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1.  Diagnosis and Management of Postoperative Ileal Pouch Disorders 
Although restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) or UC with dysplasia, surgical, inflammatory, and noninflammatory adverse sequelae are common. Pouchitis, representing a spectrum of disease phenotypes, is the most common long-term complication of IPAA. De novo Crohn disease (CD) of the pouch can occur in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of UC. Differential diagnosis between fibrostenotic or fistulizing CD and surgery-associated strictures, sinuses, and fistulas often requires a combined assessment of symptom, endoscopy, histology, radiography, and examination under anesthesia. There is a role for endoscopic therapy for stricturing complications of IPAA. Chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, refractory cuffitis, as well as fibrostenotic or fistulizing CD of the pouch are the leading late-onset causes for pouch failure.
PMCID: PMC3134805  PMID: 22131896
Complication; ileal pouch; inflammatory bowel disease; restorative proctocolectomy
2.  Multiphasic analysis of the temporal development of the distal gut microbiota in patients following ileal pouch anal anastomosis 
Microbiome  2013;1:9.
The indigenous gut microbiota are thought to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the abnormal inflammatory responses that are the hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease. Direct tests of the role of the gut microbiome in these disorders are typically limited by the fact that sampling of the microbiota generally occurs once disease has become manifest. This limitation could potentially be circumvented by studying patients who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for the definitive treatment of ulcerative colitis. A subset of patients who undergo IPAA develops an inflammatory condition known as pouchitis, which is thought to mirror the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Following the development of the microbiome of the pouch would allow characterization of the microbial community that predates the development of overt disease.
We monitored the development of the pouch microbiota in four patients who underwent IPAA. Mucosal and luminal samples were obtained prior to takedown of the diverting ileostomy and compared to samples obtained 2, 4 and 8 weeks after intestinal continuity had been restored. Through the combined analysis of 16S rRNA-encoding gene amplicons, targeted 16S amplification and microbial cultivation, we observed major changes in structure and function of the pouch microbiota following ileostomy. There is a relative increase in anaerobic microorganisms with the capacity for fermentation of complex carbohydrates, which corresponds to the physical stasis of intestinal contents in the ileal pouch. Compared to the microbiome structure encountered in the colonic mucosa of healthy individuals, the pouch microbial community in three of the four individuals was quite distinct. In the fourth patient, a community that was much like that seen in a healthy colon was established, and this patient also had the most benign clinical course of the four patients, without the development of pouchitis 2 years after IPAA.
The microbiota that inhabit the ileal-anal pouch of patients who undergo IPAA for treatment of ulcerative colitis demonstrate significant structural and functional changes related to the restoration of fecal flow. Our preliminary results suggest once the pouch has assumed the physiologic role previously played by the intact colon, the precise structure and function of the pouch microbiome, relative to a normal colonic microbiota, will determine if there is establishment of a stable, healthy mucosal environment or the reinitiation of the pathogenic cascade that results in intestinal inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3971607  PMID: 24451366
Pouchitis; Microbiome; Microbial ecology; Inflammatory bowel disease
3.  Clinical Outcomes After Restorative Proctocolectomy With Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Using Ultrasonically Activated Scalpel for Ulcerative Colitis 
International Surgery  2012;97(3):210-218.
We compared 3 different initial operative procedures performed in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent an ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure with a Harmonic Scalpel (HS). We selected 775 patients who underwent a restorative proctocolectomy with a mucosectomy using an HS and hand-sewn IPAA. Ninety-six patients underwent a total colectomy (3-stage procedure) as the initial operation, whereas 258 underwent IPAA without ileostomy (1-stage procedure) and 421 underwent IPAA with ileostomy (2-stage procedure). There were no significant differences regarding early pouch functional rate among the 3 groups. After 5 years with a functioning ileal pouch, the survival rates for the total colectomy, IPAA with ileostomy, and IPAA without ileostomy groups were 100%, 99.3%, and 99.0%, respectively. There was low operative mortality, and acceptable rates of early and late complications in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA using an HS.
PMCID: PMC3723225  PMID: 23113848
Ulcerative colitis; Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Mucosectomy; Ultrasonically activated scalpel
4.  Early postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis 
We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPC/IPAA) for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Also, we assessed the oncologic outcomes in FAP patients with coexisting malignancy.
