Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play vital roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism in all three domains of life and are characterized by the presence of one or more OB fold ssDNA-binding domains. Here, using the genetically tractable euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model, we present the first genetic analysis of SSB function in the archaea. We show that genes encoding the OB fold and zinc finger-containing RpaA1 and RpaB1 proteins are individually non-essential for cell viability but share an essential function, whereas the gene encoding the triple OB fold RpaC protein is essential. Loss of RpaC function can however be rescued by elevated expression of RpaB, indicative of functional overlap between the two classes of haloarchaeal SSB. Deletion analysis is used to demonstrate important roles for individual OB folds in RpaC and to show that conserved N- and C-terminal domains are required for efficient repair of DNA damage. Consistent with a role for RpaC in DNA repair, elevated expression of this protein leads to enhanced resistance to DNA damage. Taken together, our results offer important insights into archaeal SSB function and establish the haloarchaea as a valuable model for further studies.
DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT) from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein LigA.
To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity assays using λ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells.
LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M) salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation of proteins to high intracellular salt levels.
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-folds, a five-stranded β-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to ssDNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) is known as replication protein A (RPA) and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3) exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota; this gene encodes a protein that we have termed RPA-associated protein (rpap). The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature OB-folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to ssDNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only Δrpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins (RPAPs). We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA-binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.
archaea; Haloferax volcanii; RPA single-strand DNA-binding protein; COG3390 RPA-associated protein; DNA repair; protein overexpression; Cdc48d
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3 subunits that binds to ssDNA with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-dsDNA junctions or breaks and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic decreases the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates RPA interactions with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 show that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.
We have examined the single stranded DNA binding properties of the S. cerevisiae Replication Protein A (scRPA) using fluorescence titrations, isothermal titration calorimetry and sedimentation equilibrium in order to determine whether scRPA can bind to ssDNA in multiple binding modes. We measured the occluded site size for scRPA binding poly(dT), as well as the stoichiometry, equilibrium binding constants and binding enthalpy of scRPA-((dT)L) complexes as a function of oligodeoxynucleotide length, L. Sedimentation equilibrium studies show that scRPA is stable hetero-trimer over the range of [NaCl] examined (0.02 M to 1.5 M). However, the occluded site size, n, undergoes a salt-dependent transition between values of n=18−20 nucleotides at low [NaCl] to n=26−28 nucleotides at high [NaCl], with a transition midpoint near 0.36 M NaCl (25.0°C, pH 8.1). Measurements of the stoichiometry of scRPA-(dT)L complexes also show a [NaCl]-dependent change in stoichiometry consistent with the observed change in occluded site size. Measurements of the ΔHobs for scRPA binding to (dT)L at 1.5 M NaCl, yield a contact site size of 28 nucleotides, similar to the occluded site size determined at this [NaCl]. Altogether, these data support a model in which scRPA can bind to ssDNA in at least two binding modes, a low site size mode (n = 18 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at low [NaCl], in which only three of its OB-folds are used, and a higher site size mode (n = 27 ± 1 nucleotides), stabilized at higher [NaCl], which uses four of its OB-folds. No evidence for highly cooperative binding of scRPA to ssDNA was found either under any conditions examined. Thus, scRPA shows some similar behavior to the E. coli SSB homo-tetramer, which also shows binding mode transitions, but some significant differences also exist.
We describe a CCCH type of zinc finger domain in a replication protein A (RPA) homolog found in members of different lineages of the Euryarchaeota, a subdomain of Archaea. The zinc finger is characterized by CX2CX8CX2H, where X is any amino acid. Using MacRPA3, a representative of this new group of RPA in Methanosarcina acetivorans, we made two deletion mutants: a C-terminal deletion mutant lacking the zinc finger and an N-terminal deletion mutant containing the zinc finger domain. Whereas the N-terminal deletion mutant contained zinc at a level comparable to the wild-type protein level, the C-terminal deletion mutant was devoid of zinc. We further created four different mutants of MacRPA3 by replacing each of the four invariable amino acids in the zinc finger with alanine. Each single mutation at an invariable position resulted in a protein containing less than 35% of the zinc found in the wild-type protein. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that although the mutation at the first cysteine resulted in minor perturbation of protein structure, mutations at the other invariable positions led to larger structural changes. All proteins harboring a mutation at one of the invariable positions bound to single-stranded DNA weakly, and this translated into reduced capacity to stimulate DNA synthesis by M. acetivorans DNA polymerase BI. By subjecting the protein and its mutants to oxidizing and reducing conditions, we demonstrated that ssDNA binding by MacRPA3 may be regulated by redox through the zinc finger. Thus, the zinc finger modules in euryarchaeal RPA proteins may serve as a means by which the function of these proteins is regulated in the cell.
