities present a larger incidence of preoperative rise in BP than normotensive individuals in cataract surgery.
Cataract; high blood pressure; systemic diseases
Context: Oxidative Stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and a biological system’s ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates.
Aims: 1. To compare the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.
2. To compare the levels of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.
3. To determine the correlation between the MDA levels and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) among hypertensive subjects.
4. To determine the correlation between the antioxidant enzyme levels and MAP among the hypertensive subjects and to evaluate the effect of 6 months of antihypertensive therapy with a tight blood pressure control on the MDA levels.
Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional study, 25 normotensive and 40 hypertensive subjects were recruited. The hypertensive subjects were further subdivided into three subgroups: Prehypertensives, Stage I hypertensives and Stage II hypertensives. All the subjects underwent a blood pressure measurement and the markers of oxidative stress in their sera were estimated. The subjects of Stage I hypertension and Stage II hypertension were given antihypertensive treatment for 6 months and their blood pressures were tightly regulated and brought to the normotensive state. After 6 months, the estimations of the markers of oxidative stress were done again.
Results: The MDA levels were significantly increased in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase and GPX) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the prehypertension and in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those in the control group. There was a significant increase in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes after 6 months of a tight regulation and bringing of the blood pressure to the normotensive state by giving antihypertensive therapy.
Conclusion: On comparison of the present study with other studies in which the use of antioxidants were found to be ineffective in the blood pressure reduction, it can be concluded that oxidative stress is an effect rather than a cause of essential hypertension.
Essential hypertension; Oxidative Stress; Catalase; Glutathione peroxidase; Superoxide Dismutase Antihypertensive therapy
The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends that clinicians consider use of multidrug therapy to increase likelihood of achieving blood pressure goal. Little is known about recent patterns of combination antihypertensive therapy use in patients being initiated on hypertension treatment.
We investigated combination antihypertensive therapy use in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients from the Cardiovascular Research Network Hypertension Registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between combination antihypertensive therapy and 12-month blood pressure control.
Between 2002–2007, a total of 161,585 patients met criteria for incident hypertension and were initiated on treatment. During the study period, an increasing proportion of patients were treated initially with combination rather than single agent therapy (20.7% in 2002 compared to 35.8% in 2007, P<0.001). This increase in combination therapy use was more pronounced in patients with stage 2 hypertension, whose combination therapy use increased from 21.6% in 2002 to 44.5% in 2007. Nearly 90% of initial combination therapy was accounted for by two combinations, a thiazide and a potassium-sparing diuretic (47.6%) and a thiazide and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (41.4%). After controlling for relevant clinical factors, including subsequent intensification of treatment and medication adherence, combination therapy was associated with increased odds of blood pressure control at 12 months (odds ratio compared to single-drug initial therapy 1.20; 95% CI 1.15 – 1.24, P<0.001).
Initial treatment of hypertension with combination therapy is increasingly common and is associated with better long-term blood pressure control.
A five-year follow-up study of the effects of treating patients with both mild and moderate hypertension was performed. The patients were identified during a hospital-based community survey of hypertension. A total of 961 patients were divided into four groups. The first group, the controls, were age- and sex-matched normotensive subjects selected sequentially from the same survey. The second group were patients defined as well-controlled hypertensives; the third group were patients whose blood pressures were less well-controlled; and the fourth group consisted of patients who, for various reasons, were not treated and as such acted as an untreated control group. Both mortality and morbidity were considerably greater in the untreated patients than in the normal subjects. The well-controlled hypertensive patients showed no difference in either morbidity or mortality from normal subjects. The less well-controlled patients had a significantly greater cardiovascular morbidity but no excess mortality over groups 1 and 2. This was true for both mild and moderate hypertension and for women as well as men. These findings therefore confirm the conclusions of other recent studies that good control of hypertension at all levels and in both sexes is justified by the reduction in morbidity and that even less than excellent control is of considerable benefit.
Serum IgG levels were significantly higher in 118 severely hypertensive patients compared with a group of 163 normotensive blood donors, matched for age and sex. Serum IgA and IgM were the same in both groups. Raised levels of serum IgG were found in patients who had never been treated for hypertension, as well as in those who were treated with methyldopa or other hypotensive drugs.
It is suggested that the raised levels of serum IgG may be an index of vascular damage induced by hypertension.
Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors.
The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year.
Materials and Methods:
Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb) levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and >50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in >50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio × 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value.
Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, χ2 and anova (F-test).
Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating <20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for >20 times (P < 0.001), compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors (P < 0.05) compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times.
Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.
Depletion of iron stores; iron deficiency; regular voluntary donors
Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD). However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period.
The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily.
The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors.
Materials and Methods:
From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again.
Chi-square test is applied.
A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32%) deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32%) donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%). Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%), graduate (82.90%), from low income group (62.90%) and profession was service (48.10%).
Low hemoglobin (78.30%) was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%). Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.
Donor return; hemoglobin; retrieval; temporary deferral; voluntary non-remunerated blood donors/ blood donor
The incidence of hypertension was sought in 102 children who had undergone renal transplantation. Fifty five were being treated with cyclosporin and 47 with azathioprine, and they were followed up for a maximum of five years. After one year 35 of those receiving cyclosporin (64%) and 34 of those receiving azathioprine (72%) were hypertensive; after five years the figures were 5/6 (83%) and 25/35 (71%), respectively. Recipients of grafts from living related donors had a lower incidence of hypertension than recipients of cadaveric grafts. The incidence of hypertension was higher in patients with acquired original kidney disease than in children with congenital or familial diseases. In both groups creatinine clearance and the frequency of acute rejection episodes did not differ between normotensive and hypertensive patients. When the lowest concentrations of cyclosporin in whole blood were more than 400 ng/ml the incidence of hypertension one year after transplantation was higher. The incidence of hypertension after renal transplantation in children is higher than that reported in adults. Acquired original disease, transplantation of cadaveric grafts, and nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin are all contributory factors.
Regional differences between large cities and rural areas are observed in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). This present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary factors on hypertension risk in Korean populations, especially residents of the Chungcheong province which was not in metropolitan area, using KNHANES III. A total of 544 adults aged ≥ 19 years were placed into either the normotensive or the hypertensive group. Subject characteristics, BMI, blood pressure, and nutrient intakes were compared between the two groups using a chi-square test and t-test. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for energy intake and selected covariates. There were significant differences in age, education level, alcohol consumption, and BMI between the normotensive and hypertensive groups. We found decreased ORs for the medium versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88), for the highest versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90) with significant trends in risk (P = 0.040), and for the medium versus lowest tertile of potassium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89). Subjects with the highest sodium/calcium ratio had a 2.10-fold greater risk of hypertension compared to the subject with the lowest, with significant trends in risk (P = 0.002). Adequate calcium and potassium intake should be encouraged and regional differences should be considered in making a healthy plan for hypertension management.
Hypertension; sodium; potassium; calcium; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
People with hypertension are commonly warned to check with a physician before using a hot tub, but there is little literature on which to base this advice. We compared symptoms, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in response to 10 minutes of hot-tub immersion in a group of patients with treated hypertension and in a control group normotensive subjects.
We recruited 21 patients (18 men and 3 women aged 43–76 years) with stable, treated hypertension and 23 control subjects (14 men and 9 women aged 19–83 years) without hypertension. They were studied, in mid-afternoon, at a public facility. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline, during immersion in a hot tub at 40°C and for 10 minutes after immersion. We asked each subject to report any symptoms.
None of the subjects reported dizziness, chest pain or palpitations. During immersion, systolic blood pressure fell in both groups, from a mean (and standard deviation [SD]) of 144 (17) mm Hg to 122 (18) mm Hg in the hypertensive group (p < 0.05) and from 130 (14) mm Hg to 110 (17) mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.05). It returned toward baseline within 10 minutes after the subjects left the hot tub. Diastolic blood pressure also fell, whereas heart rate was increased in both groups. The hypertensive group showed a slightly lower maximal increase in heart rate than the normotensive group (5 [SD 5] v. 13 [SD 10] beats/minute, p < 0.05).
Immersion in a hot tub for 10 minutes lowers blood pressure in subjects with treated hypertension, but no more than in normotensive control subjects. Spending 10 minutes in a hot tub should be safe for most treated hypertensive patients.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of angiotensin I, II and 1–7 on left ventricular hypertrophy of Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats submitted to sinoaortic denervation.
Ten weeks after sinoaortic denervation, hemodynamic and morphofunctional parameters were analyzed, and the left ventricle was dissected for biochemical analyses.
