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1.  Left-sided appendicitis: Review of 95 published cases and a case report 
AIM: To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM).
METHODS: We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA, accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female, who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA, is reported. In the reviewed literature, fifty-seven patients were male and 38 were female with an age range of 8 to 82 years and a median age of 29.1 ± 15.9 years. Sixty-six patients had SIT, 23 had MM, three had cecal malrotation, and two had a previously unnoted congenital abnormality. Fifty-nine patients had presented to the hospital with left lower, 14 with right lower and seven with bilateral lower quadrant pain, and seven subjects complained of left upper quadrant pain. The diagnosis was established preoperatively in 49 patients, intraoperatively in 19, and during the postoperative period in five; 14 patients were aware of having this anomaly. The data of eight patients were not unavailable. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, which was combined with cholecystectomy in two cases. Histopathological examination of the appendix specimens revealed adenocarcinoma in only two of 95 patients.
CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of left lower quadrant pain is based on well-established clinical symptoms, physical examination and physician’s experience.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i44.5598
PMCID: PMC2992678  PMID: 21105193
Diagnostic dilemma; Left lower quadrant pain; Left-sided appendicitis; Midgut malrotation; Situs inversus totalis
2.  Laparoscopic management of acute appendicitis in situs inversus 
Situs inversus is often detected incidentally in adults during imaging for a acute surgical emergency. We present a case of acute appendicitis in an adult who was previously unaware about his situs anomaly. A laparoscopic approach is helpful to deal with this condition. A 40 year old man was admitted with history of acute left lower abdominal pain, with uncontrolled diabetic keto-acidosis. Clinically, he was diagnosed as acute diverticulitis with localized peritonitis. Subsequent imaging studies and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of situs inversus and acute left- sided appendicitis.
He successfully underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Although technically more challenging because of the reverse laparoscopic view of the anatomy, the laparoscopic diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis is indicated in situs inversus.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.28184
PMCID: PMC3016484  PMID: 21234150
Laparoscopy; situs inversus; appendicitis
3.  Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma alongside with situs inversus totalis: a unique clinical case 
Introduction
Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the three major histological subtypes of the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. The most common type of presentation is that of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis is usually occurred after appendectomy. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of the above condition represents a real challenge when uncommon anatomic anomalies such intestinal malrotation and situs inversus take place. Situs inversus totalis with an incidence of 0.01% is an uncommon condition caused by a single autosomal recessive gene of incomplete penetration in which the major visceral organs are mirrored from their normal positions.
Case presentation
We present an unusual case of a 59 years old, previously healthy man presented with a left lower quadrant abdominal pain, accompanied with low fever, leukocytosis, anorexia and constipation. A chest radiograph demonstrated dextrocardia with a right side positioned stomach bubble. Both preoperative US and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis declared situs inversus, with a characteristic thickening in its wall, appendix situated in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. These findings reached to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversus and a standard appendicectomy was performed. Pathologic evaluation established primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and three months afterwards the patient underwent a subsequent extended left hemicolectomy.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the occurrence of primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma along with situs inversus, definitely accounts as a unique clinical case. Even synchronous manifestation of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anatomo-pathological entity, all physicians should be familiar having the knowledge to make an appropriate and accurate diagnosis that will lead to prompt and correct treatment.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-8-49
PMCID: PMC2894825  PMID: 20525349
4.  Stump Appendicitis: An Uncompleted Surgery, a Rare but Important Entity with Potential Problems 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:972596.
Appendicectomy for appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical procedures performed worldwide. The residual appendiceal stump left after an initial appendectomy risks the development of stump appendicitis. Stump appendicitis is a real recognized entity but not often considered when evaluating patients with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, especially those with past history of appendectomy. It remains a clinical challenge with the result that its diagnosis and effective treatment are often delayed with possible attendant morbidity or mortality. Stump appendicitis results from obstruction of the lumen of the remaining appendix stump, usually by a faecolith. This increases intraluminal pressure, impairing venous drainage and allowing subsequent bacterial infection. We present the case of a twenty-five (25)-year-old female who underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy and presented four and half (4(1/2)) months later with fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain, and tenderness associated with repeated vomiting. Exploratory laparotomy was carried out after clinical and imaging studies which revealed big inflammatory mass with abscess at the right iliac fossa and recurrent appendicitis of the appendiceal stump. Surgical treatment is easy but recognition of this important entity but potentially dangerous condition should always be borne in mind in order to avoid delay in its diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.1155/2013/972596
PMCID: PMC3638532  PMID: 23691424
5.  Scrotal abscess as a complication of perforated appendicitis: A case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2008;1:165.