The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs.
The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R
free = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells.
PCNA–DNA interactions; sliding clamps; halophilic environment
The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA) to a resolution of 2.0 Å.
The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins). HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects.
The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as opposed to simply surviving in extreme halophilic conditions.
The oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold is central to the architecture of single-stranded- DNA-binding proteins, which are polypeptides essential for diverse cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In archaea, single-stranded DNA-binding proteins composed of multiple OB folds and a zinc finger domain, in a single polypeptide, have been described. The OB folds of these proteins were more similar to their eukaryotic counterparts than to their bacterial ones. Thus, the archaeal protein is called replication protein A (RPA), as in eukaryotes. Unlike most organisms, Methanosarcina acetivorans harbors multiple functional RPA proteins, and it was our interest to determine whether the different proteins play different roles in DNA transactions. Of particular interest was lagging-strand DNA synthesis, where recently RPA has been shown to regulate the size of the 5′ region cleaved during Okazaki fragment processing. We report here that M. acetivorans RPA1 (MacRPA1), a protein composed of four OB folds in a single polypeptide, inhibits cleavage of a long flap (20 nucleotides) by M. acetivorans flap endonuclease 1 (MacFEN1). To gain a further insight into the requirement of the different regions of MacRPA1 on its inhibition of MacFEN1 endonuclease activity, N-terminal and C-terminal truncated derivatives of the protein were made and were biochemically and biophysically analyzed. Our results suggested that MacRPA1 derivatives with at least three OB folds maintained the properties required for inhibition of MacFEN1 endonuclease activity. Despite these interesting observations, further biochemical and genetic analyses are required to gain a deeper understanding of the physiological implications of our findings.
Halophiles are found in all three domains of life. Within the Bacteria we know halophiles within the phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Bacteroidetes. Within the Archaea the most salt-requiring microorganisms are found in the class Halobacteria. Halobacterium and most of its relatives require over 100–150 g/l salt for growth and structural stability. Also within the order Methanococci we encounter halophilic species. Halophiles and non-halophilic relatives are often found together in the phylogenetic tree, and many genera, families and orders have representatives with greatly different salt requirement and tolerance. A few phylogenetically coherent groups consist of halophiles only: the order Halobacteriales, family Halobacteriaceae (Euryarchaeota) and the anaerobic fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales (Firmicutes). The family Halomonadaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) almost exclusively contains halophiles. Halophilic microorganisms use two strategies to balance their cytoplasm osmotically with their medium. The first involves accumulation of molar concentrations of KCl. This strategy requires adaptation of the intracellular enzymatic machinery, as proteins should maintain their proper conformation and activity at near-saturating salt concentrations. The proteome of such organisms is highly acidic, and most proteins denature when suspended in low salt. Such microorganisms generally cannot survive in low salt media. The second strategy is to exclude salt from the cytoplasm and to synthesize and/or accumulate organic 'compatible' solutes that do not interfere with enzymatic activity. Few adaptations of the cells' proteome are needed, and organisms using the 'organic-solutes-in strategy' often adapt to a surprisingly broad salt concentration range. Most halophilic Bacteria, but also the halophilic methanogenic Archaea use such organic solutes. A variety of such solutes are known, including glycine betaine, ectoine and other amino acid derivatives, sugars and sugar alcohols. The 'high-salt-in strategy' is not limited to the Halobacteriaceae. The Halanaerobiales (Firmicutes) also accumulate salt rather than organic solutes. A third, phylogenetically unrelated organism accumulates KCl: the red extremely halophilic Salinibacter (Bacteroidetes), recently isolated from saltern crystallizer brines. Analysis of its genome showed many points of resemblance with the Halobacteriaceae, probably resulting from extensive horizontal gene transfer. The case of Salinibacter shows that more unusual types of halophiles may be waiting to be discovered.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, multi-functional
protein that binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is essential
for eukaryotic DNA metabolism. Using heteronuclear NMR methods we
have investigated the domain interactions and ssDNA binding of a
fragment from the 70 kDa subunit of human RPA (hRPA70). This fragment
contains an N-terminal domain (NTD), which is important for hRPA70–protein interactions,
connected to a ssDNA-binding domain (SSB1) by a flexible linker
(hRPA701–326). Correlation analysis of the amide 1H
and 15N chemical shifts was used to compare the structure
of the NTD and SSB1 in hRPA701–326 with two
smaller fragments that corresponded to the individual domains. High
correlation coefficients verified that the NTD and SSB1 maintained their
structures in hRPA701–326, indicating weak interdomain
coupling. Weak interdomain coupling was also suggested by a comparison
of the transverse relaxation rates for hRPA701–326 and
one of the smaller hRPA70 fragments containing the NTD and the flexible
linker (hRPA701–168). We also examined the structure
of hRPA701–326 after addition of three different
ssDNA substrates. Each of these substrates induced specific amide 1H
and/or 15N chemical shift changes in both the
NTD and SSB1. The NTD and SSB1 have similar topologies, leading
to the possibility that ssDNA binding induced the chemical shift
changes observed for the NTD. To test this hypothesis we monitored
the amide 1H and 15N chemical shift changes
of hRPA701–168 after addition of ssDNA. The
same amide 1H and 15N chemical shift changes
were observed for the NTD in hRPA701–168 and
hRPA701–326. The NTD residues with the largest
amide 1H and/or 15N chemical shift
changes were localized to a basic cleft that is important for hRPA70–protein
interactions. Based on this relationship, and other available data,
we propose a model where binding between the NTD and ssDNA interferes
with hRPA70–protein interactions.
Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)–binding complex required for DNA replication and repair, homologous recombination, DNA damage checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Whilst the larger RPA subunits, Rpa1 and Rpa2, have essential interactions with ssDNA, the molecular functions of the smallest subunit Rpa3 are unknown. Here, we investigate the Rpa3 ortholog Ssb3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and find that it is dispensable for cell viability, checkpoint signaling, RPA foci formation, and meiosis. However, increased spontaneous Rad11Rpa1 and Rad22Rad52 nuclear foci in ssb3Δ cells indicate genome maintenance defects. Moreover, Ssb3 is required for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication. Genetic interaction studies indicate that Ssb3 has a close functional relationship with the Mms1-Mms22 protein complex, which is required for survival after DNA damage in S-phase, and with the mitotic functions of Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase that is required for recovery from replication fork collapse. From these studies we propose that Ssb3 plays a critical role in mediating RPA functions that are required for repair or tolerance of DNA lesions in S-phase. Rpa3 orthologs in humans and other species may have a similar function.
Proteins that bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are essential for DNA replication, most types of DNA repair including homologous recombination, DNA damage signaling, and maintenance of telomeres. In eukaryotes, the most ubiquitous and abundant ssDNA binding protein is Replication Protein A (RPA), a 3-subunit protein complex consisting of large (Rpa1), medium (Rpa2), and small (Rpa3) subunits. Rpa1 and Rpa2 directly bind ssDNA, whilst the function of Rpa3 is largely unknown. Here, we discover that in fission yeast a 2-subunit complex of Rpa1 and Rpa2 is sufficient for the essential DNA replication function of RPA and its role in homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks. Rpa3 is not required for these functions, but it is needed for survival of many types of DNA damage that stall or collapse replication forks. Genetic studies indicate close functional links between the Rpa3-dependent activities of RPA, the repair of collapsed replication forks by Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and the newly discovered Mms1-Mms22 protein complex that is essential for resistance to genotoxins that disrupt DNA replication.
Replication protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric single-stranded-DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) of eukaryotes, contains two homologous ssDNA binding domains (A and B) in its largest subunit, RPA1, and a third domain in its second-largest subunit, RPA2. Here we report that Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA1 contains a previously undetected ssDNA binding domain (domain C) lying in tandem with domains A and B. The carboxy-terminal portion of domain C shows sequence similarity to domains A and B and to the region of RPA2 that binds ssDNA (domain D). The aromatic residues in domains A and B that are known to stack with the ssDNA bases are conserved in domain C, and as in domain A, one of these is required for viability in yeast. Interestingly, the amino-terminal portion of domain C contains a putative Cys4-type zinc-binding motif similar to that of another prokaryotic SSB, T4 gp32. We demonstrate that the ssDNA binding activity of domain C is uniquely sensitive to cysteine modification but that, as with gp32, ssDNA binding is not strictly dependent on zinc. The RPA heterotrimer is thus composed of at least four ssDNA binding domains and exhibits features of both bacterial and phage SSBs.
Replication Protein A (RPA), the heterotrimeric SSB of eukaryotes, contains four ssDNA binding domains (DBDs) within its two largest subunits, RPA1 and RPA2. We analyzed the contribution of the four DBDs to ssDNA binding affinity by assaying recombinant heterotrimeric RPA in which a single DBD (A, B, C or D) was inactive. Inactivation was accomplished by mutating the two conserved aromatic stacking residues present in each DBD. Using a short substrate, such as (dT)12, no stable interaction could be detected with RPA containing inactive domain A (RPA-A−) while the Kafor RPA-B− or RPA-C− was approximately one third that of wild type RPA. The Kaof RPA-D− was unaffected for substrates 12 to 23 nt in length, but was one third that of wild type RPA for substrates of 40 nt or more. Protein-DNA crosslinking confirms that domain A is essential for RPA to bind substrates of 12 nt or less and that DBD-D (RPA2) requires a minimum of 40 nt to interact with ssDNA. The data support a model in which domain A makes the initial contact with ssDNA, domains A, B, and C (in RPA1) contact substrates up to 23 nt in length, and RPA2 interacts with substrates of 40 - 60 nt.
Human replication protein A (RPA), composed of RPA70, RPA32, and RPA14 subunits, undergoes hyperphosphorylation in cells in response to DNA damage. Hyperphosphorylation that occurs predominately in the N-terminal region of RPA32 is believed to play a role in modulating the cellular activities of RPA essential for almost all DNA metabolic pathways. To understand how the hyperphosphorylation modulates the functions of RPA, we compared the structural characteristics of full-length native and hyperphosphorylated RPAs using mass spectrometric protein footprinting, fluorescence spectroscopy, and limited proteolysis. Our mass spectrometric data showed that of 24 lysines and 18 arginines readily susceptible to small chemical reagent modification in native RPA, the three residues Lys-343, Arg-335, and Arg-382, located in DNA binding domain B (DBD-B) of RPA70, were significantly shielded in the hyperphosphorylated protein. Tryptophan fluorescence studies indicated significant quenching of Trp-361, located in the DBD-B domain, induced by hyperphosphorylation of RPA. Consistently, DBD-B became more resistant to the limited proteolysis by chymotrypsin after RPA hyperphosphorylation. Taken together, our results indicate that upon hyperphosphorylation of RPA32 N terminus (RPA32N), RPA undergoes a conformational change involving the single-stranded DNA binding cleft of DBD-B. Comparison of the interactions of native and hyperphosphorylated RPAs with short single-stranded oligonucleotides or partial DNA duplexes with a short 5' or 3' single-stranded DNA tails showed reduced affinity for the latter protein. We propose that the hyperphosphorylation may play a role in modulating the cellular path-ways by altering the DBD-B-mediated RPA-DNA and RPA-protein interactions, hypothetically via the interaction of hyperphosphorylated RPA32N with DBD-B.
The simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen(T antigen) has been shown to induce the melting of 8 bp within the SV40 origin of replication. We found previously that a 'pseudo-origin' DNA molecule (PO-8) containing a central 8 nt single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bubble was efficiently bound and denatured by human replication protein A (hRPA). To understand the mechanism by which hRPA denatures these pseudo-origin molecules, as well as the role that hRPA plays during the initiation of SV40 DNA replication, we characterized the key parameters for the pseudo-origin binding and denaturation reactions. The dissociation constant of hRPA binding to PO-8 was observed to be 7.7 x 10(-7) M, compared to 9.0 x 10(-8) M for binding to an identical length ssDNA under the same reaction conditions. The binding and denaturation of PO-8 occurred with different kinetics with the rate of binding determined to be approximately 4-fold greater than the rate of denaturation. Although hRPA binding to PO-8 was relatively temperature independent, an increase in incubation temperature from 4 to 37 degreesC stimulated denaturation nearly 4-fold. At 37 degreesC, denaturation occurred on approximately 1/3 of those substrate molecules bound by hRPA, showing that hRPA can bind the pseudo-origin substrate without causing its complete denaturation. Tests of other single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) over a range of SSB concentrations revealed that the ability of the SSBs to bind the pseudo-origin substrate, rather than denature the substrate, correlated best with the known ability of these SSBs to support the T antigen-dependent SV40 origin-unwinding activity. Our data indicate that hRPA first binds the DNA substrate using a combination of contacts with the ssDNA bubble and duplex DNA flanks and then, on only a fraction of the bound substrate molecules, denatures the DNA substrate.