From August 1999 to September 2010, 43 FAP patients with or without coexisting malignancy underwent TPC/IPAA by a laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
The median age was 33 years (range, 18 to 58 years) at the time of operation. IPAA was performed by a hand-sewn method in 21 patients (48.8%). The median operative time was 300 minutes (range, 135 to 610 minutes), which reached a plateau after 22 operations. Early postoperative complications within 30 days occurred in 7 patients (16.3%) and long-term morbidity occurred in 15 patients (34.9%) including 6 (14.0%) with desmoid tumors and 3 (7.0%) who required operative treatment. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were diagnosed with coexisting colorectal malignancy. The median follow-up was 58.5 months (range, 7.9 to 97.8 months). There was only 1 case of local recurrence in the pelvic cavity. No cases of adenocarcinoma at the residual rectal mucosa developed. 5-year disease-free survival rate for 22 patients who had coexisting malignancy was 86.5% and 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6%. Three patients died from pulmonary or hepatic metastasis.
Laparoscopic TPC/IPAA in patients with FAP is feasible and offers favorable postoperative outcomes. It also delivered acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with coexisting malignancy. Therefore, laparoscopic TPC/IPAA may be a favorable treatment option for FAP.
PMCID: PMC3491231  PMID: 23166888
Laparoscopic total proctocolectomy; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; Familial adenomatous polyposis
5.  Impact of anal manipulation and pouch design on ileal pouch function. 
The frequency of defecation, leakage, maximum resting pressure, and maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, maximum tolerated volume, and pouch compliance were evaluated in 116 consecutive patients following total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) and after temporary ileostomy closure. Sixty-nine patients had a double ileal loop pouch ("J") and 47 a triple ("S") design. Seventy patients had mucosal proctectomy and hand-sewn IPAA (mucosectomy) and 46 a stapled IPAA without mucosal proctectomy (stapled). Fifty percent of the S and 30% of the J pouch patients did not have nocturnal defecations. The avoidance of anal manipulation in the stapled group resulted in higher anal canal resting pressures and a lower incidence of leakage. The maximum tolerated volume and compliance was greater in the S pouch group than in the J group. Although the median frequency of defecation was equal in both pouch groups, fewer S pouch patients had nocturnal defecations. Anal canal resting tone may be the primary factor affecting continence following TPC and IPAA, but a compliant pouch may prevent leakage if sphincter function is compromised.
PMCID: PMC2571687  PMID: 1813639
6.  The role of antibiotics and probiotics in pouchitis 
Annals of Gastroenterology  2012;25(2):100-105.
Pouchitis is a non-specific inflammation of the ileal reservoir and the most common complication of proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with ulcerative colitis. Its frequency is related to the duration of the follow up, occurring in up to 50% of patients 10 years after IPAA in large series from major referral centers. Treatment of pouchitis is largely empirical and only small placebo-controlled trials have been conducted. The rationale for using probiotics and antibiotics in pouchitis is based on convincing evidence that implicates intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of this disease. Probiotics are living organisms, which, upon ingestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. VSL#3, a highly concentrated cocktail of probiotics has been shown to be effective in the prevention of pouchitis onset and relapses. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment of pouchitis, and metronidazole and ciprofloxacin are the most common initial approaches, often with a rapid response. The use of antibiotics in pouchitis is largely justified although proper controlled trials have not been conducted.
PMCID: PMC3959382
probiotics; antibiotics; pouchitis; IBD
7.  Reoperative Inflammatory Bowel Disease Surgery 
With the advent of restorative proctocolectomy or ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC), not only has there been potential for cure of UC but also patients have enjoyed marked improvements in bowel function, continence, and quality of life. However, IPAA can be complicated by postoperative small bowel obstruction, disease recurrence, and pouch failure secondary to pelvic sepsis, pouch dysfunction, mucosal inflammation, and neoplastic transformation. These may necessitate emergent or expeditious elective reoperation to salvage the pouch and preserve adequate function. Local, transanal, and transabdominal approaches to IPAA salvage are described, and their indications, outcomes, and the clinical parameters that affect the need for salvage are discussed. Pouch excision for failed salvage reoperation is reviewed as well. Relaparotomy is also frequently required for recurrent Crohn's disease (CD), especially given the nature of this as yet incurable illness. Risk factors for CD recurrence are examined, and the various surgical options and margins of resection are evaluated with a focus on bowel-sparing policy. Stricturoplasty, its outcomes, and its importance in recurrent disease are discussed, and segmental resection is compared with more extensive procedures such as total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. Lastly, laparoscopy is addressed with respect to its long-term outcomes, effect on surgical recurrence, and its application in the management of recurrent CD.
PMCID: PMC2780117  PMID: 20011321
Restorative proctocolectomy; pouch failure; salvage/reoperation; ulcerative colitis; recurrent Crohn's disease
8.  Clinical Aspects of Continent Ileostomies 
Continent ileostomy (Kock pouch) is an alternative to end ileostomy for patients who have undergone total proctocolectomy. The procedure reached the height of its popularity soon after its introduction in 1969, but subsequently was supplanted by ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), an operation that preserves the natural route of defecation. Continent ileostomy is still appropriate for selected patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis who are not candidates for IPAA or for whom IPAA or end ileostomy have failed. Complication rates that initially were high have decreased during the past three decades following the steady introduction of technical improvements.