Introduction
Abscess formation following appendectomy is well known, especially when complicated by perforation. Infectious complications are the most common. Intraabdominal abscess formation, Pelvic abscess and wound infection are the most common sites of infection. Scrotal abscess following acute perforated appendicitis is very rare.
Cases presentation
We report two cases of scrotal abscess following perforated appendicitis, one was 1983 and the other in 1997. The first patient developed acute left hemiscrotum two weeks following correction of a tetralogy of Fallot that was diagnosed since infancy. Scrotal drainage as well as open appendectomy and abdominal drainage were followed by uneventful recovery. Six weeks later left groin exploration revealed patent processus vaginalis which was ligated. The second patient developed redness, swelling and pain in his left hemiscrotum 10 days after open appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. Groin exploration, ligation of a PPV and scrotal drainage was made. Recent reports on the subject, review of the literature, the rarity of the complication, and the possible association with recent introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy.
Conclusion
Acute scrotal swelling is frequently a surgical emergency. Developing in the post-operative period is no exception. Symptoms and signs may be hampered by analgesia, pain, and antibiotics, usually administered in this period. Reporting these rare complications following such a common procedure, especially now a day in the era of laparoscopic surgery. Only high degree of suspicion and vigilant intervention will accomplish a safe diagnosis and treatment. The appropriate time and approach to both abscess and PPV is still controversial. Until enough case reports treatment is to be individualized.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-165
PMCID: PMC2562359  PMID: 18803815
6.  Situs inversus totalis with perforated duodenal ulcer: a case report 
Introduction
Situs inversus is an uncommon anomaly. Situs inversus viscerum can be either total or partial. Total situs inversus, also termed as mirror image dextrocardia, is characterized by a heart on the right side of the midline while the liver and the gall bladder are on the left side. Patients are usually asymptomatic and have a normal lifespan. The exact etiology is unknown but an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance has been speculated. The first case of perforated duodenal ulcer with situs inversus was reported in 1986; here, we report the second case of this nature in the medical literature.
Case presentation
A 22-year-old Pakistani man presented with severe epigastric and left hypochondrial pain. Examination and investigations (chest X-ray and ultrasonography) confirm peritonitis in a case of situs inversus totalis. On exploratory laparotomy, a diagnosis of situs inversus totalis with perforated duodenal ulcer was confirmed. Graham's patch closure of the duodenal ulcer was performed with absorbable sutures, and a thorough peritoneal lavage was also performed; an incidental appendectomy was also performed to avoid further diagnostic problems. Our patient had an uneventful recovery.
Conclusions
A diagnostic dilemma arises whenever abdominal pathology occurs in patients with situs inversus. Although an uncommon anomaly, to choose a proper surgical incision site for abdominal exploration pre-operative recognition of the condition is important.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-279
PMCID: PMC3152917  PMID: 21722405
7.  Technical difficulties and its remedies in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis: A rare case report 
INTRODUCTION
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard surgical procedure for cholelithiasis and is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world today. However, in rare cases of previously undiagnosed situs inversus totalis (with dextrocardia), the presentation of the cholecystitis, its diagnosis and the operative procedure can pose problems. We present here one such case and discuss how the diagnosis was made and difficulties encountered during surgery and how they were coped with.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 35 year old female presented with left hypochondrium pain and dyspepsia, for 2 years. A diagnosis of cholelithiasis with situs inversus was confirmed after thorough clinical examination, abdominal and chest X-rays and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is the standard treatment, was performed with numerous modifications in the positioning of the monitor, insufflator, ports and the position of the members of the surgical team and the laparoscopic instruments. The patient had an uneventful recovery.