Haloferax volcanii and Halomonas elongata have been selected as representatives of halophilic Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, to analyze the responses to various osmolarities at the protein synthesis level. We have identified a set of high-salt-related proteins (39, 24, 20, and 15.5 kDa in H. elongata; 70, 68, 48, and 16 kDa in H. volcanii) whose synthesis rates increased with increasing salinities. A different set of proteins (60, 42, 15, and 6 kDa for H. elongata; 63, 44, 34, 18, 17, and 6 kDa for H. volcanii), some unique for low salinities, was induced under low-salt conditions. For both organisms, and especially for the haloarchaeon, adaptation to low-salt conditions involved a stronger and more specific response than adaptation to high-salt conditions, indicating that unique mechanisms may have evolved for low-salinity adaptation. In the case of H. volcanii, proteins with a typical transient response to osmotic shock, induced by both hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions, probably corresponding to described heat shock proteins and showing the characteristics of general stress proteins, have also been identified. Cell recovery after a shift to low salinities was immediate in both organisms. In contrast, adaptation to higher salinities in both cases involved a lag period during which growth and general protein synthesis were halted, although the high-salt-related proteins were induced rapidly. In H. volcanii, this lag period corresponded exactly to the time needed for cells to accumulate adequate intracellular potassium concentrations, while extrusion of potassium after the down-shift was immediate. Thus, reaching osmotic balance must be the main limiting factor for recovery of cell functions after the variation in salinity.
Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein utilized in diverse DNA transactions in the cell. RPA is a heterotrimeric protein with seven globular domains connected by flexible linkers, which enable substantial inter-domain motion that is essential to its function. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on two multi-domain constructs from the N-terminus of the large subunit (RPA70) were used to examine the structural dynamics of these domains and their response to the binding of ssDNA. The SAXS data combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial interdomain flexibility for both RPA70AB (the tandem high affinity ssDNA binding domains A and B connected by a 10-residue linker) and RPA70NAB (RPA70AB extended by a 70-residue linker to the RPA70N protein interaction domain). Binding of ssDNA to RPA70NAB reduces the interdomain flexibility between the A and B domains, but has no effect on RPA70N. These studies provide the first direct measurements of changes in orientation of these three RPA domains upon binding ssDNA. The results support a model in which RPA70N remains structurally independent of RPA70AB in the DNA bound state and therefore freely available to serve as a protein recruitment module.
With the exception of viral proteins E1 and E2, papillomaviruses depend heavily on host replication machinery for replication of their viral genome. E1 and E2 are known to recruit many of the necessary cellular replication factors to the viral origin of replication. Previously, we reported a physical interaction between E1 and the major human single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, replication protein A (RPA). E1 was determined to bind to the 70-kDa subunit of RPA, RPA70. In this study, using E1-affinity coprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based interaction assays, we show that E1 interacts with the major ssDNA-binding domain of RPA. Consistent with our previous report, no measurable interaction between E1 and the two smaller subunits of RPA was detected. The interaction of E1 with RPA was substantially inhibited by ssDNA. The extent of this inhibition was dependent on the length of the DNA. A 31-nucleotide (nt) oligonucleotide strongly inhibited the E1-RPA interaction, while a 16-nt oligonucleotide showed an intermediate level of inhibition. In contrast, a 10-nt oligonucleotide showed no observable effect on the E1-RPA interaction. This inhibition was not dependent on the sequence of the DNA. Furthermore, ssDNA also inhibited the interaction of RPA with papillomavirus E2, simian virus 40 T antigen, human polymerase alpha-primase, and p53. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for ssDNA in modulating RPA-protein interactions, in particular, the RPA-E1 interactions during papillomavirus DNA replication. A model for recruitment of RPA by E1 during papillomavirus DNA replication is proposed.