PMCID: PMC2780079  PMID: 20011285
Continent ileostomy; Kock pouch; technique; review
9.  Differential expression of TLR2, TLR4 and JNK in mucosa of ileal pouches for ulcerative colitis. Is there a role for bacterial antigen pathway in asymptomatic patients? 
Introduction: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the preferred surgical procedure for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, pouchitis is the most common complication after IPAA in UC patients and only occurs after ileostomy closure. Therefore, it is important to get more information about the role of the ileal pouch microbiota and mucosa susceptibility to inflammation in UC patients. Therefore, we evaluated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression in normal endoscopic and histological mucosa of the ileal pouch in patients with UC and FAP, in order to find any abnormality in this pathway in asymptomatic patients, which may contribute to pouchitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (six with UC and six with FAP) with “J” pouch reconstruction, after total rectocolectomy, were studied. Biopsies were obtained from the mucosa of the pouch. Normal ileum biopsies were obtained from six patients submitted to ileocolonoscopy with no abnormalities. The specimens were snap-frozen and the expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and JNK (nuclear signalization factor) were determined by immunoblot protein extract. Results: Patients with UC had significantly higher protein levels of TLR4 than controls and FAP. The expressions of TLR2 and JNK were similar in the groups. Conclusion: Patients with UC had higher levels of TLR4, even in the absence of clinical, endoscopic and histological pouchitis. These findings may explain a tendency towards the up-regulation of intracellular pathways activated by bacterial antigens in UC patients, which could contribute to the production of proinflammatory mediators and pouchitis development.
PMCID: PMC3182509  PMID: 21977230
toll-like receptors; cytokines; ileal pouch; pouchitis; ulcerative colitis; familial adenomatous polyposis
10.  Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis 
Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis; these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2653377  PMID: 19230038
Anal transition zone; Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Restorative proctocolectomy; Ulcerative colitis
11.  Characterization of the Gut-Associated Microbiome in Inflammatory Pouch Complications Following Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e66934.
Inflammatory complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) are common and thought to arise through mechanisms similar to de novo onset inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific organisms in the tissue-associated microbiota are associated with inflammatory pouch complications.
Patients having previously undergone IPAA were recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital. Clinical and demographic information were collected and a pouchoscopy with biopsy of both the pouch and afferent limb was performed. Patients were classified based on post-surgical phenotype into four outcome groups: familial adenomatous polyposis controls (FAP), no pouchitis, pouchitis, and Crohn’s disease-like (CDL). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 hypervariable region, and quantitative PCR for bacteria of interest, were used to identify organisms present in the afferent limb and pouch. Associations with outcomes were evaluated using exact and non-parametric tests of significance.
Analysis at the phylum level indicated that Bacteroidetes were detected significantly less frequently (P<0.0001) in the inflammatory outcome groups (pouchitis and CDL) compared to both FAP and no pouchitis. Conversely, Proteobacteria were detected more frequently in the inflammatory groups (P=0.01). At the genus level, organisms associated with outcome were detected less frequently among the inflammatory groups compared to those without inflammation. Several of these organisms, including Bacteroides (P<0.0001), Parabacteroides (P≤2.2x10-3), Blautia (P≤3.0x10-3) and Sutterella (P≤2.5x10-3), were associated with outcome in both the pouch and afferent limb. These associations remained significant even following adjustment for antibiotic use, smoking, country of birth and gender. Individuals with quiescent disease receiving antibiotic therapy displayed similar reductions in these organisms as those with active pouch inflammation.
Specific genera are associated with inflammation of the ileal pouch, with a reduction of typically ubiquitous organisms characterizing the inflammatory phenotypes.
PMCID: PMC3782502  PMID: 24086242
12.  Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic “Salvage” Rectopexy for Recurrent Ileoanal J-Pouch Prolapse 
Total restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP/IPAA) has become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Despite its correlation with an excellent quality of life and favorable long-term outcomes, RP/IPAA has been associated with several complications. Prolapse of the ileoanal pouch is a rare and debilitating complication that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pouch failure. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence and treatment of pouch prolapse. We present the case of a recurrent J-pouch prolapse treated with a novel minimally invasive “salvage” approach involving a robotic-assisted laparoscopic rectopexy with mesh.
PMCID: PMC2855981  PMID: 20414343
13.  Small Bowel Obstruction Following Restorative Proctocolectomy: Affected by a Laparoscopic Approach? 
The Journal of Surgical Research  2011;170(2):202-208.
Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for chronic ulcerative colitis. More recently, this procedure is being performed laparoscopically assisted. Postoperatively, small bowel obstruction (SBO) is one of the more common associated complications. However, it is unknown whether the addition of a laparoscopic approach has changed this risk. This study aims to assess and compare the incidence of SBOs after both open and laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy.
All subjects who underwent restorative proctocolectomy from 1998–2008 were identified from a prospective Colorectal Surgery Database. Medical records were reviewed for all cases of SBO, confirmed by a combination of clinical symptoms and radiologic evidence. Comparisons were made between laparoscopic and open approaches. The incidence of SBO was also subdivided into pre-ileostomy takedown, early post-ileostomy takedown (30 d post), and late post-ileostomy takedown (30 d to 1 y post). Several potential risk factors were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed utilizing Fisher’s exact (for incidence) or t-tests (for means). Significance was defined as P < 0.05
A total of 290 open cases and 100 laparoscopic cases were identified during this time period. The overall incidence of SBO at 1 y post-ileostomy takedown was 14% (n = 42) in the open group and 16% (n = 16) laparoscopic (P = NS). In the pre-ileostomy takedown period the incidence of SBO was 7% (n = 21) open and 13% (n = 13) laparoscopic (P = NS). While in the post-takedown period, the early incidence was 4% (n = 12) open and 1% (n = 1) laparoscopic and late incidence was 3% (n = 9) open and 2% (n = 2) laparoscopic (P = NS). Factors associated with an increased risk of SBO include coronary artery disease, prior appendectomy and W and J pouch configurations.
The burden of postoperative small bowel obstruction after restorative proctocolectomy is not changed with a laparoscopic approach. Most cases occur in the early postoperative period, especially prior to ileostomy reversal.
PMCID: PMC3326606  PMID: 21474147
proctocolectomy; IPAA; ileal pouch; small bowel obstruction
14.  Detection of epithelial apoptosis in pelvic ileal pouches for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis 
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) with many rectal polyps. Pouchitis is one of the more frequent complications after IPAA in UC patients; however, it is rare in FAP.
Evaluate pro-apoptotic activity in endoscopically and histological normal mucosa of the ileal pouch in patients with UC and FAP.
Eighteen patients (nine with UC and nine with FAP) with J pouch after total rectocolectomy were studied. Biopsies were obtained from the mucosa of the pouch and from normal ileum. The specimens were snap-frozen and the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by immunoblot of protein extracts and by immunohistochemistry analysis. FADD, Caspase-8, APAF-1 and Caspase-9 were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot.
Patients with UC had significantly higher protein levels of Bax and APAF-1, Caspase-9 than patients with FAP, but were similar to controls. The expressions of Bcl-2 and FADD, Caspase-8 were similar in the groups. Immunohistochemistry for Bax showed less intensity of immunoreactions in FAP than in UC and Controls. Bcl-2 immunostaining was similar among the groups.
Patients with FAP present lower levels of pro-apoptotic proteins in all methods applied, even in the absence of clinical and endoscopic pouchitis and dysplasia in the histological analysis. These findings may explain a tendency of up-regulation of apoptosis in UC patients, resulting in higher rates of progression to pouchitis in these patients, which could correlate with mucosal atrophy that occurs in inflamed tissue. However, FAP patients had low pro-apoptotic activity in the mucosa, and it could explain the tendency to low cell turn over and presence of adenomas in this syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2843649  PMID: 20113505
15.  Diagnosis and Treatment of Pouchitis 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology  2008;4(5):355-361.
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following total proctocolectomy has become part of the standard surgical treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis who require colectomy. Although this surgery has improved patient quality of life and significantly reduced the risk of dysplasia or neoplasia in ulcerative colitis patients, complications are common. Pouchitis is the most common long-term complication of ileal pouch surgery and has a significant adverse impact on patient quality of life. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pouchitis are not straightforward, and the management of pouchitis, particularly chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, which is one of the leading causes of pouch failures, can be challenging.
PMCID: PMC3093723  PMID: 21904509
Ileal pouch; inflammatory bowel disease; restorative proctocolectomy
16.  Primary ileo-anal pouch anastomosis in patients with acute ulcerative colitis 
Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) was performed in ulcerative colitis (UC) for emergent or urgent indications in three stages. Since the three-step procedure imposes enormous demands on a patient, there was an attempt to introduce primary IPAA for urgent indications. The aim of this study was to compare early complications after Hartmann's colectomy (HC) and IPAA in a selected group of patients.
Material and methods
Medical records of 274 patients who underwent surgery for UC between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Finally, a group of 77 patients with acute form of UC entered this study.
All patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 (42%) patients who underwent HC, whereas group 2 comprised 45 (58%) patients after IPAA. There was no postoperative mortality. Respiratory failure occurred in 8 (24%) