Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (633617)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Thrombocytopenia and Associated Factors in Neonates Admitted to NICU during Years 2010_2011 
Thrombocytopenia is the most common hematological abnormality which is encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The incidence in neonates varies greatly, depending upon the population studies. According to the frequency of thrombocytopenia and its complications and because of lack of such research in Iran, this study was performed on neonates admitted to Shahid Sadughi NICU during years 2011-2012.
Materials and Methods
In a retrospective study, 350 neonates who were admitted to NICU were enrolled in the study. They were categorized to three groups regarding platelet count: mild, moderate and severe thrombocytopenia. Incidence of thrombocytopenia was determined and contribution of variables such as sex, gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, asphyxia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, blood group, placental insufficiency in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and hypertension (HTN) were analyzed.
Neonatal thrombocytopenia was found in 100(28.5%) of 350 subjects, consisted of 75.3% early onset and 24.7% late onset, which most of them (96.5%) had mild and moderate thrombocytopenia, and just 3.5% had developed severe thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was associated with sepsis, intrauterine growth retardation sepsis, asphyxia, GDM, maternal hypertension and prematurity. There was no relation between occurrence of thrombocytopenia and gender.
 The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 28.5 %. Significant maternal risk factors that lead to thrombocytopenia were HTN and preeclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and Intera Uterus Growth Retardation.
PMCID: PMC3915438  PMID: 24575265
Thrombocytopenia; Intensive Care Units; Neonatal; Incidence
2.  Hypoxia as a Predisposing Factor for the Development of Early Onset Neonatal Thrombocytopenia 
Journal of Clinical Neonatology  2012;1(3):131-134.
Thrombocytopenia in hypoxic neonates admitted in NICU is a morbid condition encountered very commonly. Early-onset thrombocytopenia (<72 h) is most commonly associated with fetomaternal conditions complicated by placental insufficiency and/or fetal hypoxia. Chronic intrauterine hypoxia is the most frequent cause of early-onset thrombocytopenia in preterm neonates.
In this study incidence and clinical impact of early thrombocytopenia in hypoxic neonates was investigated.
Setting and Design:
Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary level hospital attached to a medical college in Central India. A cross-sectional, observational hospital based study in hypoxic neonates for development of thrombocytopenia.
Materials and Methods:
603 hypoxic newborns were evaluated for development of thrombocytopenia. 155 (25.07%) developed thrombocytopenia and were the cases. Non thrombocytopenic babies 448 (74.29%) served as controls. The two groups were compared for birth weight, sex ratio, gestational age, severity of asphyxia, platelet counts and mortality rate.
Statistical Analysis:
Descriptive statistics of continuous variable were expressed in mean and SD. P value less than or equal to 0.05 were statistically significant.
Results and Conclusions:
We found thrombocytopenia to be associated with male gender, prematurity and low birth weight. Most babies had mild to moderate thrombocytopenia. Mortality was higher in preterm thrombocytopenic babies as compared to term. We suggest screening for thrombocytopenia in all asphyxiated newborns, as hypoxia can lead to neonatal thrombocytopenia.
PMCID: PMC3762028  PMID: 24027708
Neonate; birth asphyxia; hypoxia; thrombocytopenia; platelet count
3.  Platelet counts and outcome in the pediatric intensive care unit 
Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in critically ill patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the variation in platelet counts and the risk factors associated with thrombocytopenia and mortality in pediatric intensive care patients. In addition, prognostic value of platelet counts for outcome in pediatric intensive care unit was studied.
Study Design:
Prospective, observational cohort analysis.
8- bedded pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital.
All consecutively admitted patients (n=138) staying in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for at least 48h over a 7 months period were studied.
Measurements and Main Results:
Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet counts <150.0/nL. Median 1st day Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score (PRISM) was 5 (range 0-30) and median ICU stay was 4 days (range 2-98 days). Twenty five percent patients had at least one episode of thrombocytopenia during the stay. Twenty percent of these patients had thrombocytopenia on admission and rest (80%) developed it during the PICU stay. Seventy one percent (19) of the patients developed thrombocytopenia by fourth day of admission. Patients with PICU acquired thrombocytopenia had statistically significant lower baseline, nadir and 4th day platelet counts and a significantly higher drop in platelet counts (56% vs. 6% P<0.001) as compared to non thrombocytopenic patients. PRISM score, long PICU stay, sepsis, coagulopathy, and creatinine levels were significantly associated with occurrence of thrombocytopenia. Patients with thrombocytopenia had higher probability of bleeding (34% vs. 15%, P=0.01). Higher platelet counts on admission were associated with significantly reduced risk of thrombocytopenia (P=0.00) Baseline, nadir and day-4 platelet counts, presence of thrombocytopenia on admission, sepsis, coagulopathy and a higher mean PRISM score on univariate analysis were significantly associated with mortality. Leucopenia or leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy were found to significantly affect outcome. Drop in platelet counts was found to have slightly higher discriminative value for mortality prediction than PRISM on the ROC curve. The survivors had higher platelet counts throughout the PICU stay and after an initial fall in platelet counts in the PICU showed a significantly higher rise in the platelet counts in the following days than the non-survivors.
