Parastomal hernia is a major complication of an intestinal stoma. This study was performed to compare the results of various operative methods to treat parastomal hernias.
Results of surgical treatment for parastomal hernias (postoperative recurrence, complications and postoperative hospital stays) were surveyed in 39 patients over an 11-year period. The patients enrolled in this study underwent surgery by a single surgeon to exclude surgeon bias.
Seventeen patients were male, and twenty-two patients were female. The mean age was 65.9 years (range, 36 to 86 years). The stomas were 35 sigmoid-end-colostomies (90%), 2 loop-colostomies (5%), and 2 double-barrel-colostomies. Over half of the hernias developed within two years after initial formation. Stoma relocation was performed in 8 patients, suture repair in 14 patients and mesh repair in 17 patients. Seven patients had recurrence of the hernia, and ten patients suffered from complications. Postoperative complications and recurrence were more frequent in stoma relocation than in suture repair and mesh repair. Emergency operations were performed in four patients (10.3%) with higher incidence of complications but not with increased risk of recurrence. Excluding emergency operations, complications of relocations were not higher than those of mesh repairs. Postoperative hospital stays were shortest in mesh repair patients.
In this study, mesh repair showed low recurrence and a low complication rate with shorter hospital stay than relocation methods, though these differences were not statistically significant. Further studies, including randomized trials, are necessary if more reliable data on the surgical treatment of parastomal hernias are to be obtained.
Parastomal hernia; Recurrence; Complication; Relocation; Mesh repair
Among the various stoma complications, the parastomal hernia (PSH) is the most common. Prevention of PSH is very important to improve the quality of life and to prevent further serious complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and the risk factors of PSH.
From January 2002 and October 2008, we retrospectively reviewed 165 patients who underwent an end colostomy. As a routine oncologic follow-up, abdomino-pelvic computed tomography was used to examine the occurrence of the PSH. The associations of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of steroid use and comorbidities to the development of the PSH were analyzed. The median duration of the follow-up was 36 months (0 to 99 months).
During follow-up, 50 patients developed a PSH and the 5-year cumulative incidence rate of a PSH, obtained by using the Kaplan-Meier method, was 37.8%. In the multivariate COX analysis, female gender (hazard ratio [HR], 3.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 6.11; P < 0.0001), age over 60 years (HR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.26 to 4.46; P = 0.01), BMI more than 25 kg/m2 (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.16; P = 0.04), and hypertension (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.81; P = 0.02) were all independent risk factors for the development of a PSH.
The 5-year incidence rate of a PSH was 37.8%. The significant risk factors of a PSH were as follows: female gender, age over 60 years, BMI more than 25 kg/m2, and hypertension. Using a prophylactic mesh during colostomy formation might be advisable when the patients have these factors.
Colostomy; Hernia; Incidence; Risk factors; Complication
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall rate and risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia and a parastomal hernia after colorectal surgery.
The study cohort consisted of 795 consecutive patients who underwent open colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2007 by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed.
The overall incidence of incisional hernias was 2% (14/690). This study revealed that the cumulative incidences of incisional hernia were 1% at 12 months and 3% after 36 months. Eighty-six percent of all incisional hernias developed within 3 years after a colectomy. The overall rate of parastomal hernias in patients with a stoma was 6.7% (7/105). The incidence of parastomal hernias was significantly higher in the colostomy group than in the ileostomy group (11.9% vs. 0%; P = 0.007). Obesity, abdominal aortic aneurysm, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, serum albumin level, emergency surgery and postoperative ileus did not influence the incidence of incisional or parastomal hernias. However, the multivariate analysis revealed that female gender and wound infection were significant risk factors for the development of incisional hernias female: P = 0.009, wound infection: P = 0.041). There were no significant factors related to the development of parastomal hernias.
Our results indicate that most incisional hernias develop within 3 years after a colectomy. Female gender and wound infection were risk factors for the development of an incisional hernia after colorectal surgery. In contrast, no significant factors were found to be associated with the development of a parastomal hernia.
