The presence of CAR in diverse tumor types is heterogeneous with implications in tumor transduction efficiency in the context of adenoviral mediated cancer gene therapy. Preliminary studies suggest that CAR transcriptional regulation is modulated through histone acetylation and not through promoter methylation. Furthermore, it has been documented that the pharmacological induction of CAR using histone deacetylase inhibitor (iHDAC) compounds is a viable strategy to enhance adenoviral mediated gene delivery to cancer cells in vitro. The incorporation of HDAC drugs into the overall scheme in adenoviral based cancer gene therapy clinical trials seems rational. However, reports using compounds with iHDAC properties utilized routinely in the clinic are pending. Valproic acid, a short chained fatty acid extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder has been recently described as an effective HDAC inhibitor at therapeutic concentrations.
We studied the effect of valproic acid on histone H3 and H4 acetylation, CAR mRNA upregulation was studied using semiquantitative PCR and adenoviral transduction on HeLa cervical cancer cells, on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, on T24 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder cells. CAR mRNA was studied using semiquantitative PCR on tumor tissue extracted from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer treated with valproic acid.
CAR upregulation through HDAC inhibition was observed in the three cancer cell lines with enhancement of adenoviral transduction. CAR upregulation was also observed in tumor samples obtained from patients with cervical cancer treated with therapeutic doses of valproic acid. These results support the addition of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid to adenoviral mediated cancer gene therapy clinical trials to enhance adenoviral mediated gene delivery to the tumor cells.
Tumour drug-resistant ABCB1 gene expression is regulated at the chromatin level through epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on ABCB1 gene expression in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) drug-sensitive (H69WT) or etoposide-resistant (H69VP) cells. We found that TSA induced an increase in ABCB1 expression in drug-sensitive cells, but strongly decreased it in drug-resistant cells. These up- and downregulations occurred at the transcriptional level. Protein synthesis inhibition reduced these modulations, but did not completely suppress them. Differential temporal patterns of histone acetylation were observed at the ABCB1 promoter: increase in H4 acetylation in both cell lines, but different H3 acetylation with a progressive increase in H69WT cells but a transient one in H69VP cells. ABCB1 regulations were not related with the methylation status of the promoter −50GC, −110GC, and Inr sites, and did not result in further changes to these methylation profiles. Trichostatin A treatment did not modify MBD1 binding to the ABCB1 promoter and similarly increased PCAF binding in both H69 cell lines. Our results suggest that in H69 drug-resistant SCLC cell line TSA induces downregulation of ABCB1 expression through a transcriptional mechanism, independently of promoter methylation, and MBD1 or PCAF recruitment.
trichostatin A; epigenetics; drug resistance
Recent studies have shown that the histone-modifying enzymes histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are involved in transcriptional activation and repression, respectively. However, little is known about the endogenous genes that are regulated by these enzymes or how specificity is achieved. In the present report, we demonstrate that HAT and HDAC activities modulate transcription of the P-glycoprotein-encoding gene, MDR1. Incubation of human colon carcinoma SW620 cells in 100-ng/ml trichostatin A (TSA), a specific HDAC inhibitor, increased the steady-state level of MDR1 mRNA 20-fold. Furthermore, TSA treatment of cells transfected with a wild-type MDR1 promoter/luciferase construct resulted in a 10- to 15-fold induction of promoter activity. Deletion and point mutation analysis determined that an inverted CCAAT box was essential for this activation. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of p300/CREB binding protein-associated factor (P/CAF), a transcriptional coactivator with intrinsic HAT activity, activated the wild-type MDR1 promoter but not a promoter containing a mutation in the CCAAT box; deletion of the P/CAF HAT domain abolished activation. Gel shift and supershift analyses identified NF-Y as the CCAAT-box binding protein in these cells, and cotransfection of a dominant negative NF-Y expression vector decreased the activation of the MDR1 promoter by TSA. Moreover, NF-YA and P/CAF were shown to interact in vitro. This is the first report of a natural promoter that is modulated by HAT and HDAC activities in which the transcription factor mediating this regulation has been identified.
The primary inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana is rich in lignified cell walls, in both vascular bundles and interfascicular fibres. Previous gene expression studies demonstrated a correlation between expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and a subset of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, especially in the ABCB/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) and ABCG/pleiotropic drug resistance (ABCG/PDR) subfamilies. The objective of this study was to characterize these ABC transporters in terms of their gene expression and their function in development of lignified cells. Based on in silico analyses, four ABC transporters were selected for detailed investigation: ABCB11/MDR8, ABCB14/MDR12, ABCB15/MDR13, and ABCG33/PDR5. Promoter::glucuronidase reporter assays for each gene indicated that promoters of ABCB11, ABCB14, ABCB15, and ABCG33 transporters are active in the vascular tissues of primary stem, and in some cases in interfascicular tissues as well. Homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant lines showed no apparent irregular xylem phenotype or alterations in interfascicular fibre lignification or morphology in comparison with wild type. However, in abcb14-1 mutants, stem vascular morphology was slightly disorganized, with decreased phloem area in the vascular bundle and decreased xylem vessel lumen diameter. In addition, abcb14-1 mutants showed both decreased polar auxin transport through whole stems and altered auxin distribution in the procambium. It is proposed that both ABCB14 and ABCB15 promote auxin transport since inflorescence stems in both mutants showed a reduction in polar auxin transport, which was not observed for any of the ABCG subfamily mutants tested. In the case of ABCB14, the reduction in auxin transport is correlated with a mild disruption of vascular development in the inflorescence stem.
Arabidopsis thaliana; ATP-binding cassette transporter; auxin; cis-element; lignin; monolignol; polar auxin transporter; vascular bundle
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in the regulation of gene transcription, often leading to transcriptional repression, as well as other effects following deacetylation of non-histone proteins.
To investigate the role of HDACs in the developing mammalian retina, a general inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin-A (TSA), was used to treat newborn murine retinae in explant cultures. Inhibition of HDAC activity resulted in a reduction in RNA levels for genes that regulate retinal development, as well as cell cycle regulators. Several of the genes encode transcription factors essential for rod photoreceptor development, Otx2, Nrl, and Crx. Using luciferase reporter assays, the promoter activity of both Nrl and Crx was found to be compromised by HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, downregulation of gene expression by HDAC inhibition didn't require de novo protein synthesis, and was associated with hyperacetylation of histones and non-histone proteins. Finally, HDAC inhibition in retinal explant cultures resulted in increased cell death, reduction in proliferation, a complete loss of rod photoreceptors and Müller glial cells, and an increase in bipolar cells.
HDAC activity is required for the expression of critical pro-rod transcription factors and the development of rod photoreceptor cells.
Previous studies have implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA) in the regulation of gene expression during drug addiction. Furthermore, an increase in HDAC activity has been linked to neurodegeneration. Alcohol has also been shown to promote abundant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress. TSA inhibits HDACs and has been shown to be neuroprotective in other neurodegenerative disease models. Although HDACs and HDIs have been associated with drug addiction, there is no evidence of the neurodegenerative role of HDAC2 and neuroprotective role of TSA in alcohol addiction. Therefore, we hypothesize that alcohol modulates HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress.
In order to test our hypothesis, the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-MC, was treated with different concentrations of alcohol (EtOH); and HDAC2 gene and protein expression were assessed at different time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was evaluated at the gene level using qRT-PCR and at the protein level using western blot and flow cytometry. ROS production was measured with a fluorescence microplate reader and fluorescence microscopy.
Our results showed a dose dependent increase of HDAC2 expression with EtOH treatment. Additionally, alcohol significantly induced ROS, and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was shown to be neuroprotective by significantly inhibiting HDAC2 and ROS.
These results suggest that EtOH can upregulate HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and HDACs may play an important role in Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Moreover, the use of HDIs may be of therapeutic significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including AUDs.
Ethanol; histone deacetylases; trichostatin A; SK-N-MC; oxidative stress
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is a major regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression. Tight control of HDAC1 expression is essential for development and normal cell cycle progression. In this report, we analyzed the regulation of the mouse HDAC1 gene by deacetylases and acetyltransferases. The murine HDAC1 promoter lacks a TATA box consensus sequence but contains several putative SP1 binding sites and a CCAAT box, which is recognized by the transcription factor NF-Y. HDAC1 promoter-reporter studies revealed that the distal SP1 site and the CCAAT box are crucial for HDAC1 promoter activity and act synergistically to constitute HDAC1 promoter activity. Furthermore, these sites are essential for activation of the HDAC1 promoter by the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that HDAC1 is recruited to the promoter by SP1 and NF-Y, thereby regulating its own expression. Coexpression of acetyltransferases elevates HDAC1 promoter activity when the SP1 site and the CCAAT box are intact. Increased histone acetylation at the HDAC1 promoter region in response to TSA treatment is dependent on binding sites for SP1 and NF-Y. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the autoregulation of a histone-modifying enzyme in mammalian cells.
To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR2) revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA), Trichostatin A (TSA), and Valproic acid (VPA). RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR2, CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases)/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment.
endothelial progenitor cells; differentiation; acetylation; histone deacetylases
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors inhibit the proliferation of transformed cells in vitro, restrain tumor growth in animals, and are currently being actively exploited as potential anticancer agents. To identify gene targets of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), we compared the gene expression profiles of BALB/c-3T3 cells treated with or without TSA. Our results show that TSA up-regulates the expression of the gene encoding growth-differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), a transforming growth factor β family member that inhibits cell proliferation. Detailed analyses indicated that TSA activates the gdf11 promoter through a conserved CCAAT box element. A comprehensive survey of human HDACs revealed that HDAC3 is necessary and sufficient for the repression of gdf11 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that treatment of cells with TSA or silencing of HDAC3 expression by small interfering RNA causes the hyperacetylation of Lys-9 in histone H3 on the gdf11 promoter. Together, our results provide a new model in which HDAC inhibitors reverse abnormal cell growth by inactivation of HDAC3, which in turn leads to the derepression of gdf11 expression.
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is targeted for inactivation in the majority of human tumors, underscoring its critical role in attenuating cellular proliferation. RB inhibits proliferation by repressing the transcription of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression. To repress transcription, RB assembles multiprotein complexes containing chromatin-modifying enzymes, including histone deacetylases (HDACs). However, the extent to which HDACs participate in transcriptional repression and are required for RB-mediated repression has not been established. Here, we investigated the role of HDACs in RB-dependent cell cycle inhibition and transcriptional repression. We find that active RB mediates histone deacetylation on cyclin A, Cdc2, topoisomerase IIα, and thymidylate synthase promoters. We also demonstrate that this deacetylation is HDAC dependent, since the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) prevented histone deacetylation at each promoter. However, TSA treatment blocked RB repression of only a specific subset of genes, thereby demonstrating that the requirement of HDACs for RB-mediated transcriptional repression is promoter specific. The HDAC-independent repression was not associated with DNA methylation or gene silencing but was readily reversible. We show that this form of repression resulted in altered chromatin structure and was dependent on SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling activity. Importantly, we find that cell cycle inhibitory action of RB is not intrinsically dependent on the ability to recruit HDAC activity. Thus, while HDACs do play a major role in RB-mediated repression, they are dispensable for the repression of critical targets leading to cell cycle arrest.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3, as a cofactor in co-repressor complexes containing silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR), has been shown to repress gene transcription in a variety of contexts. Here, we reveal a novel role for HDAC3 as a positive regulator of IL-1-induced gene expression. Various experimental approaches involving RNAi-mediated knockdown, conditional gene deletion or small molecule inhibitors indicate a positive role of HDAC3 for transcription of the majority of IL-1-induced human or murine genes. This effect was independent from the gene regulatory effects mediated by the broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) and thus suggests IL-1-specific functions for HDAC3. The stimulatory function of HDAC3 for inflammatory gene expression involves a mechanism that uses binding to NF-κB p65 and its deacetylation at various lysines. NF-κB p65-deficient cells stably reconstituted to express acetylation mimicking forms of p65 (p65 K/Q) had largely lost their potential to stimulate IL-1-triggered gene expression, implying that the co-activating property of HDAC3 involves the removal of inhibitory NF-κB p65 acetylations at K122, 123, 314 and 315. These data describe a novel function for HDAC3 as a co-activator in inflammatory signaling pathways and help to explain the anti-inflammatory effects frequently observed for HDAC inhibitors in (pre)clinical use.
Trichostatin A (TSA) is a well-characterized histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. TSA modifies the balance between HDAC and histone acetyltransferase activities that is important in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Although several previous studies have demonstrated the role of TSA in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), the precise mechanism by which TSA affects ERα activity remains unclear.
Transient transfection was performed using the Welfect-EX™Plus procedure. The mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. Protein expression and interaction were determined by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The transfection of siRNAs was performed using the Oligofectamine™ reagent procedure.
TSA treatment increased acetylation of ERα in a dose-dependent manner. The TSA-induced acetylation of ERα was accompanied by an increased stability of ERα protein. Interestingly, TSA also increased the acetylation and the stability of p300 protein. Overexpression of p300 induced acetylation and stability of ERα by blocking ubiquitination. Knockdown of p300 by RNA interference decreased acetylation as well as the protein level of ERα, indicating that p300 mediated the TSA-induced stabilization of ERα.
We report that TSA enhanced acetylation as well as the stability of the ERα protein by modulating stability of p300. These results may provide the molecular basis for pharmacological functions of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of human breast cancer.
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is a major regulator of chromatin structure and gene expression. Tight control of HDAC1 expression is essential for normal cell cycle progression of mammalian cells. HDAC1 mRNA levels are regulated by growth factors and by changes in intracellular deacetylase activity levels. Stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by anisomycin or growth factors, together with inhibition of deacetylases by trichostatin A (TSA), leads to stable histone H3 phosphoacetylation and strongly induced HDAC1 expression. In contrast, activation of the nucleosomal response by anisomycin alone results only in transient phosphoacetylation of histone H3 without affecting HDAC1 mRNA levels. The transcriptional induction of the HDAC1 gene by anisomycin and TSA is efficiently blocked by H89, an inhibitor of the nucleosomal response. Detailed studies of the kinetics of histone acetylation and phosphorylation show that the two modifications are synergistic and essential for induced HDAC1 transcription. Activation of the HDAC1 gene by anisomycin together with TSA or by growth factors is accompanied by phosphoacetylation of HDAC1 promoter-associated histone H3. Our results present evidence for a precise regulatory mechanism which allows induction of the HDAC1 gene in response to proliferation signals and modulation of HDAC1 expression dependent on intracellular deacetylase levels.
The advanced phases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are known to be more resistant to therapy. This resistance has been associated with the overexpression of ABCB1, which gives rise to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. MDR is characterized by resistance to nonrelated drugs, and P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1) has been implicated as the major cause of its emergence. Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be important in several aspects of CML. Recently, Wnt signaling was linked to ABCB1 regulation through its canonical pathway, which is mediated by β-catenin, in other types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of ABCB1 transcription in CML, as the basal promoter of ABCB1 has several β-catenin binding sites. β-catenin is the mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, which is important for CML progression.
In this work we used the K562 cell line and its derived MDR-resistant cell line Lucena (K562/VCR) as CML study models. Real time PCR (RT-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), flow cytometry (FACS), western blot, immunofluorescence, RNA knockdown (siRNA) and Luciferase reporter approaches were used.
β-catenin was present in the protein complex on the basal promoter of ABCB1 in both cell lines in vitro, but its binding was more pronounced in the resistant cell line in vivo. Lucena cells also exhibited higher β-catenin levels compared to its parental cell line. Wnt1 and β-catenin depletion and overexpression of nuclear β-catenin, together with TCF binding sites activation demonstrated that ABCB1 is positively regulated by the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling.
These results suggest, for the first time, that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates ABCB1 in CML.
The deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces the transcription of the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) DRA gene in a way independent of the master coactivator CIITA. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic regulator stimulates MHC II expression, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor the alterations in histone modifications that correlate with DRA transcription after TSA treatment. We found that a dramatic increase in promoter linked histone acetylation is followed by an increase in Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and a decrease of lysine 9 methylation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that TSA increases the mobility of HDAC while decreasing the mobility of the class II enhanceosome factor RFX5. These data, in combination with ChIP experiments, indicate that the TSA-mediated induction of DRA transcription involves HDAC relocation and enhanceosome stabilization. In order to gain a genome-wide view of the genes responding to inhibition of deacetylases, we compared the transcriptome of B cells before and after TSA treatment using Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis showed that in addition to the DRA gene, the entire MHC II family and the adjacent histone cluster that are located in chromosome 6p21-22 locus are strongly induced by TSA. A complex pattern of gene reprogramming by TSA involves immune recognition, antiviral, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways and extends the rationale for using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) to modulate the immune response.
Gammaherpesviruses are important oncogenic pathogens that transit between lytic and latent life cycles. Silencing the lytic gene expression program enables the establishment of latency and a lifelong chronic infection of the host. In murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68), essential lytic switch gene 50 controls the interchange between lytic and latent gene expression programs. However, negative regulators of gene 50 expression remain largely undefined. We report that the MHV68 lytic cycle is silenced in infected macrophages but not fibroblasts and that histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate silencing. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) acts on the gene 50 promoter to induce lytic replication of MHV68. HDAC3, HDAC4, and the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) are required for efficient silencing of gene 50 expression. NCoR is critical for transcriptional repression of cellular genes by unliganded nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid, a known ligand for the NCoR complex, derepresses gene 50 expression and enhances MHV68 lytic replication. Moreover, HDAC3, HDAC4, and NCoR act on the gene 50 promoter and are recruited to this promoter in a retinoic acid-responsive manner. We provide the first example of NCoR-mediated, HDAC-dependent regulation of viral gene expression.
Over the last decade, several drugs that inhibit class I and/or class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified, including trichostatin A, the cyclic depsipeptide FR901228 and the antibiotic apicidin. These compounds have had immediate application in cancer research because of their ability to reactivate aberrantly silenced tumour suppressor genes and/or block tumour cell growth. Although a number of HDAC inhibitors are being evaluated in preclinical cancer models and in clinical trials, little is known about the differences in their specific mechanism of action and about the unique determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to each of these inhibitors.
Using a combination of cell viability assays, HDAC enzyme activity measurements, western blots for histone modifications, microarray gene expression analysis and qRT–PCR, we have characterised differences in trichostatin A vs depsipeptide-induced phenotypes in lung cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer cells and in normal cells and have then expanded these studies to other HDAC inhibitors.
Cell viability profiles across panels of lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma cell lines showed distinct sensitivities to the pan-inhibitor TSA compared with the class 1 selective inhibitor depsipeptide. In several instances, the cell lines most sensitive to one inhibitor were most resistant to the other inhibitor, demonstrating these drugs act on at least some non-overlapping cellular targets. These differences were not explained by the HDAC selectivity of these inhibitors alone since apicidin, which is a class 1 selective compound similar to depsipeptide, also showed a unique drug sensitivity profile of its own. TSA had greater specificity for cancer vs normal cells compared with other HDAC inhibitors. In addition, at concentrations that blocked cancer cell viability, TSA effectively inhibited purified recombinant HDACs 1, 2 and 5 and moderately inhibited HDAC8, while depsipeptide did not inhibit the activity of purified HDACs in vitro but did in cellular extracts, suggesting a potentially indirect action of this drug. Although both depsipeptide and TSA increased levels of histone acetylation in cancer cells, only depsipeptide decreased global levels of transcriptionally repressive histone methylation marks. Analysis of gene expression profiles of an isogenic cell line pair that showed discrepant sensitivity to depsipeptide, suggested that resistance to this inhibitor may be mediated by increased expression of multidrug resistance genes triggered by exposure to chemotherapy as was confirmed by verapamil studies.
Although generally thought to have similar activities, the HDAC modulators trichostatin A and depsipeptide demonstrated distinct phenotypes in the inhibition of cancer cell viability and of HDAC activity, in their selectivity for cancer vs normal cells, and in their effects on histone modifications. These differences in mode of action may bear on the future therapeutic and research application of these inhibitors.
trichostatin A; depsipeptide; HDAC inhibitors; cancer cell viability; drug sensitivity
The mood-stabilizing and anticonvulsant drug valproic acid (VPA) inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of HDAC inhibition on overall and target gene promoter-associated histone methylation in rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. We found that VPA and other HDAC inhibitors, including sodium butyrate (SB), trichostatin A (TSA), and the Class I HDAC inhibitors MS-275 and apicidin all increased levels of histone 3 lysine 4 dimethylation and trimethylation (H3K4Me2 and H3K4Me3); these processes are linked to transcriptional activation in rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. VPA, SB, TSA, MS-275, and apicidin also upregulated levels of the neuroprotective heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in rat astrocytes. Moreover, Class I HDAC inhibition by VPA and MS-275 increased H3K4Me2 levels at the HSP70 promoter in astrocytes and neurons. We also found that VPA treatment facilitated the recruitment of acetyltransferase p300 to the HSP70 promoter and that p300 interacted with the transcription factor NF-Y in astrocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that Class I HDAC inhibition is key to upregulating overall and gene-specific H3K4 methylation in primary neuronal and astrocyte cultures. In addition, VPA-induced activation of the HSP70 promoter in astrocytes appears to involve an increase in H3K4Me2 levels and recruitment of p300.
valproic acid; histone methylation; heat shock protein 70; MS-275; NF-Y; p300
The expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the colon has been correlated with the levels of butyrate present in this tissue. We report here that the effect of butyrate on mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase gene expression is exerted in vivo at the transcriptional level, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase inhibitor, also induces transcriptional activity and mRNA expression of the gene in human cell lines derived from colon carcinoma. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is associated with the endogenous mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter and that TSA induction correlates with hyperacetylation of H4 histone associated with the 5′ flanking region of the gene. Overexpression of HDAC1 activity leads consistently to mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter hypoacetylation and reduces its transcriptional activity. The effect of butyrate and TSA maps to a single Sp1 site present in the proximal promoter of the gene, which is able to bind Sp1 and Sp3 proteins. Interestingly, the binding affinity of Sp1 and Sp3 proteins to the Sp1 site correlates with the TSA responsiveness of the promoter. Using a one-hybrid system (GAL4-Sp1 and GAL4-Sp3), we show that both proteins can mediate responsiveness to TSA in CaCo-2 cells employing distinct mechanisms.
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) synergistically activate the methylated metallothionein I gene (MT-I) promoter in mouse lymphosarcoma cells. The cooperative effect of these two classes of inhibitors on MT-I promoter activity was robust following demethylation of only a few CpG dinucleotides by brief exposure to 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) but persisted even after prolonged treatment with the nucleoside analog. HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A [TSA] and depsipeptide) either alone or in combination with 5-AzaC did not facilitate demethylation of the MT-I promoter. Treatment of cells with HDAC inhibitors increased accumulation of multiply acetylated forms of H3 and H4 histones that remained unaffected after treatment with 5-AzaC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed increased association of acetylated histone H4 and lysine 9 (K9)-acetyl H3 with the MT-I promoter after treatment with TSA, which was not affected following treatment with 5-AzaC. In contrast, the association of K9-methyl histone H3 with the MT-I promoter decreased significantly after treatment with 5-AzaC and TSA. ChIP assay with antibodies specific for methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) demonstrated that only methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was associated with the MT-I promoter, which was significantly enhanced after TSA treatment. Association of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) with the promoter decreased after treatment with TSA or 5-AzaC and was abolished after treatment with both inhibitors. Among the DNA methyltransferases, both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were associated with the MT-I promoter in the lymphosarcoma cells, and association of Dnmt1 decreased with time after treatment with 5-AzaC. Treatment of these cells with HDAC inhibitors also increased expression of the MTF-1 (metal transcription factor-1) gene as well as its DNA binding activity. In vivo genomic footprinting studies demonstrated increased occupancy of MTF-1 to metal response elements of the MT-I promoter after treatment with both inhibitors. Analysis of the promoter by mapping with restriction enzymes in vivo showed that the MT-I promoter attained a more open chromatin structure after combined treatment with 5-AzaC and TSA as opposed to treatment with either agent alone. These results implicate involvement of multifarious factors including modified histones, MBDs, and Dnmts in silencing the methylated MT-I promoter in lymphosarcoma cells. The synergistic activation of this promoter by these two types of inhibitors is due to demethylation of the promoter and altered association of different factors that leads to reorganization of the chromatin and the resultant increase in accessibility of the promoter to the activated transcription factor MTF-1.
Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. The tumor exhibits two different phenotypes: favorable and unfavorable. MYCN amplification is associated with rapid tumor progression and the worst neuroblastoma disease outcome. We have previously reported that inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and proteasome enhance favorable neuroblastoma gene expression in neuroblastoma cell lines and inhibit growth of these cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of Trichostatin A or TSA (an HDAC inhibitor), and Epoxomycin (a proteasome inhibitor) on MYCN and p53 expression in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. It was found that TSA down-regulated MYCN expression, but Epoxomycin and the TSA/Epoxomycin combination led to MYCN hyper-expression in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. Despite their contrasting effects on MYCN expression, TSA and Epoxomycin caused growth suppression and cell death of the MYCN-amplified cell lines examined. Consistent with these data, forced hyper-expression of MYCN in MYCN-amplified IMR5 cells via transfection resulted in growth suppression and the increased expression of several genes known to suppress growth or induce cell death. Furthermore, Epoxomycin as a single agent and its combination with TSA enhance p53 expression in the MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. Unexpectedly, co-transfection of TP53 and MYCN in IMR5 cells resulted in high p53 expression but a reduction of MYCN expression. Together our data suggest that either down regulation or hyper-expression of MYCN results in growth inhibition and/or apoptosis of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. In addition, elevated p53 expression has a suppressive effect on MYCN expression in these cells.
neuroblastoma; MYCN; p53
Recent studies demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors therapeutically prevent cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease and in the present study we investigated the correlation between HDACs and MMP-13. We found that HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) could suppress both IL-1 dependent and independent MMP-13 mRNA expression (real time PCR) in human knee chondrocytes. Comparing the expression of different HDACs in cartilage from OA patients and healthy donors, HDAC7 showed a significant elevation in cartilage from OA patients. These results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of HDAC7 by siRNA in SW 1353 human chondrosarcoma cells strongly suppressed IL-1 dependent induction of MMP-13 gene expression.
In conclusion, elevated HDAC7 expression in human OA may contribute to cartilage degradation via promoting MMP-13 gene expression and inhibition of HDACs by TSA or the selective inhibition of HDAC7 could be used therapeutically to stop OA progression.
The transcription factor Snail has been described as a direct repressor of E-cadherin expression during development and carcinogenesis; however, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here we show that mammalian Snail requires histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to repress E-cadherin promoter and that treatment with trichostatin A (TSA) is sufficient to block the repressor effect of Snail. Moreover, overexpression of Snail is correlated with deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the E-cadherin promoter, and TSA treatment in Snail-expressing cells reverses the acetylation status of histones. Additionally, we demonstrate that Snail interacts in vivo with the E-cadherin promoter and recruits HDAC activity. Most importantly, we demonstrate an interaction between Snail, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2, and the corepressor mSin3A. This interaction is dependent on the SNAG domain of Snail, indicating that the Snail transcription factor mediates the repression by recruitment of chromatin-modifying activities, forming a multimolecular complex to repress E-cadherin expression. Our results establish a direct causal relationship between Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin and the modification of chromatin at its promoter.
The present study was designed to assess the neuroprotective action of the nonselective HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in an adult rodent model of retinal ischemia.
The pathogenesis of retinal ischemia results from a series of events involving changes in gene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Protein acetylation is an essential mechanism in regulating transcriptional and inflammatory events. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective action of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in a retinal ischemic model.
To investigate whether HDAC inhibition can reduce ischemic injury, rats were treated with TSA (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) twice daily on days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Seven days after ischemic injury, morphometric and electroretinographic (ERG) analyses were used to assess retinal structure and function. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were used to evaluate TSA-induced changes in histone-H3 acetylation and MMP secretion.
In vehicle-treated animals, ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly reduced compared with contralateral responses. In addition, histologic examination of these eyes revealed significant degeneration of inner retinal layers. In rats treated with TSA, amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly increased, and normal inner retina morphology was preserved. Ischemia also increased the levels of retinal TNF-α, which was blocked by TSA treatment. In astrocyte cultures, the addition of TNF-α (10 ng/mL) stimulated the secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-3, which were blocked by TSA (100 nM).
These studies provide the first evidence that suppressing HDAC activity can protect the retina from ischemic injury. This neuroprotective response is associated with the suppression of retinal TNF-α expression and signaling. The use of HDAC inhibitors may provide a novel treatment for ischemic retinal injury.
We have previously demonstrated that transcription of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene is subject to repression by histone deacetylation at its promoter region, where a histone deacetylase (HDAC)/mSin3A complex is anchored at a proximal Sp1 site. The present studies have shown that epigenetic silencing and activation of the LHR gene is achieved through coordinated regulation at both the histone and DNA levels. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) evoked robust but significantly lower activation of the LHR gene in JAR than in MCF-7 cells. This effect was localized to the 176-bp promoter region, which is highly methylated in JAR and lightly methylated in MCF-7 cells. Consequently, TSA and the DNA demethylating reagent 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) caused marked synergistic activation of the LHR gene in JAR but not in MCF-7 cells. Multiple site-specific lysine acetylation of H3/H4 is associated with such LHR gene activation. Methylation or acetylation of H3 at K9 is present at the silenced and derepressed LHR promoter, respectively. While DNA methylation levels did not affect the histone code of the LHR gene promoter, demethylation of the promoter CpG sites was necessary for maximal stimulation of this gene. Mechanistically, the combined actions of TSA and 5-AzaC, but not either 5-AzaC or TSA alone, resulted in complete demethylation of the LHR gene promoter in JAR cells. Release of the repressive HDAC/mSin3A complex from the LHR gene promoter in both cell types required both TSA-induced changes of histone modifications and, concurrently, a demethylated promoter. Also, Dnmt1 was largely dissociated from the LHR gene promoter in the presence of TSA or TSA plus 5-AzaC, and binding of MBD2 in JAR cells was diminished upon conversion of the promoter to a demethylated state. Such changes induced a more permissive chromatin where recruitment of polymerase II and TFIIB to the promoter was significantly increased. The activated state of the LHR gene induced by TSA and 5-AzaC in JAR and MCF-7 cells was observed basally in LHR-expressing PLC cells, in which the promoter is unmethylated and associated with hyperacetylated histones. Consequently, PLC cells are unresponsive to drug treatment. These findings have elucidated a regulatory mechanism whereby concurrent dissociation of repressors and association of activators and basal transcriptional components, resulting from coordinated histone hyperacetylation and DNA demethylation, lead to derepression of the LHR gene expression.