Thrombocytopenia is common in PICU. Patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation or with circulatory shock, coagulopathy, sepsis and with more severe disease have higher risk of developing thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenic patients have a higher risk of bleeding. Drop in platelet counts >27% and thrombocytopenia were independently related to mortality. Serial measurements of platelet counts are better predictors of pediatric intensive care outcome than one-time values. Any drop in platelet counts even without thrombocytopenia needs an urgent and extensive evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2738316  PMID: 19742257
Coagulopathy; mortality; pediatric intensive care; platelets; prognosis; thrombocytopenia
4.  Effects of in-vitro adult platelet transfusions on neonatal hemostasis 
Thrombocytopenia is frequent among neonates, and 20-25% of affected infants are treated with platelet transfusions. These are frequently given for mild thrombocytopenia (platelets 50-100×109/L), largely due to the known hyporeactivity of neonatal platelets. In tests of primary hemostasis, however, neonates have shorter bleeding and closure times (CTs) than adults. This has been attributed to their higher hematocrits, higher von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrations, and predominance of longer VWF polymers.
To determine whether the “transfusion” of adult (relatively hyper-reactive) platelets into neonatal blood results in a hypercoagulable profile.
Cord blood (CB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) were separated (using a modified buffy-coat method) to generate miniaturized platelet concentrates (PCs) and thrombocytopenic blood. PB- and CB-derived PCs (n=7 per group) were then “transfused” in-vitro into thrombocytopenic CB and PB. The effects of autologous vs. allogeneic (developmentally mismatched) “transfusions” were evaluated using whole blood aggregometry, platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and thromboelastography (TEG).
Adult platelets aggregated significantly better than neonatal platelets in response to TRAP, ADP and collagen, regardless of the blood into which they were transfused. The “transfusion” of adult platelets into thrombocytopenic CB resulted in shorter CTs-Epi (PFA-100) and higher clot strength and firmness (TEG), compared to “transfusion” of neonatal autologous platelets.
In vitro “transfusion” of adult platelets into neonatal blood results in shorter CTs than “transfusion” with neonatal platelets. Our findings should raise awareness of the differences between the neonatal and adult hemostatic system and the potential “developmental mismatch” associated with platelet transfusions on neonatal hemostasis.
PMCID: PMC3130591  PMID: 21320282
5.  Pseudo (Platelet-type) von Willebrand disease in pregnancy: a case report 
Pseudo (platelet-type)-von Willebrand disease is a rare autosomal dominant bleeding disorder caused by an abnormal function of the glycoprotein lb protein; the receptor for von Willebrand factor. This leads to an increased removal of VWF multimers from the circulation as well as platelets and this results in a bleeding diathesis. Worldwide, less than 50 patients are reported with platelet type von Willebrand disease (PT-VWD).
Case presentation
We describe the management of platelet type von Willebrand disease in pregnancy of a 26 year old Caucasian primigravida. The initial diagnosis was made earlier following a significant haemorrhage post tonsillectomy several years prior to pregnancy. The patient was managed under a multidisciplinary team which included obstetricians, haematologists, anaesthetists and neonatologists. Care plans were made for the ante- natal, intra-partum and post-partum periods in partnership with the patient. The patient’s platelet count levels dropped significantly during the antenatal period. This necessitated the active exclusion of other causes of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. A vaginal delivery was desired and plans were made for induction of labour at 38 weeks of gestation with platelet cover in view of the progressive fall of the platelet count. The patient however went into spontaneous labour on the day of induction. She was transfused two units of platelets before delivery. She had an unassisted vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. The successful antenatal counselling has encouraged the diagnosis of the same condition in her mother and sister. We found this to be a particularly interesting case as well as challenging to manage due to its rarity. Psuedo von Willebrand disease in pregnancy can be confused with a number of other differential diagnoses, such as gestational thrombocutopenia, idiopathatic thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and pre-eclampsia; all need consideration during investigations even in a case such as this where the diagnosis of platelet type von Willebrand disease was known before pregnancy.
Management of pseudo von Willebrand disease in pregnancy involves the co-operation of multidisciplinary teams, regular monitoring of platelet levels and factor VIII and replacement as appropriate. This case report highlights this rare condition and the need to exclude all the other differential diagnoses of thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with thrombocytopenia.
PMCID: PMC3558368  PMID: 23327637
Von Willebrand; Platelet type; Thrombocytopenia; Pregnancy
6.  Pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 
Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a disease that commonly affects women of reproductive age and is associated with maternal and fetal complications.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to report the perinatal outcome in pregnant women with ITP.
Materials and Methods: Twenty one pregnant women with ITP admitted in a teaching hospital in Tehran, from October 2008 to February 2010, were enrolled in this prospective historical cohort study; course and perinatal outcome of pregnancies were studied.
Results: Seven (33.3%) cases had been diagnosed before pregnancy, while the other fourteen (66.7%) were diagnosed during pregnancy. During hospitalization, thirteen (62%) patients required treatment, eight (61.5%) of them with steroids, two (15.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and three (23%) were treated with steroids and IVIG. Three babies were delivered vaginally (14.3%), seventeen (81%) through cesarean section and one patient aborted her fetus. Nine mothers (42.9%) had platelet counts <50000/ml at the time of delivery; but postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 4 (19%) women and one women received platelet transfusion during cesarean section. Six (28.6%) women developed gestational diabetes. Pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia in one woman and by abruptio placenta in another. One pregnancy terminated in intrauterine fetal death. Seventeen infants (89.5%) had normal platelet counts, and two (10.5%) had moderate thrombocytopenia. No infant showed signs of hemorrhage, but 2 neonates (10.5%) were diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusion: Rate of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with ITP is higher than the general population. Rate of gestinational diabetes is 3-5% and postpartum hemorrhage is 5-7% in general. Postpartum hemorrhage is common in these women. Severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding in the newborns are uncommon.
