Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (971878)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Venous Thromboembolism After Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Are There Modifiable Risk Factors? Data from ACS NSQIP 
Diseases of the colon and rectum  2012;55(11):1138-1144.
Although it is commonly reported that IBD patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events, little real-world data exist regarding their postoperative incidence and related outcomes in everyday practice.
We aimed to identify the rate of venous thromboembolism and modifiable risk factors within a large cohort of surgical IBD patients.
We performed a retrospective review of IBD patients who underwent colorectal procedures.
Patient data were obtained from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2004 to 2010 Participant Use Data Files.
The primary outcomes measured were short-term (30-day) postoperative venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Clinical variables were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses to identify modifiable risk factors for these events.
A total of 10,431 operations were for Crohn’s disease (52.1%) or ulcerative colitis (47.9%), and 242 (2.3%) venous thromboembolic events occurred (178 deep vein thromboses, 46 pulmonary embolisms, 18 both) for a combined rate of 1.4% in Crohn’s disease and 3.3% in ulcerative colitis. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism each occurred at a mean of 10.8 days postoperatively (range for each, 0–30 days). A multivariate model found that bleeding disorder, steroid use, anesthesia time, emergency surgery, hematocrit <37%, malnutrition, and functional status were potentially modifiable risk factors that remained associated (p < 0.05) with venous thromboembolism on regression analysis. Patients with thromboembolism had longer length of stay (18.8 vs 8.9 days), more complications (41% vs 18%), and a higher risk of death (4% vs 0.9%).
This study was limited by its retrospective design and its limited generalizability to nonparticipating hospitals.
Inflammatory bowel disease patients are at increased risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism. Reducing preoperative anemia, steroid use, malnutrition, and anesthesia time may also reduce venous thromboembolism in this at-risk population. Risk-reducing, preventative strategies are needed in this at-risk population.
PMCID: PMC3767395  PMID: 23044674
Chronic ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; Outcomes; Deep vein thrombosis; Pulmonary embolism
2.  Relation of Preoperative Serum Albumin Levels to Survival in Patients Undergoing Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation 
The American journal of cardiology  2013;112(9):1484-1488.
Hypoalbuminemia has been recognized as a prognostic indicator in patients with heart failure. We aimed to investigate the association of hypoalbuminemia with postoperative mortality in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We studied 272 consecutive patients undergoing LVAD implantation from 2000 to 2010 at our institution. Preoperative clinical characteristics and laboratory variables associated with mortality were analyzed. Postoperative survival of patients with preoperative hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dl, n = 125) and those with normal albumin concentration (≥3.5 g/dl, n = 147) was compared. Survival after LVAD surgery was better in patients with normal albumin levels compared with those with hypoalbuminemia before surgery (3 and 12 months: 93.2% vs 82.4% and 88.4% vs 75.2%, respectively, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative albumin was independently associated with mortality after LVAD implantation (hazard ratio 0.521, 95% confidence interval 0.290 to 0.934; p = 0.029.) Furthermore, the impact of normalization of albumin levels during LVAD support on postoperative survival was analyzed in both groups. Subgroup analysis of patients with preoperative hypoalbuminemia and postoperative normalization of albumin levels (n = 81) showed improved survival compared with those who remained hypoalbuminemia (n = 44) or those who had decreasing albumin levels during LVAD support (n = 40; 3-month survival: 92.6% vs 63.6% and 65.0%; p <0.01). In conclusion, preoperative hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor prognosis after LVAD surgery. Postoperative normalization of albumin level is associated with improved survival. Attention to albumin levels by correcting nutrition, inflammation, and hepatic function could be an effective way to improve prognosis in patients evaluated for LVAD implantation.
PMCID: PMC4074378  PMID: 23891248
3.  Treatment of postoperative infectious complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection 
Antibiotics are widely given for surgical patients to prevent infection. Because of the lack of study on the rational use of antibiotics in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected during surgical procedures, we analyzed the risk factors affecting postoperative infectious complications in HlV-infected patients and explore the rational use of perioperative antibiotics.
This retrospective study consisted of 308 HlV-infected patients, 272 males and 36 females, who had undergone operation at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from November 2008 to April 2012. The patients were divided into postoperative infection and non-infection groups. Their age and clinical variables were compared. The correlation between surgical incision, surgical site infection (SSI) and postoperative sepsis was analyzed. Prophylactic antibiotics were used for patients with type I and II incisions for less than 2 days. Patients with type III incisions were given antibiotics until the infection was controlled. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was prescribed preoperatively for patients whose preoperative CD4 count was <350 cells/μL. For those patients whose preoperative CD4 count was <200 cells/μL, sulfamethoxazole and fluconazole were given preoperatively as prophylactic agents controlling Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and fungal infection.
A total of 196 patients developed postoperative infectious complications, and 7 patients died. Preoperative CD4 counts, ratio of CD4/CD8 cells, hemoglobin level, and postoperative CD4 counts, hemoglobin and albumin levels were risk factors of perioperative infection in HIV-infected patients. Patients with a preoperative CD4 count <200 cell/μL, anemia, a postoperative CD4 count <200 cell/μL or albumin levels <35 g/L were correlated with a higher rate of perioperative infection. There was a significant correlation between SSI and the type of surgical incision. The rate of SSI in patients with type I surgical incision was 2% and in those with type II surgical incision was 38%. All the patients who received type III surgical incision developed SSI, and they were more likely to develop postoperative sepsis.
HIV-infected patients are more likely to develop postoperative infectious complications. The rational use of antibiotics in HIV-infected patients could help to reduce the rate of postoperative infectious complications in these patients.
PMCID: PMC4129878  PMID: 25215157
Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Perioperative period; Surgical site infection; Antibiotics
4.  Pre-operative hypoalbuminemia is a major risk factor for postoperative complications following rectal cancer surgery 
AIM: To determine the relationship between pre-operative hypoalbuminemia and the development of complications following rectal cancer surgery, as well as postoperative bowel function and hospital stay.
