Most women with symptomatic acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are now managed outside of hospital by private practitioners. Clinical diagnosis of PID is often inaccurate, but can be improved by knowledge of risk factors, use of simple investigations, and referral for laparoscopy when the physician is unsure. Prompt treatment with a recommended regimen that includes at least two antibiotics, careful consideration of when to hospitalize or refer, and an awareness of the need for compliance and follow up are important attributes of good management. In contrast, asymptomatic PID, which is a common antecedent of tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy, can be prevented only by screening for and appropriate treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
C-reactive protein; Chlamydia trachomatis; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; pelvic inflammatory disease; sexually transmitted disease
Objective: The current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) guidelines include 2 drugs, doxycycline and ofloxacin, for
treatment of the chlamydial component of outpatient pelvic
inflammatory disease (PID). Although ofloxacin costs about $90
more than doxycycline, doxycycline is frequently associated with
side effects and patient compliance with this drug is probably
poor. Because clinicians have little information by which to judge
the tradeoffs between price and compliance for these 2
antibiotics, we examined the impact of patient compliance in the
evaluation of the costs and benefits of using each drug.
Methods: The incidence and direct costs of PID sequelae (infertility,
ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain) resulting after
partially treated chlamydial PID were taken from previous
estimates. For differing levels of antibiotic compliance, the
probability of cure, probability of the occurrence of sequelae,
and the associated cost of each were calculated. Because the
relationship between partial antibiotic compliance and PID cure is
unknown, we included 3 plausible relationships in our analyses.
The sensitivity analysis was performed by varying key assumptions
and examining the effect of each on future costs.
Results: The average probability of future PID sequelae attributable to
chlamydia is slightly less than 2%, with an associated cost of $1,272. With an average compliance for doxycycline of 50%, an
improvement in compliance of as little as 1.8–3.5 percentage points (51.8–53.5%), depending on the
assumption used regarding partial compliance and cure, would make
the use of ofloxacin less costly than doxycycline in the long run.
Even with a cost difference of $90 between the 2 drugs, a
10-percentage-point increase in compliance (to 60% compliance) with the more expensive drug would save $2.63 for each $1.00 spent.
Conclusions: Since the long-term costs of PID are likely to overshadow the immediate cost of providing treatment, physicians should carefully consider the
likelihood of patient compliance in selecting an antibiotic.
The pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosis is mostly based on clinical findings. However, few studies have examined the clinical basis for the diagnostics of PID, which was the aim of this study.
A retrospective study was performed of 189 out-patients diagnosed as having PID at the obstetric and gynecological emergency department of a Swedish university hospital. Data on symptoms, signs, pelvic examination and laboratory tests were extracted from the electronic medical records in comparison with the diagnostic criteria of the PID Guideline of the US Center of Disease Control from 2002 (CDC 2002 Guidelines).
Eight symptoms in varying combinations were associated with the PID diagnosis. Most of them are mentioned in the CDC 2002 Guidelines. Detected rates of C. Trachomatis (CT) and N. Gonorrhoeae (NG) were 5% and 0%, respectively, among the tested patients (CT = 52% and NG = 12%). The C-reactive protein was normal in the majority of tested patients.
The clinical basis for the diagnostics of PID was largely in accordance with the criteria in the CDC 2002 Guidelines. The limited number of CT tests performed is somewhat disappointing, considering the fact that effective disease prevention includes widespread CT screening. Further studies in different settings are needed in order to analyze how the testing rate for CT can be improved in clinical praxis.