PMCID: PMC4169689  PMID: 25246917
Pregnancy outcomes; Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Neonatal outcome
7.  Neonatal outcome in alloimmune thrombocytopenia after maternal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin 
Blood Transfusion  2015;13(1):66-71.
Weekly maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the cornerstone of antenatal treatment of foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to describe the neonatal outcome and management in neonates with FNAIT treated antenatally with IVIG.
Materials and methods
All neonates treated antenatally and delivered at our centre between 2006 and 2012 were included in the study. We assessed the neonatal outcome and management, including the occurrence of intracranial haemorrhage, platelet count at birth and need for postnatal platelet transfusions or postnatal IVIG treatment.
A total of 22 neonates were included of whom 12 (55%) had severe thrombocytopenia at birth (platelet count ≤50×109/L). Most neonates (67%, 8/12) with severe thrombocytopenia received a platelet transfusion after birth. None of the neonates required postnatal treatment with IVIG. Three neonates had petechiae and haematomas, without clinical consequences. One foetus suffered from intracranial haemorrhage, which was detected just before the planned start of antenatal IVIG at 28 weeks’ gestation.
Our results suggest that antenatal maternal IVIG and, if necessary, postnatal matched platelet transfusions, are effective and safe for the treatment of FNAIT.
PMCID: PMC4317092  PMID: 24960663
alloimmune thrombocytopenia; neonatal; intravenous immunoglobulin; intracranial haemorrhage
8.  Thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis and role of platelet transfusion 
The study was designed to find out the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leptospirosis and to correlate thrombocytopenia with other parameters like renal failure, hepatic failure and bleeding manifestation like adult respiratory distress syndrome and to assess the role of platelet transfusion.
Materials and Methods:
50 cases of leptospirosis during the month of July and August 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Criteria for selection were Lepto Tek Dri - dot test positive cases of the clinically suspected cases of Leptospirosis. Degree of thrombocytopenia was categorized as severe, moderate and mild. Presence of thrombocytopenia was clinically correlated with parameters like renal dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction and hemorrhagic manifestations (mainly ARDS). Role of platelet transfusion was assessed with reference to presence and degree of thrombcytopenia and hemorrhagic manifestations.
Out of total 50 patients 26 were male and 24 were females. Major bleeding manifestation in the form of ARDS was seen in 15 (30%) of patients. 28 (56%) patients had thrombocytopenia and 22 (44%) patients had normal platelet counts. Total number of patients with renal dysfunction was 24 (48%). Only four (18.18%) patients with normal platelet counts had renal dysfunction while 20 (71.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had renal dysfunction. Only two (9.09%) patients with normal platelet counts and 48 (46.42%) patients with thrombocytopenia had hepatorenal dysfunction. Total number of patients with ARDS was 15 (30%). Of these two (13.33%) had normal platelet count while 13 (86.6%) patients were thrombocytopenic. Total 47 units of platelets were transfused to 12 patients in our study. Of these seven patients with severe thrombocytopenia required total 28 units, two patients with moderate thrombocytopenia required total seven units and patients with mild thrombocytopenia were transfused total 12 units of platelets.
It is important to anticipate and recognize thrombocytopenia early in the course of leptospirosis so that appropriate steps can be taken to prevent it and to treat it with platelet transfusion when it develops
PMCID: PMC3168120  PMID: 21938233
ARDS; hepatic dysfunction; leptospirosis; platelet transfusion; renal dysfunction; thrombocytopenia
Seminars in hematology  2010;47(3):281-288.
Thrombocytopenia is common among sick neonates, affecting 20–35% of all patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). While most cases of neonatal thrombocytopenia are mild or moderate and resolve within 7–14 days with appropriate therapy, 2.5–5% of NICU patients develop severe thrombocytopenia, sometimes lasting for several weeks and requiring >20 platelet transfusions. The availability of thrombopoietic agents offers the possibility of decreasing the number of platelet transfusions and potentially improving the outcomes of these infants. Adding thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics to the therapeutic armamentarium of neonatologists, however, will require careful attention to the substantial developmental differences between neonates and adults in the process of megakaryocytopoiesis and in their responses to TPO. Taken together, the available data suggest that TPO mimetics will stimulate platelet production in neonates, but might do so through different mechanisms and at different doses than those established for adults. In addition, the specific groups of thrombocytopenic neonates most likely to benefit from therapy with TPO mimetics need to be defined, and the potential non-hematological effects of these agents on the developing organism need to be considered. This review summarizes our current understanding of neonatal megakaryocytopoiesis, and examines in detail the developmental factors relevant to the potential use of TPO mimetics in neonates.
PMCID: PMC2934854  PMID: 20620440
10.  Can we predict neonatal thrombocytopenia in offspring of women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura? 
Blood research  2014;49(4):259-264.
We aimed to investigate which factors in the clinical profile of mothers with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) can predict neonatal risk of thrombocytopenia.
Data was retrospectively collected from all pregnant women with ITP who presented to our institution between 2001 and 2013. Neonatal offspring of these women were classified into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of neonatal thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100×109/L). Several parameters were compared between the 2 groups, including maternal age, maternal platelet count, maternal treatment history, and thrombocytopenia in siblings. We further examined the correlation between maternal platelet count at the time of delivery and neonatal platelet count at birth; we also examined the correlation between the minimum platelet counts of other children born to multiparous women.