DISCUSSION
Situs inversus totalis is itself a rare condition and when associated with cholelithiasis poses a challenge in the management of the condition. We must appreciate the necessity of setting up the operating theatre, the positioning of the ports, the surgical team and the instruments.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, it becomes important for the right handed surgeons to modify their techniques and establish a proper hand eye coordination to adapt to the mirror image anatomy of the Calot's triangle in a patient of situs inversus totalis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.05.012
PMCID: PMC3710905  PMID: 23816750
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Dextrocardia; Situs inversus; Calot's triangle
8.  Appendectomy and Resection of the Terminal Ileum with Secondary Severe Necrotic Changes in Acute Perforated Appendicitis 
Patient: Female, 19
Final Diagnosis: Acute perforated appendicitis • appendiceal abscess • secondary necrosis of the ileal wall
Symptoms: Right lower quadrant abdominal pain • fever
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Diagnostic laparoscopy • open drainage of an appendiceal abscess • appendectomy • ileal resection
Specialty: Surgery
Objective:
Management of emergency care
Background:
Resectional procedures for advanced and complicated appendicitis are performed infrequently. Their extent can vary: cecal resection, ileocecectomy, and even right hemicolectomy. We present a very rare case of appendectomy that was combined with partial ileal resection for severe necrotic changes and small perforation of the ileum.
Case Report:
A 19-year-old female patient was hospitalized with right iliac fossa pain and fever 10 days after the onset of symptoms. On laparoscopy, a large mass in a right iliac fossa was found. The ultrasound-guided drainage of the suspected appendiceal abscess was unavailable. After conversion using McBurney’s incision, acute perforated appendicitis was diagnosed. It was characterized by extension of severe necrotic changes onto the ileal wall and complicated by right iliac fossa abscess. A mass was bluntly divided, and a large amount of pus with fecaliths was discharged and evacuated. Removal of necrotic tissues from the ileal wall led to the appearance of a small defect in the bowel. A standard closure of this defect was considered as very unsafe due to a high risk of suture leakage or bowel stenosis. We perform a resection of the involved ileum combined with appendectomy and drainage/tamponade of an abscess cavity. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged on the 15th day.
Conclusions:
In advanced appendicitis, the involved bowel resection can prevent possible complications (e.g., ileus, intestinal fistula, peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess). Our case may be the first report of an appendectomy combined with an ileal resection for advanced and complicated appendicitis.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.892471
PMCID: PMC4307687  PMID: 25618525
Abdominal Abscess; Appendicitis; Intestine, Small
9.  Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a case report 
Background
While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case where CT was crucial diagnostically and helpful for pre-surgical planning in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen superimposed on complete congenital gastrointestinal malrotation.
Case presentation
A 46-year-old previously healthy male with four days of primarily left-sided abdominal pain, low-grade fevers, nausea and anorexia presented to the Emergency Department. His medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes and dyslipidemia. His white blood count at that time was elevated. Initial abdominal plain films suggested small bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with oral and IV contrast to exclude diverticulitis, revealing acute appendicitis superimposed on congenital intestinal malrotation. Following consultation with the surgical team for surgical planning, the patient went on to laparoscopic appendectomy and did well postoperatively.
Conclusion
Atypical presentations of acute abdominal conditions superimposed on asymptomatic gastrointestinal malrotation can result in delays in delivery of definitive therapy and potentially increase morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. Appropriate imaging can be helpful in hastening diagnosis and guiding intervention.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-92
PMCID: PMC2034390  PMID: 17880685
10.  Primary tuberculosis appendicitis with mesenteric mass 
Tuberculosis primarily affecting the appendix is extremely rare and the diagnosis is difficult. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old healthy boy presenting with right lower quadrant abdominal pain. On computed tomography, the distended appendix with 3.3 × 2.7 cm mass located at the right side of the right iliac artery was detected. There was neither bowel wall thickening nor active lung lesion. After laparoscopic appendectomy with mass excision, histopathological examination revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation, with caseous necrosis of the appendix. We made a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis of appendix and administrated anti-tuberculosis medication.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.4.266
PMCID: PMC3319783  PMID: 22493770
Tuberculosis; Appendicitis; Mesenteric lymphadenitis
11.  An unusual presentation of perforated appendicitis in epigastric region☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Atypical presentations of appendix have been reported including backache, left lower quadrant pain and groin pain from a strangulated femoral hernia containing the appendix. We report a case presenting an epigastric pain that was diagnosed after computed tomography as a perforated appendicitis on intestinal malrotation.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 27-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed tenderness and defense on palpation of epigastric region. There was a left subcostal incision with the history of diaphragmatic hernia repair when the patient was 3 days old. He had an intestinal malrotation with the cecum fixed at the epigastric region and the inflamed appendix extending beside the left lobe of liver.