Ventral hernia; Surgical stomas; Ileostomies; Colostomies
A 68-year-old immunosuppressed woman was admitted with poor-functioning colostomy, which she had following a Hartmann’s procedure for diverticular disease in sigmoid colon 8 years previously. She was on cyclosporin and warfarin for transplanted kidney and atrial fibrillation, respectively. On admission, an erythematous and tender swelling was found around the stoma, which was diagnosed as an irreducible, parastomal hernia clinically. The swelling was investigated further with CT, which revealed an organised mesocolic abscess of diverticular origin. The abscess was drained percutaneously under radiological guidance. She recovered well subsequently. This case is a unique presentation of diverticular abscess and management was a challenge considering the patient’s co-morbidities and the location of the abscess.
INTRODUCTION: Parastomal hernia is a common complication of stoma construction. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, about 10% require surgical correction. AIMS: We describe a new surgical approach for the repair of parastomal hernias, which avoids both the need for laparotomy and stoma mobilization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (4 female) with parastomal hernia underwent surgical repair. Median age was 55 years (range 38-73 years). There were 8 para-ileostomy herniae and one paracolostomy hernia. A lateral incision was made approximately 10 cm from the stoma, and carried down to the rectus sheath. The dissection was carried medially towards the stoma, and around the defect in the abdominal musculature. The hernia sac was excised when possible and the fascial defect closed with non-absorbable, monofilament suture. A polyprolene mesh was placed round the stoma by making a slit in the mesh. The skin was closed with subcuticular monofilament absorbable suture. RESULTS: All patients returned to normal diet on the first postoperative day, and were discharged from hospital within 72 h. There were no wound infections, and no recurrences after a median follow up of 6 months (range 3-12 months). DISCUSSION: The technique we describe is simple and avoids the need of laparotomy. The mucocutaneous junction of the stoma is not disturbed, reducing the risk of contamination of the mesh, stenosis or retraction of the stoma. Grooving of the stoma and difficulty in fitting appliances is avoided because the wound is not placed near the mucocutaneous junction. This approach may be superior to other mesh repairs for parastomal hernia.
We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.
We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up.
Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.
Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair; Revisional laparoscopic surgery; Parastomal hernia; Recurrence
Parastomal hernias (PSHs) are a common type of incisional hernia and the most frequent complication to colostomies. Usually only mobile structures of the abdomen herniate in the hernial sac of the non-traumatic hernia. This case describes a large PSH adjacent to a lower left quadrant colostomy containing the mobile small intestine, part of the colon and a perforated stomach. The PSH presented with acute abdomen requiring explorative laparatomy and debridement. Large hernias may over time predispose to stretching of ligaments and mobilization of otherwise immobile structures with damage to these structures. The case report includes a short overview of hernia types associated with dislocation of the fixed organs of the abdominal space.
Rationale:Due to the improvement of prognosis through adjuvant therapy, the life expectancy of neoplasia patients is continuously increasing, which, in conjunction with the progressive occurrence of parastomal hernias during the disease evolution, explains the growing number of reported parastomal hernias affecting patients with permanent colostomy.
Conventional techniques of local repair are inappropriate considering the high recurrence rate, and the decision of stoma relocation depends on the associated pathology, which may counter-indicate general anesthesia, and on previous surgical interventions that are usually followed by a dense peritoneal adhesion syndrome
Objective:The purpose of this article is to make known a variant of alloplastic technique, without translocation, with a low degree of invasiveness, which can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia, followed by a reduced period of hospitalization.
Methods and Results:The study group consisted of 6 patients with permanent left iliac anus who underwent these interventions one to three years prior to the occurrence of parastomal hernia.
Patients were followed at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively and the results were favorable, with no recurrence and improved quality of life through proper prosthesis of the stoma
Discussion:We suggest that this technique variation is applied to small and medium parastomal hernias, in case of patients with permanent left iliac anus, with the declared intent of minimal invasiveness.
parastomal hernia; minimal invasive; alloplastic procedure; quality of life
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological incidence of parastomal hernia.
We reviewed, retrospectively, 83 patients with end colostomy operated on from January 2003 to June 2009 at Ajou University hospital. Age, sex, surgical procedure type, body mass index (weight/length2), stoma size, and respiratory co-morbidity were documented. We compared the incidence of radiological and clinical parastomal hernia.