Sixty-six neonates from 49 mothers were enrolled in the study. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 13 (19.7%) neonates. Maternal treatment for ITP such as splenectomy did not correlate with a risk of neonatal thrombocytopenia. Sibling thrombocytopenia was more frequently observed in neonates with thrombocytopenia than in those without (7/13 vs. 4/53, P<0.01). No association was observed between maternal and neonatal platelet counts. However, the nadir neonatal platelet counts of first- and second-born siblings were highly correlated (r=0.87).
Thrombocytopenia in neonates of women with ITP cannot be predicted by maternal treatment history or platelet count. However, the presence of an older sibling with neonatal thrombocytopenia is a reliable risk factor for neonatal thrombocytopenia in subsequent pregnancies.
PMCID: PMC4278008  PMID: 25548760
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pregnancy; Neonatal thrombocytopenia
11.  Thrombocytopenia in neonates and the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Pediatrics  2011;11:16.
The overall prevalence of thrombocytopenia in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units ranges from 22 to 35%. There are only a few small studies that outline the relationship between the severity of thrombocytopenia and the risk of bleeding. This makes it difficult to form an evidence-based threshold for platelet transfusions in neonatal patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit and to study the relation between thrombocytopenia and the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH).
We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with thrombocytopenia admitted to our neonatal tertiary care nursery between January 2006 and December 2008. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the severity of thrombocytopenia: mild (100-149 × 109/L), moderate (50-99 × 109/L), severe (30-49 × 109/L) or very severe (< 30 × 109/L). The primary outcome was IVH ≥ grade 2. Pearson's chi-squared and Fischer's exact tests were used for categorical data. ANOVA, logistic regression analysis and multivariate linear regression were used for comparisons between groups and for confounding factors.
The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 27% (422/1569). Risk of IVH ≥ grade 2 was 12% (48/411) in neonates with versus 5% (40/844) in neonates without thrombocytopenia (p < 0.01). After multivariate linear regression analysis, risk of IVH ≥ grade 2 in the subgroups of thrombocytopenic infants was not significantly different (p = 0.3).
After logistic regression analysis the difference in mortality rate in neonates with and without thrombocytopenia was not significant (p = 0.4). Similarly, we found no difference in mortality rate in the subgroups of neonates with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.7).
Although IVH ≥ grade 2 occurs more often in neonates with thrombocytopenia, this relation is independent of the severity of thrombocytopenia. Prospective studies should be conducted to assess the true risk of hemorrhage depending on underlying conditions. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to determine a safe lower threshold for platelet transfusions.
PMCID: PMC3045959  PMID: 21314921
12.  The Iron Status of Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Multiple Erythrocyte Transfusions during Hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
We investigated the iron status of very low birth weight infants receiving multiple erythrocyte transfusions during hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
We enrolled 46 very low birth weight infants who were admitted to the Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Serum ferritin was measured on their first day of life and weekly thereafter. We collected individual data of the frequency and volume of erythrocyte transfusion and the amount of iron intake.
A total of 38 (82.6%) of very low birth weight infants received a mean volume of 99.3±93.5 mL of erythrocyte transfusions in NICU. The minimum and maximum serum ferritin levels during hospitalization were 146.2±114.9 ng/mL and 456.7±361.9 ng/mL, respectively. The total volume of erythrocyte transfusion was not correlated to maximum serum ferritin concentrations after controlling for the amount of iron intake (r=0.012, p=0.945). Non-transfused infants took significantly higher iron intake compared to infants receiving ≥100 mL/kg erythrocyte transfusion (p<0.001). Minimum and maximum serum ferritin levels of non-transfused infants were higher than those of infants receiving <100 mL/kg erythrocyte transfusions (p=0.026 and p=0.022, respectively). Infants with morbidity including bronchopulmonary dysplasia or retinopathy of prematurity received a significantly higher volume of erythrocyte transfusions compared to infants without morbidity (p<0.001).
Very low birth weight infants undergoing multiply erythrocyte transfusions had excessive iron stores and non-transfused infants also might had a risk of iron overload during hospitalization in the NICU.
PMCID: PMC4493242  PMID: 26157695
Iron; Very low birth weight infant; Erythrocyte transfusions; Ferritins
Seminars in perinatology  2009;33(1):43-51.
Thrombocytopenia affects up to 35% of all patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The causes of thrombocytopenia in neonates are very diverse, and include immune and non-immune disorders. Most cases of thrombocytopenia encountered in the NICU are non-immune, and these will constitute the focus of this review. Specifically, we will first discuss the biological differences between neonatal and adult megakaryocytopoiesis, which contribute to explain the vulnerability of neonates to develop thrombocytopenia. Next, we will review new diagnostic tools that have allowed for a better evaluation of platelet production in neonates, without having to obtain a bone marrow sample. Finally, we will summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the thrombocytopenia in several common neonatal conditions, such as chronic intrauterine hypoxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and viral infections. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these varieties of thrombocytopenia is critical to develop disease-specific treatment protocols, and to begin to entertain the possibility of using novel thrombopoietic growth factors to treat selected neonates with severe thrombocytopenia.