DISCUSSION
While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality.
CONCLUSION
Atypical presentations of acute appendicitis should be kept in mind in patients with abdominal pain in emergency room especially in patients with previous childhood operation for diaphragmatic hernia.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.12.005
PMCID: PMC3921649  PMID: 24441442
Perforated appendicitis; Unusual presentation; Laparoscopy; Epigastric; Malrotation; Diaphragmatic hernia
12.  An unsuspected clinical condition: Appendicitis of appendicular residual, three cases report 
INTRODUCTION
Stump appendicitis is a rare complication of appendectomy unusually included in the differential diagnosis. This is found in appendectomized patients with similar symptoms to those of a previous appendicitis.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We present three cases, two women and a man of 67, 30 and 24 years old, respectively. They underwent surgery at our centre and their appendectomies presented technical difficulties: problems when identifying the appendicular base or the complete appendicular structure. In the first case, diagnosis and therapy were performed with laparoscopy. The second case was diagnosed by an abdominal ultrasound (US) which revealed a tubular structure with thickened walls. An abscess was observed in the computed tomography (CT) scan for the third case and a laparotomy revealed the retained appendix.
DISCUSSION
Although there are several factors that can contribute to this rare pathology, the main cause of stump appendicitis is the persistence of a large appendicular remnant. CT and US are very useful diagnosis tools. Treatment consists to a completion appendectomy of the stump which can be carried out by an open or a laparoscopic approach.
CONCLUSION
In this rare pathology a prior history of appendicectomy can delay the diagnosis and increase its associated morbidity and even mortality. In patients with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant and previous appendectomy, it is important to include this pathology in the differential diagnosis, in order to not delay the treatment and thus avoid complications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.01.026
PMCID: PMC3605474  PMID: 23474976
Stump appendicitis; Appendicular remanent; Incomplete appendectomy
13.  A stump appendicitis in a child: a case report 
Background
Stump appendicitis is a delayed complication of appendectomy. It is rare and few cases reported in the paediatric literature. The authors report on another case in a child and focus on the diagnostic peculiarities of this entity.
Case
A 9-year-old boy with previous history of open appendectomy was admitted for a right lower quadrant pain with bilious vomiting and fever. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the right lower quadrant and guarding over the appendectomy scar. The white blood cell count was 23.500 cells/mm3. Plain abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography revealed fecalith localized in the right iliac fossa. The diagnosis of stump appendicitis was advocated and confirmed at laparotomy. A gangrenous and perforated appendiceal stump was found and completely removed. The post-operative course was uneventful after 18 months follow-up period.
Conclusion
Stump appendicitis is rare and should be considered in any patient with right lower quadrant pain even if there is a history of appendectomy. Complete removal of the appendix is the only mean to prevent the occurrence of this complication.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-35-35
PMCID: PMC2784782  PMID: 19919712
14.  Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia 
Patient: Female, 43
Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis
Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy
Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Objective:
Rare disease
Background:
The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
Case Report:
A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis.
The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix.
The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist.
Conclusions:
Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention, dramatically improve prognosis.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.892760
PMCID: PMC4327184  PMID: 25666852
Appendicitis; Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute; Sarcoma, Myeloid
15.  Co-Incidence of Acute Appendicitis and Appendiceal Transection after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report 
A 13-year-old boy with a history of bicycle handlebar injury to the left side of his abdomen was brought to the Emergency Department of our center. On admission, his vital signs were stable and abdominal examination revealed ecchymosis and tenderness of the injured areas. Mild to moderate free fluid and two small foci of free air in the anterior aspect of the abdomen, in favor of pneumoperitoneum, were detected in abdominopelvic sonography and CT-scan, respectively. In less than 6 hours, the patient developed generalized peritonitis. Therefore, exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, which revealed appendiceal transection and rupture of the small bowel mesentery. Appendectomy and small bowel mesoplasty were done, with pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis and periappendicitis. After surgery, the patient had a non-complicated hospital course. This rare case highlights the significance of the early management of appendiceal traumatic injuries in order to prevent further complicated events, especially in patients who are much more exposed to this risk due to their traumatic background.