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) present to their general practitioners. Chlamydia trachomatis is the organism most commonly implicated in this condition. This study aims to examine how well PID is managed in the primary care setting and highlight areas for improvement. METHODS: The study was performed by sending postal questionnaires to 180 randomly selected general practitioners in Birmingham. Given the example of a woman presenting clinically with PID, the doctors were asked questions on diagnosis and treatment. To assess factors that may influence the answers, they were also asked about their sex, year of qualification, and postgraduate training. RESULTS: 139 questionnaires (77%) were returned. 91.4% of the respondents feel confident in managing patients with PID, and only 9.3% would usually refer these patients on. However, 54.7% do not perform an endocervical swab for C trachomatis, 37.4% do not include anti-chlamydial antibiotics in their treatment regimen, and 24.5% do not advise sexual partners to be screened. Female doctors, those with higher degrees, or obstetrics and gynaecology experience were more likely to give anti-chlamydial therapy, but no factors of the respondents significantly influenced contact tracing behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: The management of a patient presenting with PID should include investigation for C trachomatis and treatment with an appropriate antibiotic. As PID is often a sexually transmitted disease, contact tracing of sexual partners should be undertaken. The study suggests that a significant proportion of general practitioners would not have offered optimal management to patients with PID.
The diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is usually based on clinical criteria and can be challenging for even the most astute clinicians. Although diagnostic accuracy is advocated, antibiotic treatment should be instituted if there is a diagnosis of cervicitis or suspicion of acute PID. Currently, no single test or combination of diagnostic indicators have been found to reliably predict PID, and laparoscopy cannot be recommended as a first line tool for PID diagnosis. For this reason, the clinician is left with maintaining a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis as he/she evaluates the lower genital tract for inflammation and the pelvic organs for tenderness in women with genital tract symptoms and a risk for sexually transmitted infection. This approach should minimize treating women without PID with antibiotics and optimize the diagnosis in a practical and cost-effective way.
Prompt and effective treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) may help prevent long-term complications. Many PID cases are seen in primary care but it is not known how well management follows recommended guidelines.
To estimate the incidence of first-episode PID cases seen in UK general practice, describe their management, and assess its adequacy in relation to existing guidelines.
Design of study
UK general practices contributing to the General Practice Research Database (GPRD).
Women aged 15 to 40 years, consulting with a first episode of PID occurring between 30 June 2003 and 30 June 2008 were identified, based on the presence of a diagnostic code. The records within 28 days either side of the diagnosis date were analysed to describe management.
A total of 3797 women with a first-ever coded diagnosis of PID were identified. Incidence fell during the study period from 19.3 to 8.9/10 000 person-years. Thirty-four per cent of cases had evidence of care elsewhere, while 2064 (56%) appeared to have been managed wholly within the practice. Of these 2064 women, 34% received recommended treatment including metronidazole, and 54% had had a Chlamydia trachomatis test, but only 16% received both. Management was more likely to follow guidelines in women in their 20s, and later in the study period.
These analyses suggest that the management of PID in UK primary care, although improving, does not follow recommended guidelines for the majority of women. Further research is needed to understand the delivery of care in general practice and the coding of such complex syndromic conditions.
chlamydia; electronic health records; incidence; pelvic inflammatory disease; primary health care
During a 15 month period, 464 patients admitted to hospital with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were classified according to Monif's staging and treated following strict guidelines. Stage II, PID with peritoneal reaction, was treated with intravenous antibiotics. Stage III, PID with tubo-ovarian mass, was drained by posterior colpotomy when indicated or treated with triple antibiotics when high abdominal masses were present. Stage IV, ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess, was always surgically treated. Mortality was almost limited to patients with stage IV PID, 15% (3/20) of whom died. Morbidity included the need for laparotomy (in 1.6% (6/368) of stage II, 59.3% (45/76) of stage III, and 100% of 20 stage IV patients) and draining pus (in 6.6% (5/76) of stage III cases and 50% (10/20) of stage IV patients). This study also shows that unspecialised hospital staff are able to use Monif's staging correctly, and that acceptable results can be obtained with the limited resources that are available in most developing countries.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious public health and reproductive health problem in the United States.