PMCID: PMC2674325  PMID: 19167581
14.  Unfurling the Rationale Use of Platelet Transfusion in Dengue Fever 
Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever have emerged as a global public health problem in recent decades. The practice of platelet transfusion has been adapted into the standard clinical practice in management of hospitalized dengue patients. The exact indications and situations in which platelet have to be transfused may vary greatly. Blood components especially platelet concentrates due to their short shelf life are frequently in limited supply. Hence, appropriate use of blood is required to ensure the availability of blood for patients in whom it is really indicated, as well as to avoid unnecessary exposure of the patients to the risk of transfusion reactions and transmission of blood borne infection. The present study was conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of platelet transfusion done in dengue patients with thrombocytopenia. The present study was conducted on 343 serologically confirmed dengue patients admitted at JSS University Hospital between 1st January and 30th August 2009. Clinical data, platelet count and platelet requirements were analyzed. Among the 343 serologically confirmed cases, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000/cumm) was 64.72% (222 patients) and bleeding manifestations were recorded in 6.12% (21 patients). 71 (20.7%) patients of dengue cases received platelet transfusion. Among them 34 (47.89%) patients had a platelet count <20,000/cumm, 28 patients (39.44%) had platelet counts in the range of 21–40,000/cumm while the remaining 9 (12.67%) patients had platelet count between 41–100,000/cumm. Out of 37 patients with a platelet count >20,000/cumm 11 patients had haemorrhagic manifestations such as petechiae, gum bleeding, epistaxis etc., which necessitates the use of platelet transfusion. However, the remaining 26 patients with platelet count >20,000/cumm and with no haemorrhagic manifestations received inappropriate platelet transfusion. Transfusion of 36.62% of platelet concentrate was inappropriate. The study emphasizes the need for development of specific guidelines for transfusion of blood components, constant interaction and co-ordination amongst clinicians and transfusion centre for implementation of these guidelines and a regular medical audit to review the optimal utilization of blood components.
PMCID: PMC3136676  PMID: 22654295
Dengue; Haemorrhagic fever; Platelet count; Platelet transfusion; Rationale use
15.  Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise? 
Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding.
A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients.
Materials and Methods
Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted.
Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater.
Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers.
PMCID: PMC4525513  PMID: 26266124
Apheresis donors
16.  Perinatal Outcome of Pregnancies Complicated by Immune Thrombocytopenia 
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder that leads to premature destruction of antibody-coated platelets. This study evaluated perinatal outcome and medications used for pregnancies complicated by ITP.
Medical records of 132 pregnancies belonged to 125 parturients with ITP who delivered between March 2001 and January 2011 were reviewed. Cases were included if diagnosed before pregnancy or if their platelet counts (PCs) were less than 80,000/µL during pregnancy without any other cause. Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared.
Fifty six mothers (42.1%) had PC<50,000, 18 women (13.5%) developed preeclampsia and 15 (11.3%) were diabetics. Corticosteroid was used for120 cases (90.9%) and intravenous immunoglobulin for 14 women (10.5%). PCs of 114 neonates were available in the charts and 84 (83.2%) had PC>150,000/µL. Three neonates (2.3%) had PC<50 000, 31 neonates (23.3%) had preterm births and 32 (24.1%) needed NICU admissions. Fifty seven cases of ITP (43.2%) were diagnosed before pregnancy and 75 (56.8%) were diagnosed during pregnancy. There were 2 intrauterine fetal deaths and higher NICU admissions, 20 (34.48%) versus 12 (16%) in the first group (p=0.01).
Perinatal outcome of pregnancies with ITP is generally good. However neonates born from parturients with chronic ITP needed more NICU admissions.
PMCID: PMC3438436  PMID: 22997559
Immune thrombocytopenia; Perinatal; Outcome; Iran
17.  Prognostic significance of early platelet count decline in preterm newborns 
Decline of platelets with or without thrombocytopenia is observed in critically ill preterm newborns. Prognostic significance of platelets count in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit focused on outcome after thrombocytopenia. We aimed to estimate the changes in platelets count within the first 7 days of life in preterm newborns and its relation to final outcomes.
Retrospectively, the platelets count during the first 7 days of life, and its association with mortality, length of stay among survivors (LOS), and later severe morbidities were determined. Appropriate regression analyses were used to examine possible relations between studied variables.
Results and Discussion:
Platelets drop that did not reach thrombocytopenia level in the first 7 days of life happened in 61.7%. Platelets count drop in the first 7 days of life was a predictor of mortality, LOS, and major morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis.
Platelets count drop within the first 7 days of life independent of thrombocytopenia can be used to predict increased mortality, LOS, and the development of later severe morbidities in critically ill preterm neonates.
PMCID: PMC4548414  PMID: 26321804
Intraventricular hemorrhage; length of stay; neonatal infections; neonatal outcome; platelets; preterm; thrombocytopenia
18.  Hemostatic Function and Transfusion Efficacy of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates Treated with Gamma Irradiation in Use for Thrombocytopenic Patients 
During the transfusion of blood components, the transfer of allogeneic donor white blood cells (WBCs) can mediate transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). To minimize the reaction, exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare hemostatic function, transfusion efficacy, and safety of gamma-irradiated single-donor apheresis platelet concentrates (PCs) and of conventional non-irradiated PCs in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.