METHODS: The medical records of 244 patients undergoing elective oncological resection for rectal adenocarcinoma at Siriraj Hospital during 2003 and 2006 were reviewed. The patients had pre-operative serum albumin assessment. Albumin less than 35 g/L was recognized as hypoalbuminemia. Postoperative outcomes, including mortality, complications, time to first bowel movement, time to first defecation, time to resumption of normal diet and length of hospital stay, were analyzed.
RESULTS: The patients were 139 males (57%) and 105 females (43%) with mean age of 62 years. Fifty-six patients (23%) had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemic patients had a significantly larger tumor size and lower body mass index compared with non-hypoalbuminemic patients (5.5 vs 4.3 cm; P < 0.001 and 21.9 vs 23.2 kg/m2; P = 0.02, respectively). Thirty day postoperative mortality was 1.2%. Overall complication rate was 25%. Hypoalbuminemic patients had a significantly higher rate of postoperative complications (37.5% vs 21.3%; P = 0.014). In univariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia and ASA status were two risk factors for postoperative complications. In multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.17-4.23; P < 0.015). Hospitalization in hypoalbuminemic patients was significantly longer than that in non-hypoalbuminemic patients (13 vs 10 d, P = 0.034), but the parameters of postoperative bowel function were not significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Pre-operative hypoalbuminemia is an independent risk factor for postoperative complications following rectal cancer surgery.
PMCID: PMC2690674  PMID: 18300352
Hypoalbuminemia; Rectal cancer; Outcomes; Morbidity; Postoperative bowel function
5.  Prophylactic Perioperative Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury Following Open Heart Surgery: A Multicenter Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(4):e1001426.
In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, Anja Haase-Fielitz and colleagues find that an infusion of sodium bicarbonate during open heart surgery did not reduce the risk for acute kidney injury, compared with saline control.
Preliminary evidence suggests a nephroprotective effect of urinary alkalinization in patients at risk of acute kidney injury. In this study, we tested whether prophylactic bicarbonate-based infusion reduces the incidence of acute kidney injury and tubular damage in patients undergoing open heart surgery.
Methods and Findings
In a multicenter, double-blinded (patients, clinical and research personnel), randomized controlled trial we enrolled 350 adult patients undergoing open heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. At induction of anesthesia, patients received either 24 hours of intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (5.1 mmol/kg) or sodium chloride (5.1 mmol/kg). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing acute kidney injury. Secondary endpoints included the magnitude of acute tubular damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), initiation of acute renal replacement therapy, and mortality. The study was stopped early under recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee because interim analysis suggested likely lack of efficacy and possible harm. Groups were non-significantly different at baseline except that a greater proportion of patients in the sodium bicarbonate group (66/174 [38%]) presented with preoperative chronic kidney disease compared to control (44/176 [25%]; p = 0.009). Sodium bicarbonate increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 7.5, p<0.001). More patients receiving bicarbonate (83/174 [47.7%]) developed acute kidney injury compared with control patients (64/176 [36.4%], odds ratio [OR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.04–2.45]; unadjusted p = 0.032). After multivariable adjustment, a non-significant unfavorable group difference affecting patients receiving sodium bicarbonate was found for the primary endpoint (OR 1.45 [0.90–2.33], p = 0.120]). A greater postoperative increase in urinary NGAL in patients receiving bicarbonate infusion was observed compared to control patients (p = 0.011). The incidence of postoperative renal replacement therapy was similar but hospital mortality was increased in patients receiving sodium bicarbonate compared with control (11/174 [6.3%] versus 3/176 [1.7%], OR 3.89 [1.07–14.2], p = 0.031).
Urinary alkalinization using sodium bicarbonate infusion was not found to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury or attenuate tubular damage following open heart surgery; however, it was associated with a possible increase in mortality. On the basis of these findings we do not recommend the prophylactic use of sodium bicarbonate infusion to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury. Discontinuation of growing implementation of this therapy in this setting seems to be justified.
Trial registration NCT00672334
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Open heart surgery is a type of cardiac surgery that is used to treat patients with severe heart disease, where the patient's chest is cut open and surgery is performed on the internal structures of the heart. During open heart surgery, surgeons may use a technique called cardiopulmonary bypass to temporarily take over the function of the heart and lungs. This type of surgery may be used to prevent heart attack or heart failure in patients with conditions such as angina, atherosclerosis, congenital heart disease, or valvular heart disease. There are a number of complications associated with open heart surgery and one of these is the rapid loss of kidney function, known as acute kidney injury (AKI), and formerly known as acute renal failure. Symptoms of AKI can be variable, with diagnosis of AKI based on laboratory findings (such as elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), or clinical signs such as inability of the kidneys to produce sufficient amounts of urine. Globally, more than 10 million people are affected by AKI each year. AKI occurs in about one quarter of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with longer stays in the hospital and an increased risk of death. Treatment of AKI includes administration of intravenous fluids, diuretics, and, in severe cases, patients may require kidney dialysis.
Why Was This Study Done?