An early and accurate diagnosis of PID is extremely important for the effective management of the acute illness and for
the prevention of long-term sequelae. The diagnosis of PID is difficult, with considerable numbers of false-positive and
false-negative diagnoses. An abnormal vaginal discharge or evidence of lower genital tract infection is an important
and predictive finding that is often underemphasized and overlooked. This paper reviews the clinical diagnosis and
supportive laboratory tests for the diagnosis of PID and outlines an appropriate diagnostic plan for the clinician and
Background. Untreated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women can result in disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ultimately culminating in tubal occlusion and infertility. While nucleic acid amplification tests can effectively diagnose uncomplicated lower genital tract infections, they are not suitable for diagnosing upper genital tract pathological sequelae. Objective. The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of new molecular factors associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of PID. Material and Methods. The literature was searched using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis infections,” “pelvic inflammatory disease,” and “molecular factors” in the PubMed database. Relevant articles published between 1996 and 2012 were evaluated. Conclusions. The use of new molecular factors could potentially facilitate earlier diagnosis and prognosis in women with PID due to C. trachomatis infection.
No single historical, physical, laboratory, or imaging finding is both sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Cervical motion tenderness (CMT), when present, is classically found on bimanual examination of the cervix and uterus. CMT is often associated with PID but can be present in other disease entities. We present a case report of a patient who was ultimately diagnosed with acute PID. The evaluating physician performed a trans-vaginal bedside ultrasound, and the operator appreciated ‘sonographic CMT’. In cases where the physical examination is equivocal or in patients where the exact location of tenderness is difficult to discern, performing a trans-vaginal bedside ultrasound examination can increase the physician's confidence that CMT is present as the cervix is being directly visualized as pressure is applied with the probe. Bedside ultrasound and specifically sonographic CMT may prove useful in diagnosing PID in patients with equivocal or unclear physical examination findings.
Pelvic inflammatory disease; PID; Cervical motion tenderness; Sonographic CMT; Bedside ultrasound
The Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) were published to standardize reporting and improve the quality of clinical trials. The objective of this study is to assess CONSORT adherence in randomized clinical trials (RCT) of disease specific clinical decision support (CDS).
A systematic search was conducted of the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. RCTs on CDS were assessed against CONSORT guidelines and the Jadad score.
32 of 3784 papers identified in the primary search were included in the final review. 181 702 patients and 7315 physicians participated in the selected trials. Most trials were performed in primary care (22), including 897 general practitioner offices. RCTs assessing CDS for asthma (4), diabetes (4), and hyperlipidemia (3) were the most common. Thirteen CDS systems (40%) were implemented in electronic medical records, and 14 (43%) provided automatic alerts. CONSORT and Jadad scores were generally low; the mean CONSORT score was 30.75 (95% CI 27.0 to 34.5), median score 32, range 21–38. Fourteen trials (43%) did not clearly define the study objective, and 11 studies (34%) did not include a sample size calculation. Outcome measures were adequately identified and defined in 23 (71%) trials; adverse events or side effects were not reported in 20 trials (62%). Thirteen trials (40%) were of superior quality according to the Jadad score (≥3 points). Six trials (18%) reported on long-term implementation of CDS.
The overall quality of reporting RCTs was low. There is a need to develop standards for reporting RCTs in medical informatics.
Clinical decision support; medical Informatics; telemedicine; disease surveillance; clinical decision support systems
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of endometrial culture results with the clinical diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Methods: A total of 130 patients admitted with the clinical diagnosis of acute PID were prospectively enrolled in this study. Endometrial cultures by transcervical aspirate currette were obtained from all patients.
Results: Of 130 patients, 114 were discharged with a clinical diagnosis of PID. Of these 114 patients, 112 had positive endometrial cultures for pathogenic organisms. The correlation between endometrial culture results and the clinical diagnosis of acute PID was 98.2%. When patients with only mycoplasmas in the endometrial cavity were excluded, the correlation between endometrial culture results and the clinical diagnosis of acute PID was 93.8%.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the exceedingly high degree of correlation between endometrial culture results and the clinical diagnosis of acute PID. Therefore, endometrial cultures may serve as a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute PID.
There is no systematic review of the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of teaching surgical and emergency skills to undergraduates.
We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, DARE and the University of Toronto Continuing Medical Education database for RCTs in all languages.
We identified 19 RCTs. Four tested methods of IV access, 1 found intraosseous access faster than the umbilical vein in neonates, and 1 found that one type of intraosseous needle had higher success rates. Two RCTs of intubation skills did not identify a superior technique. One RCT of CPR found video instruction superior to the American Heart Association Heartsaver course. Of 2 RCTs of trauma skills, 1 found no improvement and 1 found improvement only on the day of instruction. One RCT found both computer and seminar training improved epistaxis management. One RCT gave students preoperative anatomy instruction, and they received higher ratings from surgeons. One RCT asked students to study surgical scenarios preoperatively, and they improved their surgical intensive care unit skills. One RCT gave students video and paper-cut instruction of the Whipple procedure; both groups improved, but there were no differences between groups. One RCT taught uteteroscopy and stone extraction and found groups that used low-and high-fidelity bench models improved, compared with the didactic group. Four of 5 RCTs of knot tying showed improvement.
This systematic review assessed the quality of RCTs used in teaching undergraduates surgical and emergency skills. There are many positive study outcomes, but there are significant methodological weaknesses in the study design. Students varied in their skills, and most did not demonstrate optimal performance in any of the procedures. This review provides a baseline for further work important to both medical education and clinical practice.
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections due to defects in one ore more components of the immune system. Although most PIDs are relatively rare, they are more frequent than generally acknowledged. Early diagnosis and treatment of PIDs save lives, prevent morbidity, and improve quality of life. This early diagnosis is the task of the pediatrician who encounters the child for the first time: he/she should suspect potential PID in time and perform the appropriate diagnostic tests. In this educational paper, the first in a series of five, we will describe the most common clinical presentations of PIDs and offer guidelines for the diagnostic process, as well as a brief overview of therapeutic possibilities and prognosis.
Primary immunodeficiency; Diagnosis; Protocol; Lymphocyte; Immunoglobulin
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. The timing of development of PID after the sexually transmitted bacterial infection Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might affect the impact of screening interventions, but is currently unknown. This study investigates three hypothetical processes for the timing of progression: at the start, at the end, or throughout the duration of chlamydia infection.
We develop a compartmental model that describes the trial structure of a published randomised controlled trial (RCT) and allows each of the three processes to be examined using the same model structure. The RCT estimated the effect of a single chlamydia screening test on the cumulative incidence of PID up to one year later. The fraction of chlamydia infected women who progress to PID is obtained for each hypothetical process by the maximum likelihood method using the results of the RCT.
The predicted cumulative incidence of PID cases from all causes after one year depends on the fraction of chlamydia infected women that progresses to PID and on the type of progression. Progression at a constant rate from a chlamydia infection to PID or at the end of the infection was compatible with the findings of the RCT. The corresponding estimated fraction of chlamydia infected women that develops PID is 10% (95% confidence interval 7-13%) in both processes.
The findings of this study suggest that clinical PID can occur throughout the course of a chlamydia infection, which will leave a window of opportunity for screening to prevent PID.
Chlamydia infection; Pelvic inflammatory disease; Mathematical model; Compartmental model; Randomised controlled trials
OBJECTIVE: To study the microbial characteristics of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the possible impact of an intrauterine device (IUD) on the microbial environment in women presenting with PID. METHODS: Case-control study, investigating 51 women with acute PID and 50 healthy women. Endocervical specimens for microbiological investigation were obtained at gynaecological examination. RESULTS: IUD users with PID had significantly more Fusobacteria spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. than non-IUD users with PID. The finding of combinations of several anaerobic or aerobic microbes was associated with a significantly increased risk of PID and with complicated PID. In IUD users, the combinations of several anaerobic/aerobic microbes were associated with an increased risk of PID, irrespective of duration of IUD use. Long-term IUD use appeared to be associated with an increased risk of a PID being complicated. CONCLUSION: The finding of several anaerobic or aerobic microbes appears to be associated with PID in users of IUD.
Objective: In the United Kingdom many genitourinary medicine clinics use oral doxycycline and metronidazole to treat pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). A retrospective case note review of PID treatment at our department in 2000 showed that the clinical cure rate (CCR) was only 55% with oral doxycycline and metronidazole for 2 weeks. We therefore added ceftriaxone 250 mg intramuscularly to the doxycycline and metronidazole for treating PID. We have repeated the review and compared the results with those from 2000.
Methods: All patients diagnosed as having PID between 1 July 2002 and 31 December 2002 were identified. These episodes were diagnosed on clinical presentations of pelvic pain, vaginal discharge or bleeding, and cervical motion tenderness on physical examination. The CCR was defined as patients who fully resolved their symptoms and signs during 2 week and 4 week follow up. The results were compared with those from 2000.
Results: Women receiving ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and metronidazole had a CCR of 72%. In 2000 the CCR for women receiving only doxycycline and metronidazole was 55%. There were only 8% non-responders in 2002 compared with 18% in 2000. Comparing CCR and non-response rate, in 2002 there was a significant improvement in cure rate, OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.28 to 7.47) p = 0.009. Using an intent to treat analysis and including the defaulters as treatment failures there was still a significant improvement in cure rate, OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.50) p = 0.009.
Conclusions: The treatment of PID with ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and metronidazole gave a significantly higher CCR than doxycycline and metronidazole. Our experience would suggest that doxycycline and metronidazole alone is not a suitable regimen for treatment of PID in the United Kingdom.
Primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterized by variable genetic immune defects, conferring susceptibility to recurrent infections. They have a vast array of manifestations some of which involve the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems. These complications can be the consequence of five different factors, namely, infection, autoimmune process, unregulated inflammation, malignancies and complications of therapeutic intervention. They may precede the PID diagnosis and, once developed, they pose high risk of morbidity. Untrained clinicians may treat these manifestations only at the level of their presentation, leaving the PIDs dangerously undiagnosed. In fact, early diagnosis of PIDs and accompanied gastrointestinal and hepatic complications clearly require appropriate treatment, and in-turn lead to an improved quality of life for the patient. To improve the awareness of gastroenterologists and related health care providers about these diseases, we have reviewed herein the complications of different PIDs focusing on gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestation.
Chronic granulomatous disease; colitis; common variable immunodeficiency; gastrointestinal manifestation; hepatic involvement; primary immune deficiency diseases; Saudi Arabia
Objective: Our objective was to determine the role of Mycoplasma hominis
and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Methods: The clinical and microbiologic variables in 114 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PID
were compared prospectively according to the isolation of M. hominis and U. urealyticum from their
Results: The groups were epidemiologically well matched. Clinical parameters such as temperature,
leukocyte count, erythrocyte count, and C-reactive protein on admission and length of hospital
stay were similar in the patients, regardless of their mycoplasma status. A significant percentage of
the patients either continued or started to harbor genital mycoplasmas after the resolution of PID
without any significant clinical sequelae.
Conclusions: The presence of genital mycoplasmas does not change the clinical presentation and
course of PID. Both M. hominis and U. urealyticum can persist or colonize the endometrium after
complete recovery from PID. Therefore, the genital mycoplasmas do not seem to have a dominant
pathogenic role in PID.
The present report is a review of data assuming an etiological relationship between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and Mycoplasma hominis. Thus the organism can be isolated from the vagina/cervix more frequently in PID patients than in any other clinical group, i.e., in half to three-fourths of all such cases. One-fourth of PID patients develop a significant antibody response to M. hominis during the course of the disease. The antibody response can be detected by indirect hemagglutination tests. Grivet monkeys infected experimentally with M. hominis develop PID, predominantly parametritis; the infection seems to spread via lymphatics to the parametria. These animals develop a significant antibody response. The animals, like naturally infected women, develop a marked increase in the serum level of IgM. In tissue cell cultures of human fallopian tubes experimentally infected with M. hominis, a decrease of the mucociliary wave activity occurs. So far, few clinical data support an etiological role for Ureaplasma urealyticum in PID. In grivet monkeys, the organism does not produce PID.
To prevent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its consequences, risk factors must be identified. A review of the literature supports the possibility that vaginal douching may affect the risk factor of PID, and new data are presented on douching practices of women hospitalized with PID. Individual case reports and controlled studies support associations between vaginal douching and both PID and ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence and distribution of douching are also compatible with a possible association. The temporal pattern of PID symptoms may be linked to douching and menses. The nature of the douche solution and the douching technique may be important variables with regard to douching as a PID risk factor. A case-control epidemiologic study is recommended to clarify the relationships between PID and douching.
ICD-9 codes are conventionally used to identify pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) from administrative data for surveillance purposes. This approach may include non-PID cases. To refine PID case identification among women with ICD-9 codes suggestive of PID, a case-finding algorithm was developed using additional variables. Potential PID cases were identified among women aged 15–44 years at Group Health (GH) and Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) and verified by medical record review. A classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop the algorithm at GH; validation occurred at KPCO. The positive predictive value (PPV) for using ICD-9 codes alone to identify clinical PID cases was 79%. The algorithm identified PID appropriate treatment and age 15–25 years as predictors. Algorithm sensitivity (GH = 96.4%; KPCO = 90.3%) and PPV (GH = 86.9%; KPCO = 84.5%) were high, but specificity was poor (GH = 45.9%; KPCO = 37.0%). In GH, the algorithm offered a practical alternative to medical record review to further improve PID case identification.
Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the clinical outcome and characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) complicated by tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) with PID
Methods: Chart reviews were performed for all PID admissions to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-University Hospital, Newark, NJ, from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1993.
Results: The incidence in this study of TOA based on sonographic evidence of a complex adnexal mass was 18%. The major differences between the patients with and without TOAs were 1) history of hospitalization for PID: 68% (13/19) vs. 29% (25/85); 2) increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate: 82 vs. 41 mm/h; 3) increased WBC count on admission: 16,200 vs. 14,700/ml; 4) failure to respond to initial antibiotic therapy; and 5) longer hospital stay: 7.8 vs. 4.4 days, respectively. Surgical intervention was required in 3 patients: 2 patients who had TOAs and 1 patient who did not have a TOA by clinical examination or by ultrasound.
Conclusions: Despite longer hospital stays and blood tests suggesting more severe disease processes, PID complicated by TOA is usually responsive to intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy without the need for surgical intervention.
International guidelines for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding have not been widely adopted in clinical practice. We sought to determine whether a national, multifaceted intervention could improve adherence to guidelines, especially for patients at high risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
In this randomized trial, we stratified hospitals by region and size and allocated sites to either the control or experimental group. Health care workers in the experimental group were given published guidelines, generic algorithms, stratification scoring systems and written reminders and attended multidisciplinary guideline education groups and case-based workshops. These interventions were implemented over a 12-month period after randomization, with performance feedback and benchmarking. The primary outcome of adherence rates to key guidelines in endoscopic and pharmacologic management, determined by chart review, was adjusted according to site characteristics and possible within-site dependencies. We also report the rates of adherence to other recommendations.
Forty-three sites were randomized to the experimental (n = 21) or control (n = 22) groups. In our primary analysis, we compared patients before (experimental group: n = 402 patients; control group: n = 424 patients) and after (experimental group: n = 361 patients; control group: n = 389 patients) intervention. Patient-level analysis revealed no significant difference in adherence rates to the guidelines after the intervention (experimental group: 9.8%; control group: 4.8%; p = 0.99) after adjustment for the rate of adherence before the intervention (experimental group: 13.2%; control group: 7.1%). The adherence rates to other guidelines were similar and decreased over time, varying between 5% and 93%.
This national knowledge translation–based trial suggests poor adherence to guidelines on nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Adherence was not improved by an educational intervention, which highlights both the complexity and poor predictability of attempting to alter the behaviour of health care providers (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. MCT-88113).
The management of 63 patients diagnosed by surgeons as having sexually transmitted disease (STD) was audited. A diagnosis of STD was made in 51 (81%) of patients without taking a sexual history. Only 2 (3%) patients were referred to genitourinary medicine (GUM). Appropriate microbiological specimens were obtained from only two of 52 (4%) patients diagnosed with either pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or epididymo-orchitis. Reliance was placed on inappropriate specimens in 22 (42%). There was widespread use of inappropriate antibiotics. The management of sexually transmitted disease by surgeons was very poor. These patients should all be referred to genito-urinary medicine.