Hypertensive groups (controls and denervated) showed an increase on mean blood pressure compared with normotensive ones (controls and denervated). Blood pressure variability was higher in denervated groups than in their respective controls. Left ventricular mass and collagen content were increased in the normotensive denervated and in both spontaneously hypertensive groups compared with Wistar controls. Both hypertensive groups presented a higher concentration of angiotensin II than Wistar controls, whereas angiotensin 1–7 concentration was decreased in the hypertensive denervated group in relation to the Wistar groups. There was no difference in angiotensin I concentration among groups.
Our results suggest that not only blood pressure variability and reduced baroreflex sensitivity but also elevated levels of angiotensin II and a reduced concentration of angiotensin 1–7 may contribute to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. These data indicate that baroreflex dysfunction associated with changes in the renin angiotensin system may be predictive factors of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac failure.
Angiotensins; Left ventricular hypertrophy; SAD; Spontaneously hypertensive rats; Collagen
Net fluxes of sodium and potassium ions were determined in sodium-loaded, potassium-depleted erythrocytes from 370 white subjects, 194 of whom had essential hypertension or had been born to parents with essential hypertension. Findings were compared with those in 86 controls who were normotensive and did not have a family history of hypertension. Compared with controls all patients with essential hypertension had a low sodium to potassium ratio secondary to a deficit in the sodium-potassium cotransport system. A similar abnormality was found in subjects born to parents with essential hypertension, the prevalences of a deficient cotransport system in such subjects being 53.6% (52 out of 97) among those with one hypertensive parent and 73.7% (14 out of 19) among those with two hypertensive parents. Both sexes were equally affected. Studies in 14 families over two or three generations showed the erythrocyte cation abnormality in one or more members of each consecutive generation. No close association was evident between the deficient erythrocyte sodium-potassium cotransport system and either blood groups ABO, Rh, Kidd, Duffy, P, and MNS or the major histocompatibility HLA antigens. Out of 90 consecutive unrelated and normotensive white blood donors, 36 showed a low erythrocyte sodium-potassium net flux ratio. It is concluded that in white people abnormal erythrocyte cation transport is a biochemical disorder characteristic of essential hypertension and transmitted by a dominant and autosomal mode expressing a single abnormal gene.
Introduction. In this study, we investigated the role of exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on hemodynamic responses and survival rate during decompensated hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive rat. Methods. Male wistar rats were divided into normotensive and hypertensive groups (n = 12 each). Then, the animals were subjected to decompensated hemorrhagic shock by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached to 40 mmHg. After the shock period, the animals were randomly assigned to SNP-treated (0.5 mg/kg) and control groups (n = 6 each). MAP and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout the experiment and 60 min after the administration of drug. Serum NO concentrations were measured. The survival rate was counted during next 72 h. Results. Infusion of SNP caused no significant changes in MAP and HR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Hemorrhagic shock increased serum NO concentration and SNP administration reduced serum NO concentration in either normotensive or hypertensive groups. Survival counts during 72 h after experiment did not improve by SNP administration, and there were no significant differences between normotensive and hypertensive groups. Conclusion. SNP administration cannot improve hemodynamic responses and survival count during decompensated hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive animals.
Background: A familial history of hypertension increases the risk of hypertension in the offsprings.
Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the underlying hypertension by using the Isometric Handgrip (IHG) exercise test in the offsprings of hypertensive parents and to compare it with age-matched controls of normotensive parents.
Material and Methods: The isometric handgrip test was performed in the study and control groups. The resting blood pressure was recorded before exercise and afterwards the subjects were asked to perform the isometric handgrip exercise with the dominant hand for 2 minutes. Then the blood pressure was recorded in the sitting position during and 5 minutes after the completion of the exercise.
Statistical Analysis: The analysis of the results was done by ANOVA with SPSS, version 17.0, by using the unpaired ‘t’ test.
Results: The results showed that the Resting Systolic (SBP), Diastolic (DBP) and the Mean (MBP) Blood Pressures were higher (p <0.001) in the offsprings of the hypertensive parents as compared to those in the control subjects of normotensive parents. During the isometric handgrip exercise test, the rise in the systolic, diastolic and the mean blood pressures was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the offsprings of the hypertensive parents. After 5 minutes of exercise, the SBP, DBP and the MBP were found to be significantly higher (p<0.001) in the study group as compared to those in the control group.
Conclusions: An early and a regular screening of the children of hypertensive parents is necessary to prevent any future cardiovascular complications.
Hypertension; Isometric handgrip; Resting blood pressure