The mechanism for why AKI occurs during cardiac surgery is complex and thought to involve multiple factors relating to blood circulation, the immune system, and toxins released by the kidneys. In addition to treating AKI after it occurs, it is important to identify patients who are at risk for developing AKI prior to cardiac surgery and then apply techniques to prevent AKI during cardiac surgery. A number of interventions have been tested for preventing AKI during cardiac surgery, but there is currently no strong evidence for a standard way to prevent AKI. One intervention that has potential for preventing AKI is the administration of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery. Sodium bicarbonate causes alkalinization of the urine, and it is thought that this could reduce the effect of toxins in the kidneys. A previous pilot study showed promising effects for sodium bicarbonate to reduce the likelihood of AKI. In a follow-up to this pilot study, here the researchers have performed an international randomized controlled trial to test whether administration of sodium bicarbonate compared to sodium chloride (saline) during cardiac surgery can prevent AKI.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
350 patients undergoing open heart surgery with at least one risk factor for developing AKI were recruited across four sites in different countries (Germany, Canada, Ireland, and Australia). These patients were randomly assigned to receive either sodium bicarbonate (treatment) or saline control solution, given as a continuous infusion into the blood stream for 24 hours during surgery. Neither the researchers nor the patients were aware of which patients were assigned to the treatment group. The researchers measured the occurrence of AKI within the first 5 days after surgery and they found that a greater proportion of those patients receiving sodium bicarbonate developed AKI, as compared to those patients receiving saline control. On the basis of these findings the study was terminated before planned recruitment was completed. A key issue with this study is that a greater proportion of the patients in the sodium bicarbonate group had chronic kidney disease prior to open heart surgery. After adjusting for this difference in the statistical analysis, the researchers observed that the difference between the groups was not significant—that is, it could have happened by chance. The authors also observed that a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving sodium bicarbonate died in the hospital after surgery compared to patients receiving saline control.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that giving an infusion of sodium bicarbonate to induce alkalinization of the urine during open heart surgery is not a useful treatment for preventing AKI. Furthermore, this treatment may even increase the likelihood of death. The researchers do not recommend the use of sodium bicarbonate infusion to reduce the risk of AKI after open heart surgery and stress the need for discontinuation of this therapy. Key limitations of this research study are the early termination of the study and the greater proportion of patients with chronic kidney disease prior to surgery.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at
The Renal Association, a professional association for kidney doctors and researchers, provides information about acute kidney injury
The International Society for Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations provide information about preventing acute kidney injury around the world and jointly initiated World Kidney Day
MedlinePlus has information on open heart surgery
PMCID: PMC3627643  PMID: 23610561
6.  Risk factors of intra-abdominal bacterial infection after liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma 
To explore the risk factors of intra-abdominal bacterial infection (IAI) after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
A series of 82 HCC patients who received LT surgeries in our department between March 2004 and April 2010 was recruited in this study. Then we collected and analyzed the clinical data retrospectively. Statistical analysis system (SPSS) software was adopted to perform statistical analysis. Chi-square test, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyze the clinical data and compute the significance of the incidences of early-stage IAI after LT for HCC patients. Binary logistic regression was performed to screen out the risk factors, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to compute the independent risk factors.
A series of 13 patients (13/82, 15.9%) had postoperative IAI. The independent risk factors of postoperative intra-abdominal bacterial infections after LT for HCC patients were preoperative anemia [Hemoglobin (HGB) <90 g/L] and postoperative abdominal hemorrhage (72 hours >400 mL), with the odds ratios at 8.121 (95% CI, 1.417 to 46.550, P=0.019) and 5.911 (95% CI, 1.112 to 31.432, P=0.037).
Postoperative IAI after LT in patients with HCC was a common complication. Preoperative moderate to severe anemia, as well as postoperative intra-abdominal hemorrhage more than 400 mL within the first 72 hours might independently indicate high risk of IAI for these patients.
PMCID: PMC4076729  PMID: 25035658
Liver transplantation (LT); intra-abdominal bacterial infections (IAI); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
7.  Risk of Fecal Diversion in Complicated Perianal Crohn’s Disease 
The purpose of the study was to determine the overall risk of a permanent stoma in patients with complicated perianal Crohn’s disease, and to identify risk factors predicting stoma carriage. A total of 102 consecutive patients presented with the first manifestation of complicated perianal Crohn’s disease in our outpatient department between 1992 and 1995. Ninety-seven patients (95%) could be followed up at a median of 16 years after first diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. Patients were sent a standardized questionnaire and patient charts were reviewed with respect to the recurrence of perianal abscesses or fistulas and surgical treatment, including fecal diversion. Factors predictive of permanent stoma carriage were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Thirty of 97 patients (31%) with complicated perianal Crohn’s disease eventually required a permanent stoma. The median time from first diagnosis of Crohn’s disease to permanent fecal diversion was 8.5 years (range 0–23 years). Temporary fecal diversion became necessary in 51 of 97 patients (53%), but could be successfully removed in 24 of 51 patients (47%). Increased rates of permanent fecal diversion were observed in 54% of patients with complex perianal fistulas and in 54% of patients with rectovaginal fistulas, as well as in patients that had undergone subtotal colon resection (60%), left-sided colon resection (83%), or rectal resection (92%). An increased risk for permanent stoma carriage was identified by multivariate analysis for complex perianal fistulas (odds ratio [OR] 5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2–18), temporary fecal diversion (OR 8; 95% CI 2–35), fecal incontinence (OR 21, 95% CI 3–165), or rectal resection (OR 30; 95% CI 3–179). Local drainage, setons, and temporary stoma for deep and complicated fistulas in Crohn’s disease, followed by a rectal advancement flap, may result in closing of the stoma in 47% of the time. The risk of permanent fecal diversion was substantial in patients with complicated perianal Crohn’s disease, with patients requiring a colorectal resection or suffering from fecal incontinence carrying a particularly high risk for permanent fecal diversion. In contrast, patients with perianal Crohn’s disease who required surgery for small bowel disease or a segmental colon resection carried no risk of a permanent stoma.
PMCID: PMC1852374  PMID: 17436140
Fecal diversion; Crohn’s disease; Perianal abscesses; Fistulas
8.  Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery 
Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications.
A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011.
123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04).
Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery.
•Risk factors for anastomotic complications include malnutrition, radiation, and ischemia.•Transfusions have been associated with increased complications.•Hemoglobin level <11 gr/dl might be associated with increased risk of anastomotic leak.•Presence of diverting stoma does not affect the incidence of anastomotic leaks.