There were 47 males (56.6%) and 36 females (43.4%). During an overall median follow-up of 30 months (range, 6 to 45 months), 24 patients (28.9%) developed a radiological parastomal hernia postoperatively and 20 patients (24.1%) presented clinical symptoms. Using computed tomography (CT) classification, the groups were as follows: type 0 (40, 48.2%), type Ia (19, 22.9%), type Ib (8, 9.6%), type II (4, 4.8%) and type III (12, 14.5%), with 63 asymptomatic patients and 20 symptomatic patients. The aperture size was significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (76.45 mm vs. 49.41 mm; P = 0.000). There was a significant correlation between aperture size and the radiological type (P = 0.003).
This study showed the incidence of radiological parastomal hernia is acceptable compared to previous studies. CT classification may be useful to evaluate parastomal hernia.
Parastomal hernia; Computed tomography; End colostomy
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological incidence of parastomal hernia and to analyze the risk factors for parastomal hernia.
We reviewed retrospectively 108 patients with end colostomy from January 2003 to June 2010. Age, sex, surgical procedure type, body mass index (kg/m2), stoma size, and respiratory comorbidity were documented.
There were 61 males (56.5%) and 47 females (43.5%). During an overall median follow-up of 25 months (range, 6 to 73 months), 36 patients (33.3%) developed a radiological parastomal hernia postoperatively and 29 patients (26.9%) presented with a clinical parastomal hernia. In multivariate analysis, gender (odds ratio [OR], 6.087; P = 0.008), age (OR, 1.109; P = 0.009) and aperture size (OR, 6.907; P < 0.001) proved to be significant and independent risk factors after logistic regression analysis.
This study showed that the incidence of radiological parastomal hernia is higher than clinical parastomal hernia. Risk factors for parastomal hernia proved to be female, age, and aperture size.
Hernia; Computed tomography; Colostomy
Parastomal hernia is a frequent complication after enterostomy formation. A repair using prosthetic mesh by way of a laparoscopic or open transabdominal approach is usually recommended, however, other procedures may be done if the repair is to be performed in a contaminated environment or when the abdominal cavity of the patient is difficult to enter due to postsurgical dense adhesion. The components separation method, which was introduced for non-transabdominal and non-prosthetic ventral hernia repair, solves such problems.
Case 1. A 79-year-old Japanese woman who underwent total cystectomy with ileal conduit for bladder cancer presented with a parastomal hernia, which was repaired using a keyhole technique. Simultaneously, an incisional hernia in the midline was repaired with a prosthetic mesh. One year after her hernia surgery, a recurrence occurred lateral to the stoma, but it was believed to be difficult to enter the peritoneal cavity because of the wide placement of mesh. Therefore, surgery using the components separation method was performed.
Case 2. A 72-year-old Japanese man underwent an abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. At 5 and 12 months after his operation, a perineal hernia and an incisional hernia in the midline were repaired with prosthesis using a transabdominal approach, respectively. Three years after his rectal surgery, a parastomal hernia developed lateral to the stoma. For the same reason as case 1, surgery using the components separation method was performed. No recurrence was observed in either case as of 40 and 8 months after the last repair, respectively.
The components separation method is a novel and effective technique for parastomal hernia repair, especially in cases following abdominal polysurgery or midline incisional hernia repairs using large pieces of mesh. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in English on the application of the components separation method for parastomal hernia repair.
Parastomal hernia; Components separation method; Incisional hernia; Repair
A parastomal hernia is the most common surgical complication following stoma formation. As the field of laparoscopic surgery advances, different laparoscopic approaches to repair of parastomal hernias have been developed. Recently, the Sugarbaker technique has been reported to have lower recurrence rates compared to keyhole techniques. As far as we know, the Sugarbaker technique has not yet been performed in Korea. We herein present a case report of perhaps the first laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with a modified Sugarbaker technique to be successfully carried out in Korea. A 79-year-old woman, who underwent an abdominoperineal resection for an adenocarcinoma of the rectum 9 years ago, presented with a large parastomal and incisional hernias, and was treated with a laparoscopic repair with a modified Sugarbaker technique. Six months after surgery, follow-up with the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence.