20 double-dose single-donor leukoreduced PCs were split in two identical units; one was gamma-irradiated with 25 Gy (study arm A) and the other remains non-irradiated (study arm B). Both units were stored under equal conditions. Hematologic patients were randomly assigned to receive gamma-irradiated or conventional non-irradiated PCs. Hemostatic function was evaluated by thrombelastography (TEG). TEG measurements were taken pre transfusion and 1 and 24 h post transfusion. TEG profiles were measured, noting the time to initiate clotting (R), the angle of clot formation (α), and the maximum amplitude (clot strength (MA)). Whole blood samples were collected from these thrombocytopenic patients at 1 and 24 h for PLT count increments (CIs) and corrected count increments (CCIs) with assessments of transfusion efficacy. Time to next PLT transfusion, transfusion requirement of RBCs, active bleeding, and adverse events (AEs), were analyzed.
No differences could be found in hemostatic function parameters (MA, R, and α) between study arms A and B (all p values > 0.096) pre transfusion as well as 1 and 24 h post transfusion. No differences between study arms A and B were observed for mean (± standard deviation (SD)) 1-hour CCI (12.83 ± 6.33 vs. 11.59 ± 5.97) and 24-hour CCI (6.56 ± 4.10 vs. 5.76 ± 4.05). Mean 1-hour CI and 24-hour CI were not significantly different in both study arms (p = 0.254 and p = 0.242 respectively). Median time to the next PC transfusion after study PC was not significantly different between groups: (2.4 vs. 2.2 days, p = 0.767). No differences could be found in transfusion requirement of red blood cells (p = 0.744) between both study arms. There were also no regarding bleeding, adverse events, and acute transfusion reaction(s).
This study confirms safety of gamma-irradiated PCs for treatment thrombocytopenia. Hemostatic function, transfusion efficacy, bleeding, and safety of single-donor apheresis PCs treated with gamma irradiation versus untreated control PCs are comparable.
PMCID: PMC4086760  PMID: 25053932
Hemostatic function; Transfusion efficacy; Apheresis platelet concentrates; Gamma irradiation; Thrombocytopenic patients
19.  Dose of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusions and Prevention of Hemorrhage 
The New England journal of medicine  2010;362(7):600-613.
We conducted a trial of prophylactic platelet transfusions to evaluate the effect of platelet dose on bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia.
We randomly assigned hospitalized patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or chemotherapy for hematologic cancers or solid tumors to receive prophylactic platelet transfusions at a low dose, a medium dose, or a high dose (1.1×1011, 2.2×1011, or 4.4×1011 platelets per square meter of body-surface area, respectively), when morning platelet counts were 10,000 per cubic millimeter or lower. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily. The primary end point was bleeding of grade 2 or higher (as defined on the basis of World Health Organization criteria).
In the 1272 patients who received at least one platelet transfusion, the primary end point was observed in 71%, 69%, and 70% of the patients in the low-dose group, the medium-dose group, and the high-dose group, respectively (differences were not significant). The incidences of higher grades of bleeding, and other adverse events, were similar among the three groups. The median number of platelets transfused was significantly lower in the low-dose group (9.25×1011) than in the medium-dose group (11.25×1011) or the high-dose group (19.63×1011) (P = 0.002 for low vs. medium, P<0.001 for high vs. low and high vs. medium), but the median number of platelet transfusions given was significantly higher in the low-dose group (five, vs. three in the medium-dose and three in the high-dose group; P<0.001 for low vs. medium and low vs. high). Bleeding occurred on 25% of the study days on which morning platelet counts were 5000 per cubic millimeter or lower, as compared with 17% of study days on which platelet counts were 6000 to 80,000 per cubic millimeter (P<0.001).
Low doses of platelets administered as a prophylactic transfusion led to a decreased number of platelets transfused per patient but an increased number of transfusions given. At doses between 1.1×1011 and 4.4×1011 platelets per square meter, the number of platelets in the prophylactic transfusion had no effect on the incidence of bleeding. ( number, NCT00128713.)
PMCID: PMC2951321  PMID: 20164484
20.  Platelet Activation Test in Unprocessed Blood (Pac-t-UB) to Monitor Platelet Concentrates and Whole Blood of Thrombocytopenic Patients 
Platelet concentrate transfusion is the standard treatment for hemato-oncology patients to compensate for thrombocytopenia. We have developed a novel platelet activation test in anticoagulated unprocessed blood (pac-t-UB) to determine platelet function in platelet concentrates and in blood of thrombocytopenic patients.
We have measured platelet activity in a platelet concentrate and in anticoagulated unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion thrombocytopenic patient.
Our data show time-dependent platelet activation by GPVI agonist (collagen related peptide; CRP), PAR-1 agonist (SFLLRN), P2Y12 agonist (ADP), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) in a platelet concentrate. Furthermore, pac-t-UB showed time-dependent platelet activation in unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion patient with thrombocytopenia. Testing platelet function by different agonists in relation to storage show that 3-day-old platelet concentrates are still reactive to the studied agonists. This reactivity rapidly drops for each agonists during longer storage.
Pac-t-UB is a novel tool to estimate platelet function by different agonists in platelet concentrates and in unprocessed blood of thrombocytopenic patients. In the near future, we will validate whether pac-t-UB is an adequate test to monitor the quality of platelet concentrates and whether pac-t-UB predicts the bleeding risk of transfused thrombocytopenic patients.
PMCID: PMC3638932  PMID: 23652405
Flow cytometry; Platelet, Platelet activation; Platelet concentrates; Platelet function; Platelet storage; Platelet transfusion; Platelets; Thrombocytopenia
21.  Thrombocytopenia in adult patients with sepsis: incidence, risk factors, and its association with clinical outcome 
Sepsis is a major risk factor for the development of thrombocytopenia, but few studies have specifically evaluated prognostic importance of thrombocytopenia in patients with sepsis. We investigated the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic importance of thrombocytopenia in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with sepsis.