PMCID: PMC4323762
Leak; Stenosis; Low anterior resection; Rectal cancer
9.  Preoperative anemia increases mortality and postoperative morbidity after cardiac surgery 
Anemia is an established adverse risk factor in cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of preoperative anemia is not well defined in heart surgery. This study evaluates the effect of preoperative anemia on early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
A retrospective, observational, cohort study of prospectively collected data was undertaken on 7,738 consecutive patients undergoing heart surgery between April 2003 and February 2009. Of these, 1,856 patients with preoperative anemia were compared to 5,882 patients without anemia (control group). According to the World Health Organization, anemia was defined as hemoglobin level < 13 g/dl for men and <12 g/dl for women. Selection bias not controlled by multivariable methods was assessed with propensity-adjustment method.
Overall mortality was 2.1%. Preoperative anemia was associated with tripling in the risk of death (4.6% vs 1.5%, p < 0.0001) and postoperative renal dysfunction (18.5% vs 6.5%, p < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between the anemic and non-anemic group in the risk of postoperative stroke (1.9% vs 1.1%, p = 0.008), atrial fibrillation (36.7% vs 33%, p = 0.003) and length of hospital stay > 7 days (54% vs 36.7%, p < 0.0001). In propensity-adjusted, multivariable logistic regression, preoperative anemia was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.03), postoperative renal dysfunction (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.1) and length of hospital stay > 7 days (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.47).
In patients undergoing heart surgery, preoperative anemia is associated with an increased risk of mortality and postoperative morbidity.
PMCID: PMC4237817  PMID: 25096231
Anemia; Cardiac surgery; Outcome
10.  Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing an Ambulatory Hand Surgery 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(3):273-278.
Patients undergoing ambulatory surgery under general anesthesia experience considerable levels of postoperative nausea and vomiting (N/V) after their discharge. However, those complications have not been thoroughly investigated in hand surgery patients yet. We investigated factors associated with postoperative N/V in patients undergoing an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia and determined whether patients' satisfaction with this setting is associated with postoperative N/V levels.
We prospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory hand surgeries under general anesthesia to assess their postoperative N/V visual analogue scale (VAS) levels during the first 24 hours after surgery and their satisfaction with an ambulatory surgery setting. Potential predictors of postoperative N/V were; age, sex, body mass index, smoking behavior, a history of postoperative N/V after previous anesthesia or motion sickness, preoperative anxiety level and the duration time of anesthesia. We conducted multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with postoperative N/V levels. We also conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the N/V levels are associated with the patients' satisfaction with this setting. Here, potential predictors for satisfaction were sex, age, postoperative pain and N/V.
Postoperative N/V were associated with a non-smoking history, a history of motion sickness and a high level of preoperative anxiety. Twenty-two patients (11%) were dissatisfied with the ambulatory setting and this dissatisfaction was independently associated with moderate (VAS 4-7) and high (VAS 8-10) levels of postoperative N/V and with a high level (VAS 8-10) of postoperative pain.
Although most of the patients were satisfied with the ambulatory surgery setting, moderate to high levels of N/V were associated with dissatisfaction of patients with this setting, suggesting a need for better identifying and managing those patients at risk. The information regarding risk factors for N/V could help in preoperative patient consultation regarding an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC4143513  PMID: 25177451
Ambulatory hand surgery; Nausea; Vomiting; Satisfaction
11.  Early postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease given and not given preoperative total parenteral nutrition 
The effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the rate of early (within 30 days) postoperative complications in patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) was examined.
Material and methods
A series of 15 consecutive patients with CD (mean CD activity index score, 270) given preoperative TPN for 18–90 days (mean, 46 days) and undergoing bowel resection and primary anastomosis was compared with matching controls (105 patients) consecutively selected from all CD patients operated in Stockholm County during a preceding 20-year period without preoperative TPN.
During the preoperative TPN, all the patients studied displayed clinical remission of CD as reflected in improvement in their general well-being, relief of abdominal pain, and abatement of fever and diarrhea. There was no significant early postoperative complication in the TPN-treated group, whereas there were 29 patients with early postoperative complications in the control group, which means a significantly higher rate of postoperative complications when preoperative TPN was not provided. During the preoperative TPN, some crucial variables increased such as the body weight, the serum concentrations of albumin and triiodothyronine reflecting improved nutritional state, whereas the serum concentration of haptoglobin and the white cell count decreased reflecting decreased inflammatory activity.
This study shows that preoperative TPN for at least 18 days may be recommended to be given to patients with moderate to severe CD until clinical remission is achieved in order to minimize the risk of early postoperative complications.
PMCID: PMC3279139  PMID: 22242614
Crohn's disease; parenteral nutrition; postoperative complications
12.  Analysis of Risk Factors for Postoperative Morbidity in Perforated Peptic Ulcer 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(1):26-35.
Emergency operations for perforated peptic ulcer are associated with a high incidence of postoperative complications. While several studies have investigated the impact of perioperative risk factors and underlying diseases on the postoperative morbidity after abdominal surgery, only a few have analyzed their role in perforated peptic ulcer disease. The purpose of this study was to determine any possible associations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer.
Materials and Methods
In total, 142 consecutive patients, who underwent surgery for perforated peptic ulcer, at a single institution, between January 2005 and October 2010 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively.
The postoperative morbidity rate associated with perforated peptic ulcer operations was 36.6% (52/142). Univariate analysis revealed that a long operating time, the open surgical method, age (≥60), sex (female), high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and presence of preoperative shock were significant perioperative risk factors for postoperative morbidity. Significant comorbid risk factors included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and pulmonary disease. Multivariate analysis revealed a long operating time, the open surgical method, high ASA score and the presence of preoperative shock were all independent risk factors for the postoperative morbidity in perforated peptic ulcer.