Laparoscopy; Abdominal hernia; Surgical stomas; Surgical procedures; Minimally invasive
Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand’s hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly encountered within the hernia sac. In very rare occasions, only appendiceal pus is found in the hernia sac. In this paper, we report the case of a 90-year-old woman with acute appendicitis and a tender mass in the right groin. Typical findings of acute appendicitis by computed tomography (CT) and incarcerated femoral hernia with groin cellulitis misled us into preoperative diagnosis of strangulated femoral hernia. Acute phlegmonous inflammation of the incarcerated femoral hernia sac containing pus only and acute suppurative appendicitis were found intraoperatively. This case presents a rare complication of acute appendicitis and the first report of CT-documented appendiceal pus-contained femoral hernia. Knowledge of this rare condition is helpful in establishing preoperative diagnosis and patient management decisions.
hernia sac; acute appendicitis; pus-containing femoral hernia
Parastomal hernia is a common complication of a colostomy. Ultimately, one-third of patients with a parastomal hernia will need surgical correction due to frequent leakage or life-threatening bowel obstruction or strangulation. However, treatment remains a challenge resulting in high recurrence rates. Two single center trials demonstrated that the frequency of parastomal hernias decreases by prophylactic placement of a mesh around the stoma at the time of formation. Unfortunately, both studies were small-sized, single-center studies and with these small numbers less common complications could be missed which were the reasons to initiate a prospective randomized multicenter trial to determine if a retromuscular, preperitoneal mesh at the stoma site prevents parastomal hernia and does not cause unacceptable complications.
One hundred and fifty patients undergoing open procedure, elective formation of a permanent end-colostomy will be randomized into two groups. In the intervention group an end-colostomy is created with placement of a preperitioneal, retromuscular lightweight monofilament polypropylene mesh, and compared to a group with a traditional stoma without mesh. Patients will be recruited from 14 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. Primary endpoint is the incidence of parastomal hernia. Secondary endpoints are stoma complications, cost-effectiveness, and quality of life. Follow-up will be performed at 3 weeks, 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. To find a difference of 20% with a power of 90%, a total number of 134 patients must be included. All results will be reported according to the CONSORT 2010 statement.
The PREVENT-trial is a multicenter randomized controlled trial powered to determine whether prophylactic placement of a polypropylene mesh decreases the incidence of a parastomal hernia versus the traditional stoma formation without a mesh.
The PREVENT-trial is registered at: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2018
Parastomal hernia; Prophylactic; Prevention; Mesh; Colostomy
Parastomal herniation is a common complication after stoma formation. The incidence can be reduced by using an extraperitoneal technique, limiting the size of the trephine to 1.5-2.0 cm or by strengthening with a mesh. If an intraperitoneal technique is used the intestine should be brought out through the rectus muscle. Generally, the symptoms are easily controlled with a support belt. Various techniques have been advocated for surgical repair. Fascial repair alone should no longer be performed owing to an unacceptably high recurrence rate, but should be combined with a prosthetic mesh. Relocation of the stoma should be performed for primary repairs.
Bochdalek hernia is one of the most common congenital abnormalities manifested in infants. In the adult is a rarity, with a prevalence of 0.17–6% of all diaphragmatic hernias. Right-sided Bochdalek hernias containing colon are even more rare, with no case described in the literature with ileo-cecal appendix.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The authors present a case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult female of 49 years old, presented with severe respiratory failure. During laparotomy for hernia correction, were found in an intrathoracic position the cecum and ileo-cecal appendix, the right colon and the transverse colon.
Although useful in patient evaluation, clinical history and physical examination are not helpful in making diagnosis because of their nonspecific character. CT scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Most of the times there is no hernial sac. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and it is always indicated even if asymptomatic. In general suture of the defect is possible. Due to patient's weak respiratory function we chose laparotomy by Kocher incision.
Being the first case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in the adult with a herniated ileo-cecal appendix, we name it Almeida-Reis hernia.
Bochdalek; Hernia; Diaphragm; Ileo-cecal appendix; Almeida-Reis
In an attempt to reduce the high recurrence rate after repair of parastomal hernia, a technique was devised in which non-absorbable mesh was used to provide a permanent closure of the gap between the emerging bowel and abdominal wall. Seven patients were treated during the period 1990-1992. Five-year follow-up has given disappointing results, with recurrent hernia in 29% of cases and serious complications, including obstruction and dense adhesions to the intra-abdominal mesh, in 57% and a mesh-related abscess in 15% of cases. This study highlights a dual problem--failure of a carefully sutured mesh to maintain an occlusive position, and complications of the mesh itself. The poor results obtained with this technique together with the disappointing results with other methods described in the literature confirms that parastomal hernia presents a continuing challenge.
A perforated sigmoid colon cancer within an inguinal hernia is extremely rare. This unexpected finding is usually discovered during surgery and causes an unavoidable septic evolution. Here, we describe the case of an 84-year-old man who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and a painful, enlarged, left scrotum. A CT showed a left, incarcerated, inguinal hernia containing a perforated sigmoid adenocarcinoma (which was confirmed by histopathology). The possibility of an irreducible inguinal hernia in association with perforated sigmoid colon cancer should be considered in the array of diagnoses. A pre-operative CT scan would be helpful in facilitating an accurate diagnosis.
Perforation; Sigmoid adenocarcinoma; Inguinal hernia; Computed tomography (CT)
Appendicitis and incarcerated hernia are frequently encountered reasons of emergency surgery for acute abdomen. The treatment in early stages of each condition is generally simple, but when these conditions are combined, the symptoms become slightly complicated, obscuring specific symptoms. Especially the lack of symptoms for appendicitis leads to delayed diagnosis, resulting in high morbidity. Amyand hernia, which contains appendix in its inguinal hernia sac, is perhaps more familiar to the general surgeons than De Garengeot hernia, which is an incarcerated femoral hernia with an appendix in its sac. We report the case of a 90-year-old female with incarcerated femoral hernia who underwent emergency hernioplasty only to reveal an inflamed appendix in its sac. The patient underwent both appendectomy and hernia repair simultaneously with synthetic mesh and was discharged on postoperative day 7 without any complications. We will also discuss the physical and radiological findings of De Garengeot hernia.
Femoral hernia; Incarceration; Appendicitis; De Garengeot hernia
Lumbar hernia is a rare complication that can occur after breast reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi flap. The defect occurs within the superior lumbar triangle and may result in visceral incarceration.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a 61-year-old female who presented with a left sided lumbar bulge and pain 7 years following a modified radical mastectomy and latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction. Computed tomography demonstrated a lumbar hernia with incarcerated colon. The patient underwent a successful laparoscopic repair with prosthetic mesh underlay.
Lumbar hernias may be congenital, secondary to trauma or prior surgery. Imaging studies assist in excluding soft tissue tumors, infections, hematoma or abdominal wall denervation atrophy, which may also present as a lumbar bulge. Repair may be performed in an open, laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic approach.
Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair with mesh is a safe and feasible way to manage an uncommon complication after breast reconstruction with a latissimus flap.
Lumbar hernia; Breast reconstruction; Laparoscopy
An inguinal hernia is a common surgical disease in elderly patients, but an association with intra-abdominal malignancies is rare.
We report a case of a 78-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a right inguinal mass suspected to be an irreducible hernia. A computed tomography scan showed the presence of the cecum in her inguinal canal, with an irregular thickening of the cecal wall suggesting a neoplasm within the inguinal hernia. A colonoscopy was not completed owing to the huge involvement of the cecum into the hernia sac. A laparotomy was performed, at which time the cecum was herniated through her right inguinal canal and the cecal tumor had infiltrated her abdominal wall and femoral artery. A right inguinal incision was necessary for good vascular control and to carry out an en bloc resection of the tumor with the inguinal wall. A right colectomy was performed and the inguinal wall repaired. The postoperative course was uneventful and our patient received adjuvant radiochemotherapy.
We describe a rare case of a locally advanced cecal tumor presenting as a right inguinal hernia. Both diagnosis and surgical treatment in elderly patients represent a challenge for the surgeon in cases of aggressive tumors as reported in this paper.
Cecum carcinoma; Inguinal hernia; Intrasaccular tumors; Right colectomy
Paraduodenal hernia, a rare congenital anomaly which arises from an error of rotation of the midgut, is the most common type of intraabdominal hernia. There are two variants, right and left paraduodenal hernia, the right being less common. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with a right paraduodenal hernia with a 6-month history of intermittent episodes of intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis was established by CT scan and upper gastrointestinal series with small bowel follow-through. In a planned laparotomy, herniation of the small bowel loops through the fossa of Waldeyer was found. Division of the lateral right attachments of the colon opened the hernia sac widely, replacing the pre- and postarterial segments of the intestine in the positions they would normally occupy at the end of the first stage of rotation during embryonic development. Six months after the surgery, after an uneventful recovery, the patient remains free of symptoms.
Paraduodenal hernia; Internal hernia; Intestinal obstruction
Existence of non-inflamed or inflamed vermiform appendix in an inguinal hernia is named Amyand's hernia in honor to the surgeon Claudius Amyand who successfully performed first perforated appendicitis.
A 69-year-old Turkish male patient with a slight right groin pain and swelling was presented to our clinic, and found to have a slightly tender and reducible right inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery under general anesthesia, and a adhesive caecum and an inflamed appendix were explored within the hernia sac. Adhesions were divided by sharp dissection and appendectomy was performed. After carrying out a Lichtenstein hernioplasty, a broad-spectrum antibiotic was postoperatively admitted for 3 days. He recovered uneventfully, and neither complication nor recurrence was detected during 52 months of follow-up.
Although occurrence of an appendicitis in an inguinal hernia is rare, a surgeon should be vigilant for facing with it even in elective cases. Treatment can be provided only surgically, but surgical treatment is not standard except from appendectomy. In our opinion, application of mesh hernia repair should depend on the degree of inflammation of appendix and the presence of incarceration of hernia sac with a suitable antibiotic admission for 3-5 days postoperatively.
Hernia; inguinal; appendicitis
Slow transmural tissue necrosis may occur after an electrosurgical Bovie injury and lead to eventual bowel perforation.
Bowel injury during laparoscopic surgery is a rare but serious complication. A Bovie injury to the bowel can cause delayed perforation of the viscus, thus increasing the possibility of a preventable morbidity. Patients presenting with perforation peritonitis within 24 hours and up to 2 to 3 weeks after laparoscopic Bovie injury to the bowel have been reported in the literature.
Description: A 74-year-old woman underwent a laparoscopic ventral hernia mesh repair. Intraoperatively, a small area of superficial Bovie injury to the small bowel was repaired with Lembert sutures and tissue glue. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well, but she presented with perforation peritonitis 3 months after surgery. An exploratory laparotomy showed a jejunal perforation in the same area that was injured with cautery and repaired during the previous surgery. The patient was only using inhaled steroids for asthma on and off but had a remote history of chemotherapy and radiation for colorectal cancer.
Bovie injury to the bowel has a hidden depth, causing a slow transmural tissue necrosis, and it might also impair local healing and eventually lead to perforation. Thus, the patient may present later than the usual period for wound healing and remodeling as previously reported. Given the disastrous consequence, it is imperative to perform a good surgical repair of even a minor Bovie injury to the bowel. This is the first report of a delayed presentation (>1 month) of a Bovie injury of the bowel.
Laparoscopic injury; Ventral hernia; Thermal injury; Small bowel injury; Bovie injury; Cautery injury
Inguinal hernia has a nature to surprise surgeons with its unexpected contents. Appendix epiploicae alone in the hernial sac is a rare entity and that too if hypertrophied and presenting as irreducible hernia is still more uncommon. We report a 52-year-old male with complains of irreducible inguinal mass with little pain on Left side for seven days. A diagnosis of irreducible inguinal hernia was made and the patient was treated laparoscopically by Trans-Abdominal Pre-Peritoneal Mesh Hernioplasty (TAPP). As a surprise, content of the hernial sac was enlarged / hypertrophied appendix epiploicae of sigmoid colon with appendigitis. Patient also had and incidental hernia on the other side, which was repaired in the same sitting. Postoperative recovery of the patient was excellent.
Appendices epiploicae; Inguinal Hernia; Trans-abdominal pre peritoneal