Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play vital roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism in all three domains of life and are characterized by the presence of one or more OB fold ssDNA-binding domains. Here, using the genetically tractable euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model, we present the first genetic analysis of SSB function in the archaea. We show that genes encoding the OB fold and zinc finger-containing RpaA1 and RpaB1 proteins are individually non-essential for cell viability but share an essential function, whereas the gene encoding the triple OB fold RpaC protein is essential. Loss of RpaC function can however be rescued by elevated expression of RpaB, indicative of functional overlap between the two classes of haloarchaeal SSB. Deletion analysis is used to demonstrate important roles for individual OB folds in RpaC and to show that conserved N- and C-terminal domains are required for efficient repair of DNA damage. Consistent with a role for RpaC in DNA repair, elevated expression of this protein leads to enhanced resistance to DNA damage. Taken together, our results offer important insights into archaeal SSB function and establish the haloarchaea as a valuable model for further studies.
DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT) from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein LigA.
To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity assays using λ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells.
LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M) salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation of proteins to high intracellular salt levels.
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-folds, a five-stranded β-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to ssDNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) is known as replication protein A (RPA) and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3) exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota; this gene encodes a protein that we have termed RPA-associated protein (rpap). The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature OB-folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to ssDNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only Δrpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins (RPAPs). We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA-binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.
archaea; Haloferax volcanii; RPA single-strand DNA-binding protein; COG3390 RPA-associated protein; DNA repair; protein overexpression; Cdc48d
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3 subunits that binds to ssDNA with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-dsDNA junctions or breaks and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic decreases the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates RPA interactions with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 show that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.
We have examined the single stranded DNA binding properties of the S. cerevisiae Replication Protein A (scRPA) using fluorescence titrations, isothermal titration calorimetry and sedimentation equilibrium in order to determine whether scRPA can bind to ssDNA in multiple binding modes. We measured the occluded site size for scRPA binding poly(dT), as well as the stoichiometry, equilibrium binding constants and binding enthalpy of scRPA-((dT)L) complexes as a function of oligodeoxynucleotide length, L. Sedimentation equilibrium studies show that scRPA is stable hetero-trimer over the range of [NaCl] examined (0.02 M to 1.5 M). However, the occluded site size, n, undergoes a salt-dependent transition between values of n=18−20 nucleotides at low [NaCl] to n=26−28 nucleotides at high [NaCl], with a transition midpoint near 0.36 M NaCl (25.0°C, pH 8.1). Measurements of the stoichiometry of scRPA-(dT)L complexes also show a [NaCl]-dependent change in stoichiometry consistent with the observed change in occluded site size. Measurements of the ΔHobs for scRPA binding to (dT)L at 1.5 M NaCl, yield a contact site size of 28 nucleotides, similar to the occluded site size determined at this [NaCl]. Altogether, these data support a model in which scRPA can bind to ssDNA in at least two binding modes, a low site size mode (n = 18 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at low [NaCl], in which only three of its OB-folds are used, and a higher site size mode (n = 27 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at higher [NaCl], which uses four of its OB-folds. No evidence for highly cooperative binding of scRPA to ssDNA was found either under any conditions examined. Thus, scRPA shows some similar behavior to the E. coli SSB homo-tetramer, which also shows binding mode transitions, but some significant differences also exist.
The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs.
The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R
free = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells.
PCNA–DNA interactions; sliding clamps; halophilic environment
We describe a CCCH type of zinc finger domain in a replication protein A (RPA) homolog found in members of different lineages of the Euryarchaeota, a subdomain of Archaea. The zinc finger is characterized by CX2CX8CX2H, where X is any amino acid. Using MacRPA3, a representative of this new group of RPA in Methanosarcina acetivorans, we made two deletion mutants: a C-terminal deletion mutant lacking the zinc finger and an N-terminal deletion mutant containing the zinc finger domain. Whereas the N-terminal deletion mutant contained zinc at a level comparable to the wild-type protein level, the C-terminal deletion mutant was devoid of zinc. We further created four different mutants of MacRPA3 by replacing each of the four invariable amino acids in the zinc finger with alanine. Each single mutation at an invariable position resulted in a protein containing less than 35% of the zinc found in the wild-type protein. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that although the mutation at the first cysteine resulted in minor perturbation of protein structure, mutations at the other invariable positions led to larger structural changes. All proteins harboring a mutation at one of the invariable positions bound to single-stranded DNA weakly, and this translated into reduced capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis by M. acetivorans DNA polymerase BI. By subjecting the protein and its mutants to oxidizing and reducing conditions, we demonstrated that ssDNA binding by MacRPA3 may be regulated by redox through the zinc finger. Thus, the zinc finger modules in euryarchaeal RPA proteins may serve as a means by which the function of these proteins is regulated in the cell.
The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA) to a resolution of 2.0 Å.
The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins). HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects.
The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as opposed to simply surviving in extreme halophilic conditions.
Replication factor A (RPA) is a single-strand DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair processes. It is composed by the subunits RPA-1, RPA-2 and RPA-3; the major DNA-binding activity resides in the subunit 1 of the heterotrimeric RPA complex. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, besides the three basic structural DNA-binding domains, the RPA-1 subunit contains an N-terminal region involved in protein-protein interactions with a fourth DNA-binding domain. Remarkably, the N-terminal extension is absent in the RPA-1 of the pathogenic protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; however, the protein maintains its ability to bind ssDNA. In a recent work, we identify Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis RPA-1 by its specific binding to the untranslated regions of the HSP70 mRNAs, suggesting that this protein might be also an RNA-binding protein.
Both rLbRPA-1 purified by His-tag affinity chromatography as well as the in vitro transcribed L. braziliensis 3′ HSP70-II UTR were used to perform pull down assays to asses nucleic acid binding properties. Also, homology modeling was carried out to construct the LbRPA-1 tridimensional structure to search relevant amino acid residues to bind nucleic acids.
In this work, after obtaining the recombinant L. braziliensis RPA-1 protein under native conditions, competitive and non-competitive pull-down assays confirmed the single-stranded DNA binding activity of this protein and demonstrated its interaction with the 3′ UTR from the HSP70-II mRNA. As expected, this protein exhibits a high affinity for ssDNA, but we have found that RPA-1 interacts also with RNA. Additionally, we carried out a structural analysis of L. braziliensis RPA-1 protein using the X-ray diffraction structure of Ustilago maydis homologous protein as a template. Our results indicate that, in spite of the evolutionary divergence between both organisms, the structure of these two RPA-1 proteins seems to be highly conserved.
The LbRPA-1 protein is a ssDNA binding protein, but also it shows affinity in vitro for the HSP70 mRNA; this finding supports a possible in vivo role in the HSP70 mRNA metabolism. On the other hand, the three dimensional model of Leishmania RPA-1 serves as a starting point for both functional analysis and its exploration as a chemotherapeutic target to combat leishmaniasis.
Replication protein A (RPA); RPA subunit 1; Single-stranded DNA binding protein; RNA binding protein; Leishmania braziliensis
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA binding complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication, repair, and recombination. RPA is composed of three subunits, RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. In contrast to single RPA subunit genes generally found in animals and yeast, plants encode multiple paralogs of RPA subunits, suggesting subfunctionalization. Genetic analysis demonstrates that five Arabidopsis thaliana RPA1 paralogs (RPA1A to RPA1E) have unique and overlapping functions in DNA replication, repair, and meiosis. We hypothesize here that RPA1 subfunctionalities will be reflected in major structural and sequence differences among the paralogs. To address this, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide sequences of RPA1 paralogs from 25 complete genomes representing a wide spectrum of plants and unicellular green algae. We find here that the plant RPA1 gene family is divided into three general groups termed RPA1A, RPA1B, and RPA1C, which likely arose from two progenitor groups in unicellular green algae. In the family Brassicaceae the RPA1B and RPA1C groups have further expanded to include two unique sub-functional paralogs RPA1D and RPA1E, respectively. In addition, RPA1 groups have unique domains, motifs, cis-elements, gene expression profiles, and pattern of conservation that are consistent with proposed functions in monocot and dicot species, including a novel C-terminal zinc-finger domain found only in plant RPA1C-like sequences. These results allow for improved prediction of RPA1 subunit functions in newly sequenced plant genomes, and potentially provide a unique molecular tool to improve classification of Brassicaceae species.
RPA; replication; meiosis; DNA repair
Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of the RPA70 subunit (RPA70N) interacts via a basic cleft with a wide range of DNA processing proteins, including several that regulate DNA damage response and repair. Small molecule inhibitors that disrupt these protein-protein interactions are therefore of interest as chemical probes of these critical DNA processing pathways and as inhibitors to counter the up-regulation of DNA damage response and repair associated with treatment of cancer patients with radiation or DNA damaging agents. Determination of three-dimensional structures of protein-ligand complexes is an important step for elaboration of small molecule inhibitors. However, although crystal structures of free RPA70N and an RPA70N-peptide fusion construct have been reported, RPA70N-inhibitor complexes have been recalcitrant to crystallization. Analysis of the P61 lattice of RPA70N crystals led us to hypothesize that the ligand-binding surface was occluded. Surface reengineering to alter key crystal lattice contacts lead to the design of RPA70N E7R, E100R and E7R, E100R mutants. These mutants crystallized in a P212121 lattice that clearly had significant solvent channels open to the critical basic cleft. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures, target peptide binding affinities, and 15N-1H HSQC NMR spectra showed that the mutations do not result in perturbations of the RPA70N ligand-binding surface. The success of the design was demonstrated by determining the structure of RPA70N E7R soaked with a ligand discovered in a previously reported molecular fragment screen. A fluorescence anisotropy competition binding assay revealed this compound can inhibit the interaction of RPA70N with the peptide binding motif from the DNA damage response protein ATRIP. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to design RPA70N inhibitors.
The oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold is central to the architecture of single-stranded- DNA-binding proteins, which are polypeptides essential for diverse cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In archaea, single-stranded DNA-binding proteins composed of multiple OB folds and a zinc finger domain, in a single polypeptide, have been described. The OB folds of these proteins were more similar to their eukaryotic counterparts than to their bacterial ones. Thus, the archaeal protein is called replication protein A (RPA), as in eukaryotes. Unlike most organisms, Methanosarcina acetivorans harbors multiple functional RPA proteins, and it was our interest to determine whether the different proteins play different roles in DNA transactions. Of particular interest was lagging-strand DNA synthesis, where recently RPA has been shown to regulate the size of the 5′ region cleaved during Okazaki fragment processing. We report here that M. acetivorans RPA1 (MacRPA1), a protein composed of four OB folds in a single polypeptide, inhibits cleavage of a long flap (20 nucleotides) by M. acetivorans flap endonuclease 1 (MacFEN1). To gain a further insight into the requirement of the different regions of MacRPA1 on its inhibition of MacFEN1 endonuclease activity, N-terminal and C-terminal truncated derivatives of the protein were made and were biochemically and biophysically analyzed. Our results suggested that MacRPA1 derivatives with at least three OB folds maintained the properties required for inhibition of MacFEN1 endonuclease activity. Despite these interesting observations, further biochemical and genetic analyses are required to gain a deeper understanding of the physiological implications of our findings.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of 70-, 34-, and 14- kDa subunits that is required for many DNA metabolic processes including DNA replication and DNA repair. Using a purified hyperphosphorylated form of RPA protein prepared in vitro, we have addressed the effects of hyperphosphorylation on steady-state and pre-steady-state DNA binding activity, the ability to support DNA repair and replication reactions, and the effect on the interaction with partner proteins. Equilibrium DNA binding activity measured by fluorescence polarization reveals no difference in ssDNA binding to pyrimidine-rich DNA sequences. However, RPA hyperphosphorylation results in a decreased affinity for purine-rich ssDNA and duplex DNA substrates. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is consistent with the equilibrium DNA binding and demonstrates a contribution from both the kon and koff to achieve these differences. The hyperphosphorylated form of RPA retains damage-specific DNA binding, and, importantly, the affinity of hyperphosphorylated RPA for damaged duplex DNA is 3-fold greater than the affinity of unmodified RPA for undamaged duplex DNA. The ability of hyperphosphorylated RPA to support DNA repair showed minor differences in the ability to support nucleotide excision repair (NER). Interestingly, under reaction conditions in which RPA is maintained in a hyperphosphorylated form, we also observed inhibition of in vitro DNA replication. Analyses of protein–protein interactions bear out the effects of hyperphosphorylated RPA on DNA metabolic pathways. Specifically, phosphorylation of RPA disrupts the interaction with DNA polymerase α but has no significant effect on the interaction with XPA. These results demonstrate that the effects of DNA damage induced hyperphosphorylation of RPA on DNA replication and DNA repair are mediated through alterations in DNA binding activity and protein–protein interactions.
Halophiles are found in all three domains of life. Within the Bacteria we know halophiles within the phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Bacteroidetes. Within the Archaea the most salt-requiring microorganisms are found in the class Halobacteria. Halobacterium and most of its relatives require over 100–150 g/l salt for growth and structural stability. Also within the order Methanococci we encounter halophilic species. Halophiles and non-halophilic relatives are often found together in the phylogenetic tree, and many genera, families and orders have representatives with greatly different salt requirement and tolerance. A few phylogenetically coherent groups consist of halophiles only: the order Halobacteriales, family Halobacteriaceae (Euryarchaeota) and the anaerobic fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales (Firmicutes). The family Halomonadaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) almost exclusively contains halophiles. Halophilic microorganisms use two strategies to balance their cytoplasm osmotically with their medium. The first involves accumulation of molar concentrations of KCl. This strategy requires adaptation of the intracellular enzymatic machinery, as proteins should maintain their proper conformation and activity at near-saturating salt concentrations. The proteome of such organisms is highly acidic, and most proteins denature when suspended in low salt. Such microorganisms generally cannot survive in low salt media. The second strategy is to exclude salt from the cytoplasm and to synthesize and/or accumulate organic 'compatible' solutes that do not interfere with enzymatic activity. Few adaptations of the cells' proteome are needed, and organisms using the 'organic-solutes-in strategy' often adapt to a surprisingly broad salt concentration range. Most halophilic Bacteria, but also the halophilic methanogenic Archaea use such organic solutes. A variety of such solutes are known, including glycine betaine, ectoine and other amino acid derivatives, sugars and sugar alcohols. The 'high-salt-in strategy' is not limited to the Halobacteriaceae. The Halanaerobiales (Firmicutes) also accumulate salt rather than organic solutes. A third, phylogenetically unrelated organism accumulates KCl: the red extremely halophilic Salinibacter (Bacteroidetes), recently isolated from saltern crystallizer brines. Analysis of its genome showed many points of resemblance with the Halobacteriaceae, probably resulting from extensive horizontal gene transfer. The case of Salinibacter shows that more unusual types of halophiles may be waiting to be discovered.
In eukaryotes, the 26S proteasome degrades ubiquitinylated proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. Archaea mediate a form of post-translational modification of proteins termed sampylation that resembles ubiquitinylation. Sampylation was identified in Haloferax volcanii, a moderate halophilic archaeon that synthesizes homologs of 26S proteasome subunits including 20S core particles and regulatory particle triple-A ATPases (Rpt)-like proteasome-associated nucleotidases (PAN-A/1 and PAN-B/1). To determine whether sampylated proteins associate with the Rpt subunit homologs, PAN-A/1 was purified to homogeneity from Hfx. volcanii and analyzed for its subunit stoichiometry, nucleotide hydrolyzing activity and binding to sampylated protein targets. PAN-A/1 was found associated as a dodecamer (630-kDa) with a configuration in TEM suggesting a complex of two stacked hexameric rings. PAN-A/1 had high affinity for ATP (Km of ∼0.44 mM) and hydrolyzed this nucleotide with a specific activity of 0.33 ± 0.1 μmol Pi/h per mg protein and maximum at 42°C. PAN-A1 was stabilized by 2M salt with a decrease in activity at lower concentrations of salt that correlated with dissociation of the dodecamer into trimers to monomers. Binding of PAN-A/1 to a sampylated protein was demonstrated by modification of a far Western blotting technique (derived from the standard Western blot method to detect protein-protein interaction in vitro) for halophilic proteins. Overall, our results support a model in which sampylated proteins associate with the PAN-A/1 AAA+ ATPase in proteasome-mediated proteolysis and/or protein remodeling and provide a method for assay of halophilic protein-protein interactions.
archaea; protein modification; post-translational modification; AAA ATPases; proteasomes; ubiquitylation; sampylation
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, multi-functional
protein that binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is essential
for eukaryotic DNA metabolism. Using heteronuclear NMR methods we
have investigated the domain interactions and ssDNA binding of a
fragment from the 70 kDa subunit of human RPA (hRPA70). This fragment
contains an N-terminal domain (NTD), which is important for hRPA70–protein interactions,
connected to a ssDNA-binding domain (SSB1) by a flexible linker
(hRPA701–326). Correlation analysis of the amide 1H
and 15N chemical shifts was used to compare the structure
of the NTD and SSB1 in hRPA701–326 with two
smaller fragments that corresponded to the individual domains. High
correlation coefficients verified that the NTD and SSB1 maintained their
structures in hRPA701–326, indicating weak interdomain
coupling. Weak interdomain coupling was also suggested by a comparison
of the transverse relaxation rates for hRPA701–326 and
one of the smaller hRPA70 fragments containing the NTD and the flexible
linker (hRPA701–168). We also examined the structure
of hRPA701–326 after addition of three different
ssDNA substrates. Each of these substrates induced specific amide 1H
and/or 15N chemical shift changes in both the
NTD and SSB1. The NTD and SSB1 have similar topologies, leading
to the possibility that ssDNA binding induced the chemical shift
changes observed for the NTD. To test this hypothesis we monitored
the amide 1H and 15N chemical shift changes
of hRPA701–168 after addition of ssDNA. The
same amide 1H and 15N chemical shift changes
were observed for the NTD in hRPA701–168 and
hRPA701–326. The NTD residues with the largest
amide 1H and/or 15N chemical shift
changes were localized to a basic cleft that is important for hRPA70–protein
interactions. Based on this relationship, and other available data,
we propose a model where binding between the NTD and ssDNA interferes
with hRPA70–protein interactions.
Replication Protein A (RPA) is a eukaryotic single stranded (ss) DNA binding protein that plays critical roles in most aspects of genome maintenance, including replication, recombination and repair. RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, destabilizes DNA secondary structure and facilitates binding of other proteins to ssDNA. However, RPA must be removed from or redistributed along ssDNA during these processes. To probe the dynamics of RPA-DNA interactions, we combined ensemble and single molecule fluorescence approaches to examine human RPA diffusion along ssDNA and find that an hRPA hetero-trimer can diffuse rapidly along ssDNA. Diffusion of hRPA is functional in that it provides the mechanism by which hRPA can transiently disrupt DNA hairpins by diffusing in from ssDNA regions adjacent to the DNA hairpin. hRPA diffusion was also monitored by the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity of a Cy3 fluorophore attached to the end of ssDNA. Using a novel method to calibrate the Cy3 fluorescence intensity as a function of hRPA position on the ssDNA, we estimate a one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of hRPA on ssDNA of D1 ~5000 nucleotide2s−1 at 37°C. Diffusion of hRPA while bound to ssDNA enables it to be readily repositioned to allow other proteins access to ssDNA.
RPA; single molecule fluorescence; FRET; dynamics; DNA hairpin melting; diffusion coefficient
Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein-protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA damage response and sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein-protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N-ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.
Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)–binding complex required for DNA replication and repair, homologous recombination, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Whilst the larger RPA subunits, Rpa1 and Rpa2, have essential interactions with ssDNA, the molecular functions of the smallest subunit Rpa3 are unknown. Here, we investigate the Rpa3 ortholog Ssb3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and find that it is dispensable for cell viability, checkpoint signaling, RPA foci formation, and meiosis. However, increased spontaneous Rad11Rpa1 and Rad22Rad52 nuclear foci in ssb3Δ cells indicate genome maintenance defects. Moreover, Ssb3 is required for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication. Genetic interaction studies indicate that Ssb3 has a close functional relationship with the Mms1-Mms22 protein complex, which is required for survival after DNA damage in S-phase, and with the mitotic functions of Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase that is required for recovery from replication fork collapse. From these studies we propose that Ssb3 plays a critical role in mediating RPA functions that are required for repair or tolerance of DNA lesions in S-phase. Rpa3 orthologs in humans and other species may have a similar function.
Proteins that bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are essential for DNA replication, most types of DNA repair including homologous recombination, DNA damage signaling, and maintenance of telomeres. In eukaryotes, the most ubiquitous and abundant ssDNA binding protein is Replication Protein A (RPA), a 3-subunit protein complex consisting of large (Rpa1), medium (Rpa2), and small (Rpa3) subunits. Rpa1 and Rpa2 directly bind ssDNA, whilst the function of Rpa3 is largely unknown. Here, we discover that in fission yeast a 2-subunit complex of Rpa1 and Rpa2 is sufficient for the essential DNA replication function of RPA and its role in homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks. Rpa3 is not required for these functions, but it is needed for survival of many types of DNA damage that stall or collapse replication forks. Genetic studies indicate close functional links between the Rpa3-dependent activities of RPA, the repair of collapsed replication forks by Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and the newly discovered Mms1-Mms22 protein complex that is essential for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication.
Replication protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric single-stranded-DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) of eukaryotes, contains two homologous ssDNA binding domains (A and B) in its largest subunit, RPA1, and a third domain in its second-largest subunit, RPA2. Here we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA1 contains a previously undetected ssDNA binding domain (domain C) lying in tandem with domains A and B. The carboxy-terminal portion of domain C shows sequence similarity to domains A and B and to the region of RPA2 that binds ssDNA (domain D). The aromatic residues in domains A and B that are known to stack with the ssDNA bases are conserved in domain C, and as in domain A, one of these is required for viability in yeast. Interestingly, the amino-terminal portion of domain C contains a putative Cys4-type zinc-binding motif similar to that of another prokaryotic SSB, T4 gp32. We demonstrate that the ssDNA binding activity of domain C is uniquely sensitive to cysteine modification but that, as with gp32, ssDNA binding is not strictly dependent on zinc. The RPA heterotrimer is thus composed of at least four ssDNA binding domains and exhibits features of both bacterial and phage SSBs.
Haloferax volcanii and Halomonas elongata have been selected as representatives of halophilic Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, to analyze the responses to various osmolarities at the protein synthesis level. We have identified a set of high-salt-related proteins (39, 24, 20, and 15.5 kDa in H. elongata; 70, 68, 48, and 16 kDa in H. volcanii) whose synthesis rates increased with increasing salinities. A different set of proteins (60, 42, 15, and 6 kDa for H. elongata; 63, 44, 34, 18, 17, and 6 kDa for H. volcanii), some unique for low salinities, was induced under low-salt conditions. For both organisms, and especially for the haloarchaeon, adaptation to low-salt conditions involved a stronger and more specific response than adaptation to high-salt conditions, indicating that unique mechanisms may have evolved for low-salinity adaptation. In the case of H. volcanii, proteins with a typical transient response to osmotic shock, induced by both hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions, probably corresponding to described heat shock proteins and showing the characteristics of general stress proteins, have also been identified. Cell recovery after a shift to low salinities was immediate in both organisms. In contrast, adaptation to higher salinities in both cases involved a lag period during which growth and general protein synthesis were halted, although the high-salt-related proteins were induced rapidly. In H. volcanii, this lag period corresponded exactly to the time needed for cells to accumulate adequate intracellular potassium concentrations, while extrusion of potassium after the down-shift was immediate. Thus, reaching osmotic balance must be the main limiting factor for recovery of cell functions after the variation in salinity.
Replication Protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric SSB of eukaryotes, contains four ssDNA binding domains (DBDs) within its two largest subunits, RPA1 and RPA2. We analyzed the contribution of the four DBDs to ssDNA binding affinity by assaying recombinant heterotrimeric RPA in which a single DBD (A, B, C or D) was inactive. Inactivation was accomplished by mutating the two conserved aromatic stacking residues present in each DBD. Using a short substrate, such as (dT)12, no stable interaction could be detected with RPA containing inactive domain A (RPA-A−) while the Kafor RPA-B− or RPA-C− was approximately one third that of wild type RPA. The Kaof RPA-D− was unaffected for substrates 12 to 23 nt in length, but was one third that of wild type RPA for substrates of 40 nt or more. Protein-DNA crosslinking confirms that domain A is essential for RPA to bind substrates of 12 nt or less and that DBD-D (RPA2) requires a minimum of 40 nt to interact with ssDNA. The data support a model in which domain A makes the initial contact with ssDNA, domains A, B, and C (in RPA1) contact substrates up to 23 nt in length, and RPA2 interacts with substrates of 40 - 60 nt.
The simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen(T antigen) has been shown to induce the melting of 8 bp within the SV40 origin of replication. We found previously that a 'pseudo-origin' DNA molecule (PO-8) containing a central 8 nt single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bubble was efficiently bound and denatured by human replication protein A (hRPA). To understand the mechanism by which hRPA denatures these pseudo-origin molecules, as well as the role that hRPA plays during the initiation of SV40 DNA replication, we characterized the key parameters for the pseudo-origin binding and denaturation reactions. The dissociation constant of hRPA binding to PO-8 was observed to be 7.7 x 10(-7) M, compared to 9.0 x 10(-8) M for binding to an identical length ssDNA under the same reaction conditions. The binding and denaturation of PO-8 occurred with different kinetics with the rate of binding determined to be approximately 4-fold greater than the rate of denaturation. Although hRPA binding to PO-8 was relatively temperature independent, an increase in incubation temperature from 4 to 37 degreesC stimulated denaturation nearly 4-fold. At 37 degreesC, denaturation occurred on approximately 1/3 of those substrate molecules bound by hRPA, showing that hRPA can bind the pseudo-origin substrate without causing its complete denaturation. Tests of other single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) over a range of SSB concentrations revealed that the ability of the SSBs to bind the pseudo-origin substrate, rather than denature the substrate, correlated best with the known ability of these SSBs to support the T antigen-dependent SV40 origin-unwinding activity. Our data indicate that hRPA first binds the DNA substrate using a combination of contacts with the ssDNA bubble and duplex DNA flanks and then, on only a fraction of the bound substrate molecules, denatures the DNA substrate.
Human replication protein A (RPA), composed of RPA70, RPA32, and RPA14 subunits, undergoes hyperphosphorylation in cells in response to DNA damage. Hyperphosphorylation that occurs predominately in the N-terminal region of RPA32 is believed to play a role in modulating the cellular activities of RPA essential for almost all DNA metabolic pathways. To understand how the hyperphosphorylation modulates the functions of RPA, we compared the structural characteristics of full-length native and hyperphosphorylated RPAs using mass spectrometric protein footprinting, fluorescence spectroscopy, and limited proteolysis. Our mass spectrometric data showed that of 24 lysines and 18 arginines readily susceptible to small chemical reagent modification in native RPA, the three residues Lys-343, Arg-335, and Arg-382, located in DNA binding domain B (DBD-B) of RPA70, were significantly shielded in the hyperphosphorylated protein. Tryptophan fluorescence studies indicated significant quenching of Trp-361, located in the DBD-B domain, induced by hyperphosphorylation of RPA. Consistently, DBD-B became more resistant to the limited proteolysis by chymotrypsin after RPA hyperphosphorylation. Taken together, our results indicate that upon hyperphosphorylation of RPA32 N terminus (RPA32N), RPA undergoes a conformational change involving the single-stranded DNA binding cleft of DBD-B. Comparison of the interactions of native and hyperphosphorylated RPAs with short single-stranded oligonucleotides or partial DNA duplexes with a short 5' or 3' single-stranded DNA tails showed reduced affinity for the latter protein. We propose that the hyperphosphorylation may play a role in modulating the cellular path-ways by altering the DBD-B-mediated RPA-DNA and RPA-protein interactions, hypothetically via the interaction of hyperphosphorylated RPA32N with DBD-B.