A high ASA score, preoperative shock, open surgery and long operating time of more than 150 minutes are high risk factors for morbidity. However, there is no association between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease in patients with a perforated peptic ulcer.
PMCID: PMC3319796  PMID: 22500261
Peptic ulcer; Peptic ulcer perforation; Septic shock; Health status index
13.  Coronary Arteries Bypass Grafting Surgery in Elderly Patients 
The incidence of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in elderly patients has been increasing. There are contradictory reports on the early outcome of elderly coronary artery patients as compared with their young counterparts. We designed this retrospective study to address this issue.
We retrospectively analyzed the results of 1489 on–pump CABG cases performed at our hospital during a 4.5-year period. Perioperative data such as demographic, medical, clinical, operative, and postoperative variables were collected and compared between patients 70 years old or younger (Group A, n = 1164) and patients above 70 years of age (Group B, n = 325). Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test for the continuous and the X2 tests for the categorical variables. Significant variables according to the univariate analysis (X2 and t-test) were further analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The variables of weight (P value < 0.001), preoperative PO2 (P value = 0.005), ejection fraction > 30% (P value = 0.001), body surface area (P value = 0.003), and hypercholesterolemia (P value = 0.007) were higher in Group A, whereas preoperative myocardial infarction (P value < 0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (P value = 0.019), emergent surgery (P value = 0.003), inotropic drug use (P value < 0.001), preoperative heparin use (P value < 0.001), re-exploration for bleeding (P value = 0.015), hospital stay (P value < 0.001), low ejection fraction (≤ 30%) (P value = 0.001), preoperative creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl (P value < 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P value < 0.001), intra-aortic balloon pump use (P value < 0.001), infection (P value < 0.001), pulmonary complications (P value < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (P value < 0.001), postoperative renal complications (P value < 0.001), and death (P value = 0.012) were more frequent in Group B.
CABG in the elderly patients had certain surgical risks such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, preoperative myocardial infarction, emergent surgery, and death. Also, postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications, inotropic drug use, intra-aortic balloon pump use, and infection were more frequent in the elderly than in the younger patients.
PMCID: PMC3740113  PMID: 23967029
Coronary artery bypass; Aged; Treatment outcome
14.  Stairs Climbing Test with Pulse Oximetry as Predictor of Early Postoperative Complications in Functionally Impaired Patients with Lung Cancer and Elective Lung Surgery: Prospective Trial of Consecutive Series of Patients 
Croatian medical journal  2008;49(1):50-57.
To test the predictive value of stairs climbing test for the development of postoperative complications in lung cancer patients with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)<2 L, selected for an elective lung surgery.
The prospective study was conducted in 101 consecutive patients with an FEV1<2 L selected for elective lung surgery for lung cancer. Preoperative examination included medical history and physical examination, lung function testing, electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and chest radiography. All patients underwent stairs climbing with pulse oximetry before the operation with the number of steps climbed and the time to complete the test recorded. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate were measured every 20 steps. Data on postoperative complications including oxygen use, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and early postoperative mortality were collected.
Eighty-seven of 101 patients (86%) had at least one postoperative complication. The type of surgery was significantly associated with postoperative complications (25.5% patients with lobectomy had no early postoperative complications), while age, gender, smoking status, postoperative oxygenation, and artificial ventilation were not. There were more postoperative complications in more extensive and serious types of surgery (P<0.001). The stairs climbing test produced a significant decrease in oxygen saturation (-1%) and increase in pulse rate (by 10/min) for every 20 steps climbed. The stairs climbing test was predictive for postoperative complications only in lobectomy group, with the best predictive parameter being the quotient of oxygen saturation after 40 steps and test duration (positive likelihood ratio [LR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-3.38; negative LR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38-0.76). In patients with other types of surgery the only significant predictive parameter for incident severe postoperative complications was the number of days on artificial ventilation (P = 0.006).
Stairs climbing test should be done in routine clinical practice as a standard test for risk assessment and prediction of the development of postoperative complications in lung cancer patients selected for elective surgery (lobectomy). Comparative to spirometry, it detects serious disorders in oxygen transport that are a baseline for a later development of cardiopulmonary postoperative complications and mortality in this subgroup of patients.
PMCID: PMC2269232  PMID: 18293457
15.  Complications of Posterior Vertebral Resection for Spinal Deformity 
Asian Spine Journal  2012;6(4):257-265.
Study Design
Retrospective study.
To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of complications following posterior vertebral resection (PVR) for spinal deformity.
A review of 233 patients treated with PVR at one institution over a nine-year period (1997 to 2005) was performed. The average age was 33.5 years. Complications were assessed in terms of surgical techniques (posterior vertebral column resection [PVCR] and decancellation osteotomy) and etiologies of deformity.
Local kyphosis was corrected from 51.4° to 2.7°, thoracic scoliosis 63.9° to 24.5° (62.6% correction), and thoracolumbar or lumbar scoliosis 50.1° to 17.1° (67.6%). The overall incidence of complications was 40.3%. There was no significant difference between PVCR and decancellation osteotomy in the incidence of complications. There were more complications in the older patients (>35 years) than the younger (p < 0.05). Hig her than 3,000 ml of blood loss and 200 minutes of operation time increased the incidence of complications, with significant difference (p < 0.05). More than 5 levels of fusion significantly increased the total number of complications and postoperative neurologic deficit (p < 0.05). Most of the postoperative paraplegia cases had preoperative neurologic deficit. Preoperative kyphosis, especially in tuberculous sequela, had hig her incidences of complications and postoperative neurologic deficit (p < 0.05). More than 40° of kyphosis correction had the tendency to increase complications and postoperative neurologic deficit without statistical significance (p > 0.05). There was 1 mortality case by heart failure. Revision surgery was performed in 15 patients for metal failure or progressing curve.
The overall incidence of complications of PVR was 40.3%. Older age, abundant blood loss, preoperative kyphosis, and long fusion were risk factors for complications.
PMCID: PMC3530700  PMID: 23275809
Posterior vertebral resection; Posterior vertebral column resection; Decancellation osteotomy; Postoperative complications
16.  Risk Factors for the Development of Parastomal Hernia after Radical Cystectomy 
The Journal of urology  2013;191(6):1708-1713.
Parastomal hernia (PH) is a frequent complication from stoma formation after radical cystectomy (RC). We sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for developing PH following RC.
Material and Methods
Retrospective study of 433 consecutive patients who underwent open RC and ileal conduit between 2006-2010. Postoperative cross-sectional imaging studies performed for routine oncologic follow-up (n=1736) were evaluated for PH, defined as radiographic evidence of protrusion of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall defect created by forming the stoma. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to determine clinical and surgical factors associated with PH.
Complete data were available for 386 patients with radiographic PH occurring in 136. The risk of developing a PH was 27% (95% CI 22-33%) and 48% (95% CI 42-55%) at 1 and 2 years. Clinical diagnosis of PH was documented in 93 patients and 37 were symptomatic. Of 16 patients with clinical PH referred for repair, 8 had surgery. On multivariable analysis, female gender (HR=2.25, 95%CI 1.58-3.21; p<0.0001), higher BMI (HR=1.08 per unit increase 95%CI 1.05-1.12; p<0.0001), and lower preoperative albumin (HR=0.43 per g/dl, 95%CI 0.25-0.75; p=0.003) were significantly associated with PH.
The overall risk of radiographic evidence of PH approached 50% at 2 years. Female gender, higher BMI, and lower preoperative albumin were most associated with developing PH. Identifying those at greatest risk may allow for prospective surgical maneuvers at the time of initial surgery, such as placement of prophylactic mesh in selected patients, to prevent the occurrence of PH.
PMCID: PMC4156556  PMID: 24384155
parastomal hernia; risk factors; cystectomy
17.  Relationship Between Gender and In-Hospital Morbidity and Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in an Iranian Population 
Many previous studies have investigated the influence of gender on coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) outcomes. Despite the great volume of reports on this issue, it is still not clear whether it is the gender of the patient or pre-existing comorbid conditions that is the best predictor for the different outcomes seen between men and women. Multiple studies have shown that women are at higher risk of postoperative complications than men, particularly in the perioperative period.
The goal of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in preoperative variables between men and women, and to evaluate the effect of gender on short-term mortality and morbidity after CABG in an Iranian population.
Patients and Methods:
Data were collected prospectively from 690 consecutive patients (495 men and 195 women) who underwent isolated CABG. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables, major complications and death were compared between the male and female patients until hospital discharge using multivariate analysis.
Women were older (P = 0.020), had more diabetes (P = 0.0001), more obesity (P = 0.010), a higher New York Heart Association functional class (P = 0.030), and there was less use of arterial grafts (P = 0.016). Men had more tobacco smokers (P = 0.0001) and lower preoperative ejection fractions (EF) (P = 0.030). After surgery, women had a higher incidence of respiratory complications (P = 0.003), higher creatine kinase (CK) – MB levels (P = 0.0001), and higher inotropic support requirements (P = 0.030). They also had a higher incidence of decreased postoperative EF versus preoperative values (P = 0.020). The length of ICU stay, incidence of return to ICU and postoperative death, were similar between men and women. Nevertheless, after adjusting for age and diabetes, female gender was still independently associated with higher morbidity in patients over 50 years of age.
Women had more risk factors, comorbidities, and postoperative complications. Women older than 50 years of age were at a higher risk of postoperative complications than men. This difference decreased with younger age. In-hospital mortality rates were not influenced by sex, as there was no difference found between the two groups (2.5% women vs. 2.2% men; P > 0.05).
PMCID: PMC4253884  PMID: 25478483
18.  The Roles of Albumin Levels in Head and Neck Cancer Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Undergoing Tumor Ablation and Microsurgical Free Tissue Transfer 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52678.
To evaluate the changes of serum albumin levels during the peri-operative period, and correlate these changes to surgical outcomes, postoperative morbidity and mortality in head and neck cancer patients with cirrhosis.
57 patients with liver cirrhosis out of 3,022 patients who underwent immediate free flap reconstruction after surgical ablation of head and neck cancer performed over a 9-year period were included in the study. Two sets of groups were arranged based on the preoperative albumin (>3.5 g/dL vs. ≤ 3.5 g/dL) and POD1 albumin (>2.7 g/dL vs. ≤ 2.7 g/dL) levels and were compared with respect to patient-related variables, surgical outcomes, medical and surgical complications, and mortalities.
All patients had significant decreases in albumin levels postoperatively. Hypoalbuminemia, both preoperative and postoperative, was associated with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, the amount of blood loss, the duration of ICU stay and hospital stay, and postoperative medical and surgical complications. In particular, preoperative hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin ≤ 3.5 g/dL) was associated strongly with medical complications and mortality, while postoperative hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin ≤ 2.7 g/dL) with surgical complications.
Our study demonstrated the prognostic values of albumin levels in head and neck cancer patient with liver cirrhosis. The perioperative albumin levels can be utilized for risk stratification to potentially improve surgical and postoperative management of these challenging patients.
PMCID: PMC3532449  PMID: 23285146
19.  Postoperative intubation time is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgical patients 
Critical Care  2014;18(5):547.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for developing AKI in critically ill patients. Ventilation with high tidal volumes has been associated with postoperative organ dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients. No data are available about the effects of the duration of postoperative respiratory support in the immediate postoperative period on the incidence of AKI in patients after cardiac surgery.