A retrospective analysis of patients admitted with severe sepsis/septic shock from December 2007 to January 2009 to a 24-bed medical ICU was done.
A total of 304 patients were included in the study. The patients' mean (±SD) age was 68.8 (±15.8) years. The majority (93.7%) had septic shock, and pneumonia was the most common infection (38.8%). Thrombocytopenia developed in 145 patients (47.6%): 77 (25.3%) at ICU admission and 68 (22.3%) during their hospital course. The median (IQR) duration of thrombocytopenia was 4.4 (1.9–6.9) days. Patients who developed thrombocytopenia had more episodes of major bleeding (14.4% vs. 3.7%, P < 0.01) and received more transfusions. Patients with thrombocytopenia had a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (44.1% vs. 29.5%, P < 0.01), prolonged vasopressor support (median (IQR): 37 (17–76) vs. 23 (13–46) h, P < 0.01), and longer ICU stay (median (IQR): 3.1 (1.6–7.8) vs. 2.1 (1.2–4.4) days, P < 0.01). The 28-day mortality was similar between patients with and without thrombocytopenia (32.4% vs. 24.5%, P = 0.12). However, while 15 of 86 patients (17.4%) who resolved their thrombocytopenia died, 32 of 59 patients (54.2%) whose thrombocytopenia did not resolve died (P < 0.01). The association between non-resolution of thrombocytopenia and mortality remained significant after adjusting for age, APACHE III score and compliance with a sepsis resuscitation bundle (P < 0.01).
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients who are admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis and septic shock. Patients with thrombocytopenia had more episodes of major bleeding, increased incidence of acute kidney injury, and prolonged ICU stay. Non-resolution of thrombocytopenia, but not thrombocytopenia itself, was associated with increased 28-day mortality.
PMCID: PMC4373028  PMID: 25810916
Thrombocytopenia; Sepsis; Septic shock; Intensive care unit; Prognosis; Mortality
22.  A case report of transfusion-transmitted Plasmodium malariae from an asymptomatic non-immune traveller 
Malaria Journal  2013;12:439.
The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria is very low in non-endemic countries due to strict donor selection. The optimal strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic countries without unnecessary exclusion of blood donations is, however, still debated and asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium species may still be qualified to donate blood for transfusion purposes.
Case description
In April 2011, a 59-year-old Dutch woman with spiking fevers for four days was diagnosed with a Plasmodium malariae infection. The patient had never been abroad, but nine weeks before, she had received red blood cell transfusion for anaemia. The presumptive diagnosis of transfusion-transmitted quartan malaria was made and subsequently confirmed by retrospective PCR analysis of donor blood samples. The donor was a 36-year-old Dutch male who started donating blood in May 2006. His travel history outside Europe included a trip to Kenya, Tanzania and Zanzibar in 2005, to Thailand in 2006 and to Costa Rica in 2007. He only used malaria prophylaxis during his travel to Africa. The donor did not show any abnormalities upon physical examination in 2011, while laboratory examination demonstrated a thrombocytopenia of 126 × 109/L as the sole abnormal finding since 2007. Thick blood smear analysis and the Plasmodium PCR confirmed an ongoing subclinical P. malariae infection. Chloroquine therapy was started, after which the infection cleared and thrombocyte count normalized. Fourteen other recipients who received red blood cells from the involved donor were traced. None of them developed malaria symptoms.
This case demonstrates that P. malariae infections in non-immune travellers may occur without symptoms and persist subclinically for years. In addition, this case shows that these infections pose a threat to transfusion safety when subclinically infected persons donate blood after their return in a non-endemic malaria region.
Since thrombocytopenia was the only abnormality associated with the subclinical malaria infection in the donor, this case illustrates that an unexplained low platelet count after a visit to malaria-endemic countries may be an indicator for asymptomatic malaria even when caused by non-falciparum Plasmodium species.
PMCID: PMC3866504  PMID: 24304475
Malaria; Blood transfusion; Blood safety; Blood donor screening; Plasmodium malariae; Transfusion-transmitted malaria; Blood-borne; Infection; Thrombocytopenia; Asymptomatic malaria; Look-back
23.  Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(8):e1001292.
In an analysis of four datasets from East Africa, Tanya Marchant and colleagues investigate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth and how this changes with weight for gestational age.
Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa.
Methods and Findings
Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non-systematic selection of the individual studies, or due to the methods applied for estimating gestational age, are discussed.
Moderately preterm babies who are also small for gestational age experience a considerably increased likelihood of neonatal death in East Africa.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Editors' Summary
Worldwide, every year around 3.3 million babies die within their first month of life and the proportion of under-five child deaths that are now in the neonatal period (the first 28 days of life) has increased in all regions of the world and is currently estimated at 41%. Of these deaths, over 90% occur in low- and middle-income countries, and a third of all neonatal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Low birth weight (defined as <2,500 g) is one of the biggest risk factors associated with neonatal deaths but it is the causes of low birth weight, rather than the low weight itself that is thought to lead to neonatal deaths. The two main causes of low birth weight are preterm birth (delivery before 37 weeks gestation) and/or restricted growth in the womb (intra-uterine growth retardation), resulting in babies who are small for their dates (defined as being in the lowest 10% of weight expected for gestational age with reference to a US population).