The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex involved in the recognition and targeting of nascent extracytoplasmic proteins in all three domains of life. In Archaea, SRP contains 7S RNA like its eukaryal counterpart, yet only includes two of the six protein subunits found in the eukaryal complex. To further our understanding of the archaeal SRP, 7S RNA, SRP19 and SRP54 of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii have been expressed and purified, and used to reconstitute the ternary SRP complex. The availability of SRP components from a haloarchaeon offers insight into the structure, assembly and function of this ribonucleoprotein complex at saturating salt conditions. While the amino acid sequences of H.volcanii SRP19 and SRP54 are modified presumably as an adaptation to their saline surroundings, the interactions between these halophilic SRP components and SRP RNA appear conserved, with the possibility of a few exceptions. Indeed, the H.volcanii SRP can assemble in the absence of high salt. As reported with other archaeal SRPs, the limited binding of H.volcanii SRP54 to SRP RNA is enhanced in the presence of SRP19. Finally, immunolocalization reveals that H.volcanii SRP54 is found in the cytosolic fraction, where it is associated with the ribosomal fraction of the cell.
Across evolution, type I signal peptidases are responsible for the cleavage of secretory signal peptides from proteins following their translocation across membranes. In Archaea, type I signal peptidases combine domain-specific features with traits found in either their eukaryal or bacterial counterparts. Eukaryal and bacterial type I signal peptidases differ in terms of catalytic mechanism, pharmacological profile, and oligomeric status. In this study, genes encoding Sec11a and Sec11b, two type I signal peptidases of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii, were cloned. Although both genes are expressed in cells grown in rich medium, gene deletion approaches suggest that Sec11b, but not Sec11a, is essential. For purification purposes, tagged versions of the protein products of both genes were expressed in transformed Haloferax volcanii, with Sec11a and Sec11b being fused to a cellulose-binding domain capable of interaction with cellulose in hypersaline surroundings. By employing an in vitro signal peptidase assay designed for use with high salt concentrations such as those encountered by halophilic archaea such as Haloferax volcanii, the signal peptide-cleaving activities of both isolated membranes and purified Sec11a and Sec11b were addressed. The results show that the two enzymes differentially cleave the assay substrate, raising the possibility that the Sec11a and Sec11b serve distinct physiological functions.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA- (ssDNA) binding protein that can form a complex with the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA). This complex can preferentially recognize UV-damaged DNA over undamaged DNA and has been implicated in the stabilization of open complex formation during nucleotide excision repair. In this report, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between a fragment of the 70 kDa subunit of human RPA, residues 1–326 (hRPA701–326), and a fragment of the human XPA protein, residues 98–219 (XPA-MBD). Intensity changes were observed for amide resonances in the 1H–15N correlation spectrum of uniformly 15N-labeled hRPA701–326 after the addition of unlabeled XPA-MBD. The intensity changes observed were restricted to an ssDNA-binding domain that is between residues 183 and 296 of the hRPA701–326 fragment. The hRPA701–326 residues with the largest resonance intensity reductions were mapped onto the structure of the ssDNA-binding domain to identify the binding surface with XPA-MBD. The XPA-MBD-binding surface showed significant overlap with an ssDNA-binding surface that was previously identified using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Overlapping XPA-MBD- and ssDNA-binding sites on hRPA701–326 suggests that a competitive binding mechanism mediates the formation of the RPA–XPA complex. To determine whether a ternary complex could form between hRPA701–326, XPA-MBD and ssDNA, a 1H–15N correlation spectrum was acquired for uniformly 15N-labeled hRPA701–326 after the simultaneous addition of unlabeled XPA-MBD and ssDNA. In this experiment, the same chemical shift perturbations were observed for hRPA701–326 in the presence of XPA-MBD and ssDNA as was previously observed in the presence of ssDNA alone. The ability of ssDNA to compete with XPA-MBD for an overlapping binding site on hRPA701–326 suggests that any complex formation between RPA and XPA that involves the interaction between XPA-MBD and hRPA701–326 may be modulated by ssDNA.
In order to survive in highly saline environments, proteins from halophilic archea have evolved with biased amino acid compositions that have the capacity to reduce contacts with the solvent.