We performed a secondary analysis of 584 elective cardiac surgical patients enrolled in an observational trial on the association between preoperative cerebral oxygen saturation and postoperative organ dysfunction and analyzed the incidence of AKI in patients with different times to extubation. The latter variable was graded in 4 h intervals (if below 16 h) or equal to or greater than 16 h. AKI was staged according to the AKI Network criteria.
Overall, 165 (28.3%) patients developed AKI (any stage), 43 (7.4%) patients needed renal replacement therapy. Patients developing AKI had a significantly (P <0.001) lower renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in the first 8 hours after surgery (57.4 mmHg (95% CI: 56.0 to 59.0 mmHg)) than patients with a postoperatively preserved renal function (60.5 mmHg ((95% CI: 59.9 to 61.4 mmHg). The rate of AKI increased from 17.0% in patients extubated within 4 h postoperatively to 62.3% in patients ventilated for more than 16 h (P <0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables significantly associated with AKI in the univariate analysis revealed that the time to the first extubation (OR: 1.024/hour, 95% CI: 1.011 to 1.044/hour; P <0.001) and RPP (OR: 0.963/mmHg; 95% CI: 0.934 to 0.992; P <0.001) were independently associated with AKI.
Without taking into account potentially unmeasured confounders, these findings are suggestive that the duration of postoperative positive pressure ventilation is an important and previously unrecognized risk factor for AKI in cardiac surgical patients, independent from low RPP as an established AKI trigger, and that even a moderate delay of extubation increases AKI risk. If replicated independently, these findings may have relevant implications for clinical care and for further studies aiming at the prevention of cardiac surgery associated AKI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0547-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4209080  PMID: 25277725
20.  High serum cortisol level is associated with increased risk of delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a prospective cohort study 
Critical Care  2010;14(6):R238.
The pathophysiology of postoperative delirium remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum cortisol level and occurrence of early postoperative delirium in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
A total of 243 patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were enrolled. Patients were examined twice daily during the first five postoperative days and postoperative delirium was diagnosed by using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m. on the first postoperative day and serum cortisol concentrations were then measured. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of postoperative delirium.
Postoperative delirium occurred in 50.6% (123 of 243) of patients. High serum cortisol level was significantly associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium (OR 3.091, 95% CI 1.763-5.418, P < 0.001). Other independent risk factors of postoperative delirium included increasing age (OR 1.111, 95% CI 1.065-1.159, P < 0.001), history of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.905, 95% CI 1.001-3.622, P = 0.049), prolonged duration of surgery (OR 1.360, 95% CI 1.010-1.831, P = 0.043), and occurrence of complications within the first day after surgery (OR 2.485, 95% CI 1.184-5.214, P = 0.016). Patients who developed postoperative delirium had a higher incidence of postoperative complications and a prolonged duration of postoperative ICU and hospital stay.
Delirium was a common complication after CABG surgery. High serum cortisol level was associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. Patients who developed delirium had outcomes worse than those who did not.
PMCID: PMC3219980  PMID: 21192800
21.  Superiority of moderate control of hyperglycemia to tight control in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting 
Although consensus in cardiac surgery supports tight control of perioperative hyperglycemia (glucose <120 mg/dL), recent studies in critical care suggest moderate glycemic control may be superior. We sought to determine whether tight control or moderate glycemic control is optimal after coronary artery bypass grafting.
From 1995 to 2008, a total of 4658 patients with known diabetes or perioperative hyperglycemia (preoperative glycosylated hemoglobin ≥8 or postoperative serum glucose >126 mg/dL) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution. Patients were stratified into 3 postoperative glycemic groups: tight (≤126 mg/dL), moderate (127–179 mg/dL), and liberal (≥180 mg/dL). Preoperative risk factors, glycemic management, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.
Operative mortality was 2.5%(119/4658); major complication rate was 12.5%(581/4658). Relative to moderate group, more patients in tight group had preoperative renal failure (tight 16.4%, 22/134, moderate 8.3%, 232/2785, P = .001) and underwent emergent operations (tight 5.2%, 7/134, moderate 1.9%, 52/2785, P = .007); however, Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted mortality risk was lower in tight group (P < .001). Moderate group had lowest mortality (tight 2.9%, 4/134, moderate 2.0%, 56/2785, liberal 3.4%, 59/1739, P = .02) and incidence of major complications (tight 19.4%, 26/134, moderate 11.1%, 308/2785, liberate 14.2%, 247/1739, P < .001). Risk-adjusted major complication incidence (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.87) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.83) were lower with moderate glucose control than with tight or liberal management.
Moderate glycemic control was superior to tight glycemic control, with decreased mortality and major complications, and may be ideal for patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.
PMCID: PMC3099050  PMID: 21163498
22.  Factors influencing postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease in childhood. 
Gut  1991;32(5):491-495.
We have reviewed the outcome of all patients undergoing their first intestinal resection for Crohn's disease at this hospital between 1970 and 1987. Recurrence rates, defined by recurrent intestinal symptoms and radiological confirmation of mucosal disease, were calculated using survival analysis. Age, sex, anatomical location of disease, indication for surgery, preoperative duration of symptomatic disease, use of preoperative bowel rest, and pathological features of the resected bowel were analysed individually and jointly as potential risk factors influencing postoperative recurrence of disease. Eighty two patients (age, mean (SD) 14.8 (2.5) years) underwent intestinal resection and were followed postoperatively for a minimum of one year (mean 5.3 (3.3) years). Anatomical location of disease, indication for surgery, and preoperative duration of symptomatic disease were the only factors that significantly influenced the duration of the recurrence free interval. Patients with diffuse ileocolonic inflammation experienced earlier recurrence (50% at one year) than children with predominantly small bowel disease (50% recurrence at five years, p less than 0.0001). Failure of medical therapy independent of disease location as the sole indication for surgery was associated with an earlier relapse than when surgery was performed for a specific intestinal complication such as abscess or obstruction (p less than 0.003). Patients undergoing resection within one year of onset of symptoms experienced delayed recrudescence of active disease (30% recurrence by eight years) compared with patients whose preoperative duration of symptomatic disease was longer (50% recurrence by four years when preoperative duration of disease was one to four years and 50% by three years when disease had been present greater than four years preoperatively, p = 0.03). The mean height velocity of patients with growth potential increased from 2.4 (2.3) cm per year preoperatively to 8.1 (3.4) cm per year in the first postoperative year (p=0.0001). These results support an early approach to surgery in the management of ileal Crohn's disease with or without caecal or right colonic involvement, especially when complicated by persistent growth failure. The higher recurrence rates in more diffuse ileocolonic disease emphasise the need for alternative treatment strategies in these children.
PMCID: PMC1378923  PMID: 2040470
23.  Applicability of the Clavien-Dindo classification to emergency surgical procedures: a retrospective cohort study on 444 consecutive patients 
Patients undergoing emergency surgery have a high risk for surgical complications and death. The Clavien-Dindo classification has been developed and validated in elective general surgical patients, but has not been validated in emergency surgical patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications in emergency surgical patients and to study preoperative factors for risk stratification that should be included into a database of surgical complications.
A cohort of 444 consecutive patients having emergency general surgery during a three-month period was retrospectively analyzed. Surgical complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Preoperative risk factors for complications were studied using logistic regression analysis.
Preoperatively 37 (8.3%) patients had organ dysfunctions. Emergency surgical patients required a new definition for Grade IV complications (organ dysfunctions). Only new onset organ dysfunctions or complications that significantly contributed to worsening of pre-operative organ dysfunctions were classified as grade IV complications. Postoperative complications developed in 115 (25.9%) patients, and 14 (3.2%) patients developed grade IV complication. Charlson comorbidity index, preoperative organ dysfunction and the type of surgery predicted postoperative complications.
The Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications can be used in emergency surgical patients but preoperative organ dysfunctions should be taken into account when defining postoperative grade IV complications. For risk stratification patients’ comorbidities, preoperative organ dysfunctions and the type of surgery should be taken into consideration.
PMCID: PMC4114794  PMID: 25075222
Emergency surgery; Surgical complications; Classification; Organ dysfunctions
24.  Health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery – the effects of age, preoperative conditions and postoperative complications 
Factors influencing the postoperative health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after cardiac surgery have not been well described yet, mainly in the older people. The study’s aim was to explore differences in clinical conditions and HRQOL of patients before and after cardiac surgery taking into account the influence of age and to describe factors influencing changes of HRQOL in the postoperative period.
This was a prospective consecutive observational study with two measurements using the SF-36 questionnaire before surgery and 1 year after surgery. It considered main clinical characteristics of participants prior to surgery as well as postoperative complications.
At baseline assessment the study considered 310 patients, predominantly male (69%). Mean age was 65 (SD 10.4) years and 101 patients (33%), who were older than 70, constituted the older group. This older group showed greater comorbidity, higher cardiac operative risk and lower HRQOL in the preoperative period as well as a higher prevalence of postoperative complications than the younger group. Thirty-day mortality was 1.4% in the younger group and 6.9% in the older group (p < 0.001). One year mortality was 3.3% in the younger group and 10.9% in the older group (p < 0.001). There was a significant improvement in all 8 health domains of the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.001) in the overall sample. There was no significant difference in change in a majority of HRQOL domains between the younger and the older group (p > 0.05). Logistic multivariate analysis identified a higher values of preoperative PCS (Physical component summary) scores (OR 1.03, CI 1.00 – 1.05, p = 0.0187) and MCS (Mental component summary) scores (OR 1.02, CI 0.997 – 1.00, p = 0.0846) as the only risk factors for potential non-improvement of HRQOL after cardiac surgery after correction for age, gender and type of surgery.
Older patients with higher operative risk have lower preoperative HRQOL but show a similar improvement in a majority of HRQOL domains after cardiac surgery as compared with younger patients. The multivariate analysis has shown the higher preoperative HRQOL status as a only significant factor of potential non-improvement of postoperative HRQOL.
PMCID: PMC3995816  PMID: 24618329
Health-related quality of life; Postoperative complications; Older patients; Cardiac surgery
25.  Surgical Treatment of a Parastomal Hernia 
Parastomal hernia is a major complication of an intestinal stoma. This study was performed to compare the results of various operative methods to treat parastomal hernias.
Results of surgical treatment for parastomal hernias (postoperative recurrence, complications and postoperative hospital stays) were surveyed in 39 patients over an 11-year period. The patients enrolled in this study underwent surgery by a single surgeon to exclude surgeon bias.
Seventeen patients were male, and twenty-two patients were female. The mean age was 65.9 years (range, 36 to 86 years). The stomas were 35 sigmoid-end-colostomies (90%), 2 loop-colostomies (5%), and 2 double-barrel-colostomies. Over half of the hernias developed within two years after initial formation. Stoma relocation was performed in 8 patients, suture repair in 14 patients and mesh repair in 17 patients. Seven patients had recurrence of the hernia, and ten patients suffered from complications. Postoperative complications and recurrence were more frequent in stoma relocation than in suture repair and mesh repair. Emergency operations were performed in four patients (10.3%) with higher incidence of complications but not with increased risk of recurrence. Excluding emergency operations, complications of relocations were not higher than those of mesh repairs. Postoperative hospital stays were shortest in mesh repair patients.
In this study, mesh repair showed low recurrence and a low complication rate with shorter hospital stay than relocation methods, though these differences were not statistically significant. Further studies, including randomized trials, are necessary if more reliable data on the surgical treatment of parastomal hernias are to be obtained.
PMCID: PMC3180597  PMID: 21980587
Parastomal hernia; Recurrence; Complication; Relocation; Mesh repair

Results 1-25 (971878)