Why Was This Study Done?
Despite growing international attention focused on neonatal mortality in recent years, the relative importance of low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth in causing newborn deaths remains unclear. So in this study, the researchers investigated these relationships by calculating the risk of neonatal mortality associated with preterm birth after adjusting for weight for gestational age by conducting a meta-analysis (synthesis of the data) using information from studies reporting neonatal mortality conducted in sub-Saharan Africa.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified potential African datasets and selected four out of a possible ten to include in their analysis as these studies included three essential birth outcomes: birth weight; gestational age measured using antenatal ultrasound, or neonatal assessment on the day of birth; and neonatal mortality. These four studies were conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, all in East Africa. The researchers analysed each study separately but also conducted a pooled statistical analysis on all four studies. To give a more detailed analysis, the researchers categorized babies into six groups taking into account whether the babies were moderately preterm (born at 34–36 weeks) or very preterm (born before 34 weeks) and whether their weight was appropriate for their gestational age.
The researchers included a total of 4,843 live births in their analysis and found that overall, 9.2% of babies were low birth weight, 4.0% were preterm, and 20.4% were small for gestational age. Amongst low birth weight babies, 26.1% were preterm, 85.0% were small for gestational age, and 98.8% were either preterm or small for gestational age. In their detailed analysis, the researchers found that the odds (chance) of death in the first 28 days of life were seven times higher for babies born low birth weight compared to those with normal birth weight, with low birth weight infants experiencing a neonatal mortality rate of 80.9/1,000 live births. The odds of death were twice as high for babies born small for gestational age compared to those born appropriate for gestational age, giving a neonatal mortality rate of 29.3/1,000 live births. Furthermore, compared to those born at term, the odds of death were over six times higher for babies born moderately preterm and almost 60 times higher for babies born very preterm with almost half of all very preterm babies dying in the first 28 days of life, giving a neonatal mortality rate 473.6/1,000 live births. However, moderately preterm babies who were small for gestational age had a much greater odds of death than moderately preterm babies who were of the appropriate weight for their gestational age.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings from East Africa show that babies born either small for gestational age or preterm contributed 52% of neonatal deaths. The detailed analysis suggests that babies born preterm are at the greatest risk of death, but size for gestational age also plays an important role especially in moderately preterm babies. The results from this study emphasize the pressing need to find ways to prevent preterm delivery and intra-uterine growth retardation and also illustrate the importance of measuring and reporting outcomes of individual babies.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
A recent PLOS Medicine study by Oestergaard et al. has the latest global figures on neonatal mortality
UNICEF provides information on neonatal mortality
The World Health Organization (WHO) provides factsheets on the causes of neonatal mortality, including preterm birth
PMCID: PMC3419185  PMID: 22904691
24.  Platelet kinetics after slow versus standard transfusions: A pilot study 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2011;116(3):212-215.
Platelet transfusion is required in the acute phase of some thrombocytopenic disorders in order to prevent potentially dangerous hemorrhages.The purpose of this study was to assess the increase in platelet count following a slow platelet transfusion.
Patients suffering from thrombocytopenia due to various underlying diseases were enrolled in the prospective pilot feasibility trial and were randomly divided into two groups. Standard platelet transfusion was administered in one group, while slow transfusion was used in the other. The platelet count was examined at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 1 week following the transfusions.
Although the platelet count was higher following 1 hour after transfusion via the standard method, the count tended to be higher 1 week after the transfusion in the slow transfusion group. This difference, however, only turned out to be statistically significant amongst females.
A therapy of slow platelet transfusion might be more effective for the prevention of platelet loss. Further studies will be required to strengthen this hypothesis.
PMCID: PMC3128726  PMID: 21679106
Platelet decline; slow platelet transfusion; standard platelet transfusion
25.  Examination of the Percentage of Immature Platelet Fraction in Term and Preterm Infants at Birth 
Journal of Clinical Neonatology  2013;2(4):173-178.
Reticulated platelets (RPs) are newly synthesized platelets. Recently, an automatic method was established to detect RPs as a percentage of the immature platelet fraction (IPF%). Although, neonates often develop thrombocytopenia at some time during their hospitalization, the details of IPF% in neonates remain unclear. We, therefore, studied the relations between IPF% and other factors to gain a more detailed understanding of IPF% in neonates.
The following clinical data were obtained from the medical records of 105 neonates who met our inclusion criteria: Gestational age, birth weight, IPF% and platelet count of neonatal peripheral blood at birth, and perinatal data. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group A, birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) ≥ −2 standard deviation (SD) and ≤ +2 SD; Group S, < −2 SD; and Group L, > +2 SD.
IPF% correlated negatively with platelet count at birth in the whole study population. IPF% was 2.8 ± 1.3% in term neonates, and IPF correlated negatively with gestational age and birth weight. Platelet count correlated positively with birth weight SDS in the whole study population and in Group S. IPF% correlated negatively with birth weight SDS in the whole study population and in Group S. In neonates with a platelet count below 25 × 104/μl, IPF% correlated negatively with platelet count. Among other neonates, however, IPF% remained almost constant.
Monitoring of IPF% is useful for estimating the function of thrombocytopoiesis in neonates and preterm infants.
PMCID: PMC3883212  PMID: 24404529
Birth weight standard deviation score; immature platelet fraction; small for gestational age infant; thrombocytopenia; XE-2100

Results 1-25 (633617)