Proteins from halophilic organisms, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded at very high ionic strengths. The surfaces of halophilic proteins show a biased amino acid composition with a high prevalence of aspartic and glutamic acids, a low frequency of lysine, and a high occurrence of amino acids with a low hydrophobic character. Using extensive mutational studies on the protein surfaces, we show that it is possible to decrease the salt dependence of a typical halophilic protein to the level of a mesophilic form and engineer a protein from a mesophilic organism into an obligate halophilic form. NMR studies demonstrate complete preservation of the three-dimensional structure of extreme mutants and confirm that salt dependency is conferred exclusively by surface residues. In spite of the statistically established fact that most halophilic proteins are strongly acidic, analysis of a very large number of mutants showed that the effect of salt on protein stability is largely independent of the total protein charge. Conversely, we quantitatively demonstrate that halophilicity is directly related to a decrease in the accessible surface area.
Life on earth exhibits an enormous adaptive capacity and living organisms can be found even in extreme environments. The halophilic archea are a group of microorganisms that grow best in highly salted lakes (with KCl concentrations between 2 and 6 molar). To avoid osmotic shock, halophilic archea have the same ionic strength inside their cells as outside. All their macromolecules, including the proteins, have therefore adapted to remain folded and functional under such ionic strength conditions. As a result, the amino acid composition of proteins adapted to a hypersaline environment is very characteristic: they have an abundance of negatively charged residues combined with a low frequency of lysines. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between this biased amino-acid composition and protein stability. Three model proteins – one from a strict halophile, its homolog from a mesophile and a totally unrelated protein from a mesophile - have been largely redesigned by site-directed mutagenesis, and the resulting mutants have been characterized structurally and thermodynamically. Our results show that amino acids with short side-chains (like aspartic and glutamic acid) are preferred to the longer lysine because they succeed in reducing the interaction surface between the protein and the solvent, which is beneficial in an environment where water is in limited availability because it also has to hydrate the salt ions.
Human replication protein A (hRPA) is an essential single-stranded-DNA-binding protein that stimulates the activities of multiple DNA replication and repair proteins through physical interaction. To understand DNA binding and its role in hRPA heterologous interaction, we examined the physical structure of hRPA complexes with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Recent biochemical studies have shown that hRPA combines with ssDNA in at least two binding modes: by interacting with 8 to 10 nucleotides (hRPA8nt) and with 30 nucleotides (hRPA30nt). We find the relatively unstable hRPA8nt complex to be notably compact with many contacts between hRPA molecules. In contrast, on similar lengths of ssDNA, hRPA30nt complexes align along the DNA and make few intermolecular contacts. Surprisingly, the elongated hRPA30nt complex exists in either a contracted or an extended form that depends on ssDNA length. Therefore, homologous-protein interaction and available ssDNA length both contribute to the physical changes that occur in hRPA when it binds ssDNA. We used activated DNA-dependent protein kinase as a biochemical probe to detect alterations in conformation and demonstrated that formation of the extended hRPA30nt complex correlates with increased phosphorylation of the hRPA 29-kDa subunit. Our results indicate that hRPA binds ssDNA in a multistep pathway, inducing new hRPA alignments and conformations that can modulate the functional interaction of other factors with hRPA.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a three-subunit complex with multiple roles in DNA metabolism. DNA-binding domain A in the large subunit of human RPA (hRPA70A) binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is responsible for the species-specific RPA–T antigen (T-ag) interaction required for Simian virus 40 replication. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA70A (scRPA70A) shares high sequence homology with hRPA70A, the two are not functionally equivalent. To elucidate the similarities and differences between these two homologous proteins, we determined the solution structure of scRPA70A, which closely resembled the structure of hRPA70A. The structure of ssDNA-bound scRPA70A, as simulated by residual dipolar coupling-based homology modeling, suggested that the positioning of the ssDNA is the same for scRPA70A and hRPA70A, although the conformational changes that occur in the two proteins upon ssDNA binding are not identical. NMR titrations of hRPA70A with T-ag showed that the T-ag binding surface is separate from the ssDNA-binding region and is more neutral than the corresponding part of scRPA70A. These differences might account for the species-specific nature of the hRPA70A–T-ag interaction. Our results provide insight into how these two homologous RPA proteins can exhibit functional differences, but still both retain their ability to bind ssDNA.