PMCID: PMC3838988  PMID: 24293790
Abdominal injury; Appendiceal; Transection; Acute appendicitis
16.  Synchronous obstructive ureterolithiasis and acute appendicitis 
The differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pain includes both ureterolithiasis and acute appendicitis. Surgical treatment can be undergone without confirmatory imaging studies after a clinical diagnosis is made. For this reason, an occult, second abdominal process may be present.
A 47-year-old male presented with a three-day history of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. A contrast CT revealed both a 6 mm calculus obstructing the right ureter and acute appendicitis. The patient underwent appendectomy and ureteroscopy with stent placement at the same time.
Simultaneous appendicitis and ureterolithiasis may present with similar clinical findings. Due to the potential risks associated with missing either diagnosis, imaging studies may be an appropriate as a step in the management of the patient with right lower quadrant pain.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2012.9.16
PMCID: PMC3649614  PMID: 24960802
17.  Rare Complications Following Colonoscopy: Case Reports of Splenic Rupture and Appendicitis 
Background:
Appendicitis and splenic rupture are 2 rare complications of colonoscopy reported in the literature. To our knowledge splenic rupture following colonoscopy has been reported 17 times in the English-language literature and is associated with excess traction on the splenocolic ligament. Appendicitis after colonoscopy has been reported only 9 times and is usually associated with obstruction of the appendiceal lumen with fecal matter during colonoscopy.
Methods:
We present the case reports of 2 patients: a 76-year-old woman who presented in consultation 24 hours after a routine colonoscopy with massive hemoperitoneum secondary to splenic rupture, seen on computed tomographic (CT) scan, who then underwent splenectomy; the second, a 60-year-old male who presented to the emergency room 16 hours after colonoscopy with clinical and computed tomographic scan findings of acute appendicitis who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy.
Results:
Treatment of both patients resulted in resolution of their complications, splenic rupture and appendicitis. They both had an uneventful postoperative course and are doing well several months postoperatively.
Conclusions:
We report 2 rare complications of colonoscopy, splenic rupture and appendicitis. In the setting of a recent colonoscopy and abdominal pain, a high index of suspicion is needed for their diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3015657  PMID: 16709374
Colonoscopy; Splenic rupture; Appendicitis
18.  Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma Mimicking Acute Appendicitis: Laparoscopic Management 
Background:
Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (RLMS) are a challenging clinical entity. The vast majority of patients are operated on when tumors are advanced. We report herein a case of RLMS, mimicking acute appendiceal disease and treated successfully via laparoscopy.
Methods:
A 37-year-old woman, para 1, was admitted to our department for right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, and leukocytosis. She had no changes in gastrointestinal and urologic function. A physical examination revealed the presence of abdominal guarding, rebound, and a tender mass in the right lower quadrant. The abdominal ultrasound showed an inhomogeneous ovoid mass (6 cm in diameter) located below the cecum, with no definite margins, and consistent with an appendiceal abscess. The patient was referred for laparoscopy. The procedure was performed with the aid of 3 ports: a 12-mm trocar in the umbilicus (open technique), a 10-mm trocar in the left iliac fossa, and a 5-mm one in the suprapubic space. On inspection of the abdominal cavity, a retroperitoneal 6-cm mass was immediately found below the cecum and the appendix. Neither intraperitoneal seeding nor suspected lymph nodes were present. After dissection of the parietal peritoneum, the mass appeared to be encapsulated and well demarcated from all surrounding structures. It was eventually dissected and removed via a plastic bag. A standard appendectomy was also performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 3rd day. The histology analysis of the resected specimen showed a totally excised G2 leiomyosarcoma. The appendix had no signs of inflammation. Postoperatively, the patient underwent a total-body CT-scan, which had no signs of residual or distant disease. No adjuvant therapy was necessary. At an 18-month follow-up, the patient was doing well and was disease free.
Conclusions:
Surgery represents the main therapeutic option for resectable RLMS. Laparoscopy is a useful diagnostic tool that allows safe resection of incidentally discovered, small and well encapsulated RLMS.
PMCID: PMC3015475  PMID: 12856853
Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma; Laparoscopy
19.  Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis 
Case Reports in Hematology  2013;2013:815365.
Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.
doi:10.1155/2013/815365
PMCID: PMC3693109  PMID: 23840984
20.  Diagnostic values of ultrasound and the Modified Alvarado Scoring System in acute appendicitis 
Background
Making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is difficult, and is important for preventing perforation of the appendix and negative appendectomy results. Ultrasound and clinical scoring systems are very helpful in making the diagnosis. Ultrasound is non-invasive, available and cost-effective, and can accomplish more than CT scans. However, there is no certainty about its effect on the clinical outcomes of patients, and it is operator dependent. Counting the neutrophils as a parameter of the Alvarado Scale is not routine in many laboratories, so we decided to evaluate the diagnostic value of the Modified Alvarado Scaling System (MASS) by omitting the neutrophil count and ultrasonography.
Methods
After ethical approval of methodology in Tehran University of Medical Sciences ethical committee, we collected the data. During 9 months, 75 patients with right lower quadrant pain were enrolled in the study, and underwent abdominal ultrasonography and appendectomy, with pathological evaluation of the appendix. The MASS score was calculated for these patients and compared with pathology results.
Results
Fifty-five male and 20 female patients were assessed. Of these patients 89.3% had acute appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy rate of ultrasonography was 71.2%, 83.3%, 97.4%, 25% and 72.4%, respectively. By taking a cutoff point of 7 for the MASS score, a sensitivity of 65.7%, specificity of 37.5%, PPV of 89.8%, NPV of 11.5% and accuracy of 62.7% were calculated. Using the cutoff point of 6, a sensitivity of 85.1%, specificity of 25%, PPV of 90.5%, NPV of 16.7% and accuracy of 78.7% were obtained.
Conclusion
Ultrasound provides reliable findings for helping to diagnose acute appendicitis in our hospital. A cutoff point of 6 for the MASS score will yield more sensitivity and a better diagnosis of appendicitis, though with an increase in negative appendectomy.
doi:10.1186/1865-1380-5-26
PMCID: PMC3410771  PMID: 22673121
Appendicitis; Ultrasonography; Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS)
21.  A Case of Endoscopic Removal of a Giant Appendicolith Combined with Stump Appendicitis 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(1):112-114.
Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the residual appendix and is a rare complication after appendectomy. The physician should be aware of the possibility of stump appendicitis in patients with right lower abdominal pain after appendectomy so that delayed diagnosis and treatment can be prevented. Stump appendicitis is usually treated by surgical resection, and endoscopic treatment has not been reported previously. A 48-year-old man who had undergone appendectomy 35 years earlier presented to the hospital because of right lower quadrant discomfort. A computed tomography scan showed a large stone in the residual appendix. Colonoscopic findings revealed a large, smooth, protruding lesion at the cecum with a stone inside the appendiceal orifice. Endoscopic removal after incision of the appendiceal orifice was performed successfully.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.1.112
PMCID: PMC3928483  PMID: 24570893
Appendicolith; Stump appendicitis; Endoscopic removal
22.  Internal transomental herniation with a trapped small bowel mimicking acute appendicitis☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Internal herniation with subsequent bowel obstruction is uncommon, and making a correct diagnosis prior to surgery is often difficult.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this case report we present a man, who suffered from sudden extreme right-sided abdominal pain. The diagnostic workup was inconclusive. Emergency surgery was indicated with a suspicion of acute appendicitis. We found a strangulated ileus caused by an internal herniation of the small intestine through a hole in the greater omentum. The patient had no history of surgery or other physical disorders explaining this finding. The obstruction was resolved and the postoperative clinical course was uncomplicated.
DISCUSSION
A thorough diagnostic workup including CT scan would most probably have given the correct diagnosis. However, the clinical course and initiation of the correct treatment would have been delayed significantly.
CONCLUSION
We suggest that the diagnostic workup of patients with unclear lower abdominal pain should be limited and that acute clinical symptoms require rapid laparoscopic evaluation and surgical treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.10.019
PMCID: PMC3860037  PMID: 24291681
Internal herniation; Small bowel; Appendicitis; Abdominal pain; Laparoscopy
23.  Appendiceal Crohn’s disease clinically presenting as acute appendicitis 
AIM: To determine the incidence of appendiceal Crohn’s disease (CD) and to summarize the characteristic histologic features of appendiceal CD.
METHODS: We reviewed the pathology files of 2179 appendectomy specimens from January 2007 to May 2013. The computer-assisted retrieval search facility was utilized to collect specimens. We selected those cases that were diagnosed as CD or chronic granulomatous inflammation and defined the final diagnosis according to the histologic findings of CD, including transmural lymphocytic inflammation, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, thickening of the appendiceal wall secondary to hypertrophy of muscularis mucosa, mucosal ulceration with crypt abscesses, mucosal fissures, and fistula formation.
RESULTS: We found 12 cases (7 male and 5 female patients, with an average age of 29.8 years) of appendiceal CD. The incidence of appendiceal CD was 0.55%. The chief complaints were right lower quadrant pain, abdominal pain, lower abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The duration of symptom varied from 2 d to 5 mo. The histologic review revealed appendiceal wall thickening in 11 cases (92%), transmural inflammation in all cases (100%), lymphoid aggregates in all cases (100%), epithelioid granulomas in all cases (100%), mucosal ulceration in 11 cases (92%), crypt abscesses in 5 cases (42%), perforation in 2 cases (17%), muscular hypertrophy in 1 case (8%), neural hyperplasia in 5 cases (42%), and perpendicular serosal fibrosis in 8 cases (67%).
CONCLUSION: A typical and protracted clinical course, unusual gross features of the appendix and the characteristic histologic features are a clue in the diagnosis of appendiceal CD.
doi:10.12998/wjcc.v2.i12.888
PMCID: PMC4266838  PMID: 25516865
Appendix; Appendectomy; Acute appendicitis; Crohn’s disease; Prognosis
24.  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis: Feasibility and review of literature 
INTRODUCTION
Situs inversus totalis is a rare anomaly characterized by transposition of organs to the opposite site of the body. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in those patients is technically more demanding and needs reorientation of visual-motor skills to left upper quadrant.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Herein, we report a 10 year old boy presented with left hypochondrium and epigastric pain 2 months duration. The patient had not been diagnosed as situs inversus totalis before. The patient exhibit a left sided “Murphy's sign”. Diagnosis of situs inversus totalis was confirmed with ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonant image (MRI) with presence of multiple gall bladder stones with no intra or extrabiliary duct dilatation. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis.
DISCUSSION
Feasibility and technical difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of such case pose challenge problem due to the contra lateral disposition of the viscera. Difficulty is encountered in skelatonizing the structures in Calot's triangle, which consume extra time than normally located gall bladder. A summary of additional 50 similar cases reported up to date in the medical literature is also presented.
CONCLUSION
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and should be done in situs inversus totalis by experienced laparoscopic surgeon, as changes in anatomical disposition of organ not only influence the localization of symptoms and signs arising from a diseased organ but also imposes special demands on the diagnosis and surgical skills of the surgeon.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.02.030
PMCID: PMC3710908  PMID: 23810920
Situs inversus totalis-cholelithiasis; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
25.  Acute Appendicitis Presenting as Unusual Left Upper Quadrant Pain 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2013;10(3):156-159.
Appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease that requires surgery in the emergency ward. It usually presents as right lower quadrant pain, but may rarely present as left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain due to congenital anatomical abnormalities of the intestine. We report a patient who complained of persistent LUQ abdominal pain and was finally diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) as congenital intestinal malrotation complicated with acute appendicitis. It is important to include acute appendicitis in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of LUQ abdominal pain. Abdominal CT can provide significant information that is useful in preoperative diagnosis and determination of proper treatment.
doi:10.5812/iranjradiol.6326
PMCID: PMC3857979  PMID: 24348602
Appendicitis; Intestinal Malrotation, Familial; Abdomen, Acute; Abdominal Pain

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