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1.  Laparoscopic repair for recurrent parastomal hernia of an end stoma using the sandwich technique while preserving an ileal conduit: A case report 
Highlights
•This is a quite rare case report of laparoscopic repair for recurrent parastomal hernia in a patient with an ileal conduit.•Laparoscopic sandwich technique is to combine the keyhole and Sugarbaker techniques.•Laparoscopic sandwich technique can be useful for parastomal hernia.
Introduction
Parastomal hernia is a common complication following stoma creation. The surgical approaches included local repair by suture, stoma relocation and mesh-based techniques; but none has been able to provide satisfactory results.
Presentation of case
A 60-year-old asian female was referred complaining of abdominal pain and constipation caused by recurrent parastomal hernia of an end stoma. She had undergone total cystectomy with creation of an ileal conduit at the age of 53 years, and laparoscopic sigmoid colostomy at the age of 55 years. Parastomal hernia of an end stoma had developed postoperatively, and she had undergone recreation of colostomy at the same place with fasciorrhaphy at the age of 59 years, but parastomal hernia recurred 6 months later because of split fascia sutures. Laparoscopic repair for recurrent parastomal hernia was conducted using the sandwich technique while preserving an ileal conduit. The patient has been followed postoperatively for more than 3 years without any sign of recurrence.
Discussion
Although further cases are required to get definitive conclusions, we suppose that the laparoscopic sandwich technique can be useful for parastomal hernia.
Conclusion
We herein report a case of recurrent parastomal hernia treated laparoscopically while preserving an ileal conduit using the sandwich technique which combines the keyhole and Sugarbaker techniques. This is a quite rare case report of laparoscopic repair for recurrent parastomal hernia in a patient with an ileal conduit.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.06.007
PMCID: PMC4919719  PMID: 27337702
Parastomal hernia; Laparoscopic hernia repair; Sandwich technique
2.  New minimally invasive technique of parastomal hernia repair – methods and review 
Introduction
Parastomal hernia is described as the most common complication in patients with ostomy. It is reported that its incidence varies from 3% to 39% for colostomies and 0 to 6% for ileostomies. Surgical repair remains the treatment of choice. There are three types of surgical treatment – fascial repair, stoma relocation and repair using prosthetic mesh via a laparoscopic or open approach. Recently there have been several meta-analyses and systematic reviews aiming to compare the results of surgical treatment, and the authors agreed that the quality of evidence precludes firm conclusions.
Aim
To describe the novel concept of parastomal hernia repair – HyPER/SPHR technique (hybrid parastomal endoscopic re-do/Szczepkowski parastomal hernia repair) and its early results in 12 consecutive cases.
Material and methods
Twelve consecutive patients were operated on due to parastomal hernia using the new HyPER hybrid technique between June 2013 and May 2014. The patients’ condition was evaluated during the perioperative period, 6 weeks and then every 3 months after surgery.
Results
After 6 weeks of follow-up we have not observed any mesh-related complications. All 12 patients were examined 3 months and 6 months after repair surgery for evaluation. No recurrence, stoma site infection or stoma-related problems were found. None of the patients complained of pain and none of them needed to be hospitalized again. Reported quality of life on a 0–10 scale after 6 weeks of follow-up was 8 (range: 7–10).
Conclusions
The HyPER procedure for treatment of parastomal hernias proposed by the authors is a safe and feasible surgical technique with a high patient satisfaction rate and a low number of complications. The hybrid procedure seems to be a promising method for parastomal hernia repair.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2015.50052
PMCID: PMC4414113  PMID: 25960785
parastomal; hernia; technique; laparoscopic; minimally invasive
3.  Analysis of Risk Factors for the Development of Incisional and Parastomal Hernias in Patients after Colorectal Surgery 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall rate and risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia and a parastomal hernia after colorectal surgery.
Methods
The study cohort consisted of 795 consecutive patients who underwent open colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2007 by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed.
Results
The overall incidence of incisional hernias was 2% (14/690). This study revealed that the cumulative incidences of incisional hernia were 1% at 12 months and 3% after 36 months. Eighty-six percent of all incisional hernias developed within 3 years after a colectomy. The overall rate of parastomal hernias in patients with a stoma was 6.7% (7/105). The incidence of parastomal hernias was significantly higher in the colostomy group than in the ileostomy group (11.9% vs. 0%; P = 0.007). Obesity, abdominal aortic aneurysm, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, serum albumin level, emergency surgery and postoperative ileus did not influence the incidence of incisional or parastomal hernias. However, the multivariate analysis revealed that female gender and wound infection were significant risk factors for the development of incisional hernias female: P = 0.009, wound infection: P = 0.041). There were no significant factors related to the development of parastomal hernias.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that most incisional hernias develop within 3 years after a colectomy. Female gender and wound infection were risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia after colorectal surgery. In contrast, no significant factors were found to be associated with the development of a parastomal hernia.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.6.299
PMCID: PMC3548144  PMID: 23346508
Ventral hernia; Surgical stomas; Ileostomies; Colostomies
4.  Lateral repair of parastomal hernia. 
INTRODUCTION: Parastomal hernia is a common complication of stoma construction. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, about 10% require surgical correction. AIMS: We describe a new surgical approach for the repair of parastomal hernias, which avoids both the need for laparotomy and stoma mobilization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (4 female) with parastomal hernia underwent surgical repair. Median age was 55 years (range 38-73 years). There were 8 para-ileostomy herniae and one paracolostomy hernia. A lateral incision was made approximately 10 cm from the stoma, and carried down to the rectus sheath. The dissection was carried medially towards the stoma, and around the defect in the abdominal musculature. The hernia sac was excised when possible and the fascial defect closed with non-absorbable, monofilament suture. A polyprolene mesh was placed round the stoma by making a slit in the mesh. The skin was closed with subcuticular monofilament absorbable suture. RESULTS: All patients returned to normal diet on the first postoperative day, and were discharged from hospital within 72 h. There were no wound infections, and no recurrences after a median follow up of 6 months (range 3-12 months). DISCUSSION: The technique we describe is simple and avoids the need of laparotomy. The mucocutaneous junction of the stoma is not disturbed, reducing the risk of contamination of the mesh, stenosis or retraction of the stoma. Grooving of the stoma and difficulty in fitting appliances is avoided because the wound is not placed near the mucocutaneous junction. This approach may be superior to other mesh repairs for parastomal hernia.
Images
PMCID: PMC2503580  PMID: 11432142
5.  Surgical Treatment of a Parastomal Hernia 
Purpose
Parastomal hernia is a major complication of an intestinal stoma. This study was performed to compare the results of various operative methods to treat parastomal hernias.
Methods
Results of surgical treatment for parastomal hernias (postoperative recurrence, complications and postoperative hospital stays) were surveyed in 39 patients over an 11-year period. The patients enrolled in this study underwent surgery by a single surgeon to exclude surgeon bias.
Results
Seventeen patients were male, and twenty-two patients were female. The mean age was 65.9 years (range, 36 to 86 years). The stomas were 35 sigmoid-end-colostomies (90%), 2 loop-colostomies (5%), and 2 double-barrel-colostomies. Over half of the hernias developed within two years after initial formation. Stoma relocation was performed in 8 patients, suture repair in 14 patients and mesh repair in 17 patients. Seven patients had recurrence of the hernia, and ten patients suffered from complications. Postoperative complications and recurrence were more frequent in stoma relocation than in suture repair and mesh repair. Emergency operations were performed in four patients (10.3%) with higher incidence of complications but not with increased risk of recurrence. Excluding emergency operations, complications of relocations were not higher than those of mesh repairs. Postoperative hospital stays were shortest in mesh repair patients.
Conclusion
In this study, mesh repair showed low recurrence and a low complication rate with shorter hospital stay than relocation methods, though these differences were not statistically significant. Further studies, including randomized trials, are necessary if more reliable data on the surgical treatment of parastomal hernias are to be obtained.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2011.27.4.174
PMCID: PMC3180597  PMID: 21980587
Parastomal hernia; Recurrence; Complication; Relocation; Mesh repair
6.  Parastomal hernias successfully repaired using a modified components separation method: two case reports 
Introduction
Parastomal hernia is a frequent complication after enterostomy formation. A repair using prosthetic mesh by way of a laparoscopic or open transabdominal approach is usually recommended, however, other procedures may be done if the repair is to be performed in a contaminated environment or when the abdominal cavity of the patient is difficult to enter due to postsurgical dense adhesion. The components separation method, which was introduced for non-transabdominal and non-prosthetic ventral hernia repair, solves such problems.
Case presentation
Case 1. A 79-year-old Japanese woman who underwent total cystectomy with ileal conduit for bladder cancer presented with a parastomal hernia, which was repaired using a keyhole technique. Simultaneously, an incisional hernia in the midline was repaired with a prosthetic mesh. One year after her hernia surgery, a recurrence occurred lateral to the stoma, but it was believed to be difficult to enter the peritoneal cavity because of the wide placement of mesh. Therefore, surgery using the components separation method was performed.
Case 2. A 72-year-old Japanese man underwent an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. At 5 and 12 months after his operation, a perineal hernia and an incisional hernia in the midline were repaired with prosthesis using a transabdominal approach, respectively. Three years after his rectal surgery, a parastomal hernia developed lateral to the stoma. For the same reason as case 1, surgery using the components separation method was performed. No recurrence was observed in either case as of 40 and 8 months after the last repair, respectively.
Conclusion
The components separation method is a novel and effective technique for parastomal hernia repair, especially in cases following abdominal polysurgery or midline incisional hernia repairs using large pieces of mesh. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in English on the application of the components separation method for parastomal hernia repair.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-180
PMCID: PMC3711726  PMID: 23830070
Parastomal hernia; Components separation method; Incisional hernia; Repair
7.  Stoma-Const - the technical aspects of stoma construction: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15:254.
Background
The construction of a colostomy is a common procedure, but the evidence for the different parts of the construction of the colostomy is lacking. Parastomal hernia is a common complication of colostomy formation. The aim of this study is to standardise the colostomy formation and to compare three types of colostomy formation (one including a mesh) regarding the development of parastomal hernia.
Methods/Design
Stoma-Const is a Scandinavian randomised trial comparing three types of colostomy formation. The primary endpoint is parastomal herniation as shown by clinical examination or CT scan within one year. Secondary endpoints are re-admission rate, postoperative complications (classified according to Clavien-Dindo), stoma-related complications (registered in the case record form at stoma care nurse follow-up), total length of hospital stay during 12 months, health-related quality of life and health economic analysis as well as re-operation rate and mortality within 30 days and 12 months of primary surgery. Follow-up is scheduled at 4-6 weeks, and 6 and 12 months. Inclusion is set at 240 patients.
Discussion
Parastomal hernia is a common complication after colostomy formation. Several studies have been performed with the aim to reduce the rate of this complication. However, none are fully conclusive and data on quality of life and health economy are lacking. The aim of this study is to develop new standardised techniques for colostomy formation and evaluate this with patient reported outcomes as well as clinical and radiological assessment.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01694238.2012-09-24.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-254
PMCID: PMC4094442  PMID: 24970570
Parastomal hernia; Colostomy; Mesh; Prevention
8.  De Garengeot hernia: Case report and review 
Highlights
•We report a rare case of incarcerated femoral hernia containing the appendix inside the hernia sac (De Garengeot hernia) without appendicitis.•The presence of the appendix within a femoral hernia sac is uncommon and is generally found only during surgery. Most times patient are taken to emergency surgery with the nonspecific diagnose of incarcerated hernia.•The patient in this case was submitted to inguinotomy with appendectomy and hernia repair using mesh and presented good outcome, without complications or hernia recurrence.
Introduction
Rene De Garengeot, a French surgeon, was the first to describe the presence of the appendix inside a femoral hernia sac in 1731. It is a rare entity that has fewer than 100 cases reported in literature.
Presentation of case
An 86 years-old male patient, comes to Emergency Department complaining of painful bulging in the right inguinal region, associated with local inflammatory signs. He was initially diagnosed as incarcerated femoral hernia and underwent emergency open surgery. Inguinotomy was performed and after hernia sac dissection it was possible to observe the presence of the appendix incarcerated in its interior, without clinical signs of appendicitis. Surgeons performed appendectomy and inguinal repair of the femoral hernia with placement of a polypropylene mesh.
Discussion
De Garengeot hernia is a rare entity that requires early treatment in order to avoid possible complications. When facing a patient with incarcerated hernia emergency surgery must be indicated even if it is not possible to determine the contents of the hernia.
Conclusion
This paper presents a case report of a De Garengeot hernia patient who presented a good evolution after surgery.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.12.042
PMCID: PMC4353942  PMID: 25622240
De Garengeot hernia; Incarcerated femoral hernia
9.  PREVENTion of a parastomal hernia with a prosthetic mesh in patients undergoing permanent end-colostomy; the PREVENT-trial: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2012;13:226.
Background
Parastomal hernia is a common complication of a colostomy. Ultimately, one-third of patients with a parastomal hernia will need surgical correction due to frequent leakage or life-threatening bowel obstruction or strangulation. However, treatment remains a challenge resulting in high recurrence rates. Two single center trials demonstrated that the frequency of parastomal hernias decreases by prophylactic placement of a mesh around the stoma at the time of formation. Unfortunately, both studies were small-sized, single-center studies and with these small numbers less common complications could be missed which were the reasons to initiate a prospective randomized multicenter trial to determine if a retromuscular, preperitoneal mesh at the stoma site prevents parastomal hernia and does not cause unacceptable complications.
Methods
One hundred and fifty patients undergoing open procedure, elective formation of a permanent end-colostomy will be randomized into two groups. In the intervention group an end-colostomy is created with placement of a preperitioneal, retromuscular lightweight monofilament polypropylene mesh, and compared to a group with a traditional stoma without mesh. Patients will be recruited from 14 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. Primary endpoint is the incidence of parastomal hernia. Secondary endpoints are stoma complications, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life. Follow-up will be performed at 3 weeks, 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. To find a difference of 20% with a power of 90%, a total number of 134 patients must be included. All results will be reported according to the CONSORT 2010 statement.
Discussion
The PREVENT-trial is a multicenter randomized controlled trial powered to determine whether prophylactic placement of a polypropylene mesh decreases the incidence of a parastomal hernia versus the traditional stoma formation without a mesh.
Trial registration
The PREVENT-trial is registered at: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2018
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-13-226
PMCID: PMC3576295  PMID: 23186083
Parastomal hernia; Prophylactic; Prevention; Mesh; Colostomy
10.  Parastomal Hernia Containing Stomach 
International Surgery  2014;99(4):404-406.
Parastomal hernia is the most common late stomal complication. Its appearance is usually asymptomatic. We report a parastomal hernia containing stomach. A 69-year-old patient with end colostomy arrived at the emergency room presenting with abdominal pain associated with vomiting and functioning stoma. She had a distended and painful abdomen without signs of peritoneal irritation and pericolostomic eventration in the left iliac fossa. X-ray visualized gastric fornix dilatation without dilated intestine bowels, and computed tomography showed parastomal incarcerated gastric herniation. Gastrografin (Bayer Australia Limited, New South Wales, Australia) was administered, showing no passage to duodenum. She underwent surgery, with stomal transposition and placement of onlay polypropylene mesh around the new stoma. Parastomal hernias are a frequent late complication of colostomy. Only four gastric parastomal hernia cases are reported in the literature. Three of these four cases required surgery. The placement of prosthetic mesh in the moment of stoma elaboration should be considered as a potential preventive measure.
doi:10.9738/INTSURG-D-13-00100
PMCID: PMC4114369  PMID: 25058773
Colostomy; Gastric hernia; Parastomal hernia; Stomach disease; Postoperative complications
11.  Revisional Laparoscopic Parastomal Hernia Repair 
Background:
We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.
Case Report:
We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up.
Conclusion:
Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.
PMCID: PMC3015990  PMID: 19275858
Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair; Revisional laparoscopic surgery; Parastomal hernia; Recurrence
12.  A case of de Garengeot hernia: the feasibility of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair 
Highlights
•De Garengeot hernia is rarely reported in literature.•This is the second reported case of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for de Garengeot hernia repair.•Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by TAPP repair is a feasible diagnostic and therapeutic method for de Garengeot hernia repair.•Diagnostic laparoscopy is an alternative tool to the reported imaging modalities for diagnosing de Garengeot hernia.
Introduction
de Garengeot hernia is described as the presence of an appendix in a femoral hernia. This rare hernia usually presents with both diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
Presentation of case
We report a case of a 59 year-old woman with a one-year history of a right irreducible femoral hernia. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy with an intraoperative diagnosis of de Garengeot hernia. This was followed by a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for hernia repair.
Discussion
The long-standing presentation of de Garengeot hernia is seldomly reported in literature. There has been no standard approach of treatment for de Garengeot hernias described, possibly due to the rarity of this condition. The unusual presentation of the hernia prompted us to undergo a diagnostic laparoscopy first, during which the appendix was seen incarcerated in a femoral hernia sac. We were easily able to proceed for a laparoscopic TAPP approach for hernia repair without the need for conversion to an open repair.
Conclusion
We were able to obtain an accurate diagnosis of an appendix within a long-standing irreducible femoral hernia through diagnostic laparoscopy followed by transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach for hernia repair. We would like to underline the usefulness of laparoscopy as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual presentation of groin hernias.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.09.021
PMCID: PMC4643449  PMID: 26432998
de Garengeot hernia; Femoral hernia; Amyand’s hernia; Acute appendicitis; TAPP
13.  Efficacy of Prophylactic Mesh in End-Colostomy Construction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
World Journal of Surgery  2016;40(10):2528-2536.
Background
Parastomal hernia is a very common complication after colostomy, especially end-colostomy. It is unclear whether prophylactic placement of mesh at the time of stoma formation could prevent parastomal hernia formation after surgery for rectal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic mesh in end-colostomy construction.
Methods
PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched, covering records entered from their inception to September 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing stoma with mesh to stoma without mesh after surgery for rectal cancer were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of parastomal hernia. Pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using random effects models.
Results
Six RCTs containing 309 patients were included. Parastomal hernia occurred in 24.4 % (38 of 156) of patients with mesh and 50.3 % (77 of 153) of patients without mesh. Meta-analysis showed a lower incidence of parastomal hernia (RR, 0.42; 95 % CI 0.22–0.82) and reoperation related to parastomal hernia (RR, 0.23; 95 % CI 0.06–0.89) in patients with mesh. Stoma-related morbidity was similar between mesh group and non-mesh group (RR, 0.65; 95 % CI 0.33–1.30).
Conclusions
Prophylactic placement of a mesh at the time of a stoma formation seems to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of parastomal hernia and reoperation related to parastomal hernia after surgery for rectal cancer, but not the rate of stoma-related morbidity. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity among the studies.
doi:10.1007/s00268-016-3576-0
PMCID: PMC5028399  PMID: 27216806
14.  Synchronous colonic carcinomas presenting as an inguinoscrotal hernial mass: a case report 
Background
A carcinoma within a hernia in the groin is uncommon, with an incidence of less than 0.5 percent of all excised sacs. This article describes a case of synchronous colonic carcinomas, one of which presented as an inguinoscrotal mass.
Case presentation
A 69-year old man presented with a large, irreducible left inguinoscrotal hernia and symptoms of obstruction. On examination, there was an 8 cm palpable mass within the hernia sac. CT scan revealed small and proximal large bowel obstruction secondary to a large ingunoscrotal sac and synchronous colonic tumours of the transverse colon and the ascending colon. The former presented as an inguinoscrotal mass. Laparotomy revealed a large tumour mass arising from the transverse colon in the hernia sac. The procedure was followed by an extended right hemicolectomy, during which the second tumour in the ascending colon was also resected.
Conclusion
This case demonstrates a rare but interesting occurrence of primary transverse colon carcinoma presenting in a hernia sac, in conjunction with a synchronous tumour of the ascending colon. Prognosis is comparable to patients with a solitary tumour of similar pathological staging when the resection is curative. The presence of an inguinal hernia itself does not signify an increased risk of colorectal malignancy. However, in the presence of obstruction, incarceration, and weight loss, malignancy should be suspected. Thorough clinical examination, flexible sigmoidoscopy or radiographic evaluation is necessary preoperatively in such patients. Surgical resection, with or without adjuvant oncological treatment, should be performed as soon as possible, using established techniques with modifications according to involvement of local structures.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-36
PMCID: PMC1910602  PMID: 17598918
15.  Treatment of delayed jejunal perforation after irreducible femoral hernia repair with open abdomen management and delayed abdominal closure with skin flap approximation 
Highlights
•Delayed bowel perforation may develop after irreducible femoral hernia surgery especially in elderly patients with comorbid disease.•Open abdomen management with negative pressure therapy and delayed open abdomen closure with skin flap approximation is optimum treatment modality for hemodynamically instable patient.
Introduction
We show the management of a delayed jejunal perforation, after irreducible femoral hernia operation with the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and delayed abdominal closure (DAC) with skin flap approximation in an elderly woman for the first time in the literature.
Presentation of case
A 76 year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with irreducible femoral hernia and ileus. After examining the femoral hernia sac and noting the presence of viable intestine within the hernia sac, a femoral hernia repair with mesh was performed. At postoperative day 1 she started to defecate and oral intake was started. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. On postoperative day 8, she was re-admitted to the emergency department with septic shock. The patient underwent reoperation. Septic abdomen and delayed perforation from strangulated part of the jejunum were seen. A jejunostomy was opened and patient was treated with open abdomen management and delayed abdominal closure with skin flap. The ostomy was closed 4 months later.
Discussion
The exact mechanism of delayed presentation of small bowel perforation remains controversial. Delayed intestinal perforation has rarely been reported after blunt abdominal trauma (BAT), conductive burn injuries of the bowel with cautery, or necrosis of strangulated bowel in a hernia sac. Open abdomen (OA) management is a life-saving and challenging strategy in severe generalized peritonitis.
Conclusion
Delayed bowel perforation may develop after irreducible femoral hernia surgery. OA management with NPT and DAC with skin flap approximation are optimal treatment modalities for the hemodynamically instable patient.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.09.008
PMCID: PMC4643348  PMID: 26408935
Delayed bowel perforation; Open abdomen; Delated abdominal closure; Femoral hernia
16.  Left Amyand’s hernia: An unexpected finding during inguinal hernia surgery 
Highlights
•Amyand’s hernia is a rare finding during inguinal hernia surgery, and even rarer on the left side.•It is rarely diagnosed pre-operatively, so surgeons’ awareness of this condition is important for preoperative suspicion and appropriate management.•The inflammatory status of the appendix determines the type of hernia repair.•Prophylactic appendectomy is not recommended except in young patients.
Introduction
Amyand’s hernia is a rare finding of the appendix inside an inguinal hernia sac with classically estimated incidence of 1%. Most cases are found intra-operatively during right-sided inguinal hernia repair.
Presentation of case
We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided Amyand’s hernia. An 81 year-old man with long standing left inguinal hernia was referred to our surgical assessment unit with tender irreducible left inguinal hernia. He was vitally stable with no clinical signs of intestinal obstruction. A diagnosis of irreducible left inguinal hernia without obstruction was made. Exploration of the hernia sac revealed the presence of non-inflamed appendix, caecum and terminal ileum. The contents were reduced and a mesh repair was performed with satisfactorily outcome.
Discussion
The surgical management of Amyand’s hernia involves appendectomy of inflamed appendix through the inguinal incision together with hernia repair. Prophylactic appendectomy is not recommended by most authors except in young patients.
Conclusion
There are less than 20 cases reported in the literature describing left-sided Amyand’s hernia. Awareness of such very unusual condition may help surgeons to be prepared for appropriate management of a very usual procedure as inguinal hernia repair.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.06.029
PMCID: PMC4573214  PMID: 26196311
17.  An elective detection of an Amyand's hernia with an adhesive caecum to the sac: Report of a rare case 
Context:
Existence of non-inflamed or inflamed vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia is named Amyand's hernia in honor to the surgeon Claudius Amyand who successfully performed first perforated appendicitis.
Case Report:
A 69-year-old Turkish male patient with a slight right groin pain and swelling was presented to our clinic, and found to have a slightly tender and reducible right inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia, and a adhesive caecum and an inflamed appendix were explored within the hernia sac. Adhesions were divided by sharp dissection and appendectomy was performed. After carrying out a Lichtenstein hernioplasty, a broad-spectrum antibiotic was postoperatively admitted for 3 days. He recovered uneventfully, and neither complication nor recurrence was detected during 52 months of follow-up.
Conclusions:
Although occurrence of an appendicitis in an inguinal hernia is rare, a surgeon should be vigilant for facing with it even in elective cases. Treatment can be provided only surgically, but surgical treatment is not standard except from appendectomy. In our opinion, application of mesh hernia repair should depend on the degree of inflammation of appendix and the presence of incarceration of hernia sac with a suitable antibiotic admission for 3-5 days postoperatively.
doi:10.4297/najms.2011.3391
PMCID: PMC3234147  PMID: 22171249
Hernia; inguinal; appendicitis
18.  The laparoscopic modified Sugarbaker technique is safe and has a low recurrence rate: a multicenter cohort study 
Surgical Endoscopy  2012;27:494-500.
Background
Parastomal hernia is a frequent complication of intestinal stomata. Mesh repair gives the best results, with the mesh inserted via laparotomy or laparoscopically. It was the aim of this retrospective multicenter study to determine the early and late results of the laparoscopically performed, modified Sugarbaker technique with ePTFE mesh.
Methods
From 2005 to 2010, a total of 61 consecutive patients (mean age = 61 years), with a symptomatic parastomal hernia, underwent laparoscopic repair using the modified Sugarbaker technique with ePTFE mesh. Fifty-five patients had a colostomy, 4 patients an ileostomy, and 2 a urostomy according to Bricker. The records of the patients were reviewed with respect to patient characteristics, postoperative morbidity, and mortality. All patients underwent physical examination after a follow-up of at least 1 year to detect a recurrent hernia. Morbidity rate was 19 % and included wound infection (n = 1), ileus (n = 2), trocar site bleeding (n = 2), reintervention (n = 2), and pneumonia (n = 1). One patient died in the postoperative period due to metastasis of lung carcinoma that caused bowel obstruction. Concomitant incisional hernias were detected in 25 of 61 patients (41 %) and could be repaired at the same time in all cases. A recurrent hernia was found in three patients at physical examination, and in one patient an asymptomatic recurrence was found on a CT scan. The overall recurrence rate was 6.6 % after a mean follow-up of 26 months.
Conclusion
The laparoscopic Sugarbaker technique is a safe procedure for repairing parastomal hernias. In our study, the overall morbidity was 19 % and the recurrence rate was 6.6 % after a mean follow-up of 26 months. Moreover, the laparoscopic approach revealed concomitant hernias in 41 % of the patients, which could be repaired successfully at the same time.
doi:10.1007/s00464-012-2464-4
PMCID: PMC3580038  PMID: 23052490
Parastomal; Hernia; Sugarbaker; ePTFE; GoreTex; Mesh repair
19.  Prophylactic mesh placement of permanent stomas at index operation for colorectal cancer 
INTRODUCTION
Parastomal herniation occurs in 30–50% of colostomy formations. The aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the mechanical defects at stoma sites in patients who had previously undergone a permanent colostomy with or without mesh at the index operation for colorectal cancer.
METHODS
A study was performed of all colorectal cancer patients (n=41) having an end colostomy between 2002 and 2010, with or without Prolene® mesh plication, with blinded evaluation of the annual follow-up staging computed tomography (CT) for stomal characteristics. The presence of parastomal hernias, volume, dimensions, grade of the parastomal hernia and abdominal wall defect size were measured by two independent radiologists, and compared with demographic and operative variables.
RESULTS
In those patients with radiological evidence of a parastomal hernia, Prolene® mesh plication significantly reduced the incidence of bowel containing parastomal hernias at one year following the procedure (p<0.05) and also reduced the diameter of the abdominal wall defect (p=0.006).
CONCLUSIONS
Prophylactic mesh placement at the time of the index procedure reduces the diameter of abdominal wall aperture and the incidence of parastomal hernias containing bowel. Future studies should use both objective radiological as well as clinical endpoints when assessing parastomal hernia development with and without prophylactic mesh.
doi:10.1308/003588412X13373405386493
PMCID: PMC3954283  PMID: 23131227
Parastomal hernia; Paracolostomy hernia; Prophylactic mesh; Computed tomography
20.  Safety and Efficacy of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Abdominal Wall Hernias 
In a specialized hernia center, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery was found to be safe and effective for many types of abdominal wall hernias including parastomal hernias.
Background:
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery has rapidly progressed from the animal laboratory to clinical use since mass production of multichannel ports began in 2007. Indeed, it has now been shown to be feasible and safe for many commonly performed operations.
Methods:
This study cohort comprised 22 unselected patients with abdominal wall hernias of varying types: multiply recurrent inguinal (n=2), suprapubic (n=1), ventral/incisional (n=17), and parastomal hernias (n=2), who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site ventral hernia repair between December 2009 and February 2011. Standard dissecting instruments and a 52cm/5.5mm/30°angle laparoscope were used.
Results:
Patients included 14 men and 8 women, with a median age of 56 (range, 32 to 78) years and a mean body mass index of 31.5±4.7kg/m2. The mean mesh size was 460cm2 (range, 225 to 884cm2). Mean operation time was 125 minutes for ventral/incisional hernias and 270 minutes for parastomal hernias. No conversions to multiport or open surgeries were necessary. There was no mortality or morbidity, and no recurrence at 6- to 18-month follow-up. The mean satisfaction score was 2.7 (range, 2 to 3) with no patients reporting dissatisfaction with the procedure.
Conclusion:
This series, though relatively small, represents a diverse group of patients with varying abdominal wall hernias, including parastomal hernias. These successful laparoendoscopic single-site surgeries, with no complications, demonstrate safety and efficacy, albeit in a specialized hernia center. This study is a prelude to the eventual validation of laparoendoscopic single-site hernia surgery with prospective randomized controlled trials.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13427982376301
PMCID: PMC3481233  PMID: 23477172
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery; Multiply recurrent inguinal hernia; Ventral hernia; Parastomal hernia; Modified Sugarbaker technique
21.  Risk factors for parastomal hernia: based on radiological definition 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological incidence of parastomal hernia and to analyze the risk factors for parastomal hernia.
Methods
We reviewed retrospectively 108 patients with end colostomy from January 2003 to June 2010. Age, sex, surgical procedure type, body mass index (kg/m2), stoma size, and respiratory comorbidity were documented.
RESULTS
There were 61 males (56.5%) and 47 females (43.5%). During an overall median follow-up of 25 months (range, 6 to 73 months), 36 patients (33.3%) developed a radiological parastomal hernia postoperatively and 29 patients (26.9%) presented with a clinical parastomal hernia. In multivariate analysis, gender (odds ratio [OR], 6.087; P = 0.008), age (OR, 1.109; P = 0.009) and aperture size (OR, 6.907; P < 0.001) proved to be significant and independent risk factors after logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion
This study showed that the incidence of radiological parastomal hernia is higher than clinical parastomal hernia. Risk factors for parastomal hernia proved to be female, age, and aperture size.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.1.43
PMCID: PMC3539109  PMID: 23323235
Hernia; Computed tomography; Colostomy
22.  Parastomal hernia mesh repair, variant of surgical technique without stoma relocation  
Journal of Medicine and Life  2012;5(2):157-161.
Rationale:Due to the improvement of prognosis through adjuvant therapy, the life expectancy of neoplasia patients is continuously increasing, which, in conjunction with the progressive occurrence of parastomal hernias during the disease evolution, explains the growing number of reported parastomal hernias affecting patients with permanent colostomy.
Conventional techniques of local repair are inappropriate considering the high recurrence rate, and the decision of stoma relocation depends on the associated pathology, which may counter-indicate general anesthesia, and on previous surgical interventions that are usually followed by a dense peritoneal adhesion syndrome .
Objective:The purpose of this article is to make known a variant of alloplastic technique, without translocation, with a low degree of invasiveness, which can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia, followed by a reduced period of hospitalization.
Methods and Results:The study group consisted of 6 patients with permanent left iliac anus who underwent these interventions one to three years prior to the occurrence of parastomal hernia.
Patients were followed at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively and the results were favorable, with no recurrence and improved quality of life through proper prosthesis of the stoma
Discussion:We suggest that this technique variation is applied to small and medium parastomal hernias, in case of patients with permanent left iliac anus, with the declared intent of minimal invasiveness.
PMCID: PMC3391882  PMID: 22802882
parastomal hernia; minimal invasive; alloplastic procedure; quality of life
23.  Internal hernia through a peritoneal defect in the pouch of Douglas: Report of a case 
INTRODUCTION
Internal hernia is a rare entity which can cause intestinal obstruction. The most common type of internal hernia is the paraduodenal hernia which accounts for 53% of cases, and the internal hernia within the pelvis account for 7%. Perineal hernia, which is classified as pelvic hernia, usually occurs due to weakening of the pelvic floor musculature and thus, should be distinguished from the internal hernia caused by peritoneal defects in the pelvic cavity.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present a case of 28-year-old female who presented intestinal obstruction. Conservative therapies failed and she required emergency laparotomy. The operative findings revealed a peritoneal defect of 2 cm in diameter in the pouch of Douglas, through which the ileum was incarcerated and strangulated. The incarcerated bowel was reduced, and the intestinal color quickly returned to normal. Therefore a primary closure of the peritoneal defect was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful.
DISCUSSION
A PubMed search for the case of internal hernia through a defect in the pouch of Douglas revealed only three, making this an extremely rare condition.
CONCLUSION
Because of rarity of this hernia, the etiology is unknown. However, our patient is a young female with no history of pregnancy, abdominal surgery, or trauma, therefore the cause of the peritoneal defect is considered congenital.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.10.015
PMCID: PMC3537959  PMID: 23159912
Pouch of Douglas; Internal hernia; Peritoneal defect; Intestinal obstruction
24.  A case of a colocutaneous fistula: A rare complication of mesh migration into the sigmoid colon after open tension-free hernia repair 
Highlights
•This is the first report of mesh migration to sigmoid colon post tension free hernia repair.•Colonoscopy is highly recommended if mesh migration to the colon is suspected.•Identification of a concurrent sliding hernia in Lichtenstein repair is adviced to avoid physical contact of a mesh to the sliding organ.
Introduction
The Lichtenstein technique is commonly used in inguinal hernia repair and a polypropylene mesh is the most frequently used mesh. Mesh migration into the colon has been rarely reported in the literature. Here we report a case of a colocutaneous fistula that developed following delayed mesh migration into the sigmoid colon.
Presentation of case
A 52-year-old man undergone Lichtenstein repair for left direct inguinal herniain 2008. Three years later, he presented complaining of rectal bleeding and concurrent bloody discharge from the hernia repair scar. Colonoscopy identified an internal fistulous orifice with intraluminal extrusion of the polypropylene mesh. Furthermore, abdominal ultrasound revealed a fistulous tract extending from the sigmoid colon to the anterior abdominal wall, and a fistulogram confirmed the findings. Open sigmoidectomy and resection of the abdominal wall with the fistula tract was performed, and BIO-A® tissue reinforcement meshwas placed. His postoperative course was unremarkable and was discharged on postoperative day 3.
Discussion
Mesh migration after mesh inguinal hernia repair is unpredictable. A previous report has presented complications related to prosthetics in hernia repair, such as infection, contraction, rejection, and, rarely, mesh migration.Mesh migration may occur as an early or late complication after hernioplasty.
Conclusion
During hernia repair, the surgeon should carefully check for a sliding hernia, which may contain the sigmoid colon within the sac, because failure to identify this hernia may lead to direct contact between the mesh and the colon, which may cause pressure necrosis and fistula formation followed by mesh migration.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.06.039
PMCID: PMC4573409  PMID: 26209758
Hernia; Complications; Mesh migration; Fistula; Rare
25.  Prophylactic Mesh Application during Colostomy to Prevent Parastomal Hernia: A Meta-Analysis 
Background. Parastomal hernia is a common complication after stoma formation, especially in permanent colostomy. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic mesh application during permanent colostomy for preventing parastomal hernia. Methods. Randomized controlled trials comparing outcomes in patients who underwent colostomy with or without prophylactic mesh application were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Libraries. Results. This meta-analysis included 8 randomized controlled trials with 522 participants. Our pooled results showed that prophylactic mesh application (mesh group) reduced the incidence of clinically detected parastomal hernia (risk ratio [RR]: 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13–0.38; P < 0.00001), radiologically detected parastomal hernia (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47–0.82; P = 0.0008), and surgical repair for herniation (RR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14–0.83; P = 0.02) when compared with conventional permanent colostomy formation (control group). The incidence of complications, including wound infection, peristomal infection, mesh infection, stomal necrosis and stenosis, stoma site pain, and fistula, was not higher in the mesh group than in the control group. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that prophylactic mesh application at the time of primary colostomy formation is a promising method for the prevention of parastomal herniation.
doi:10.1155/2016/1694265
PMCID: PMC5080498  PMID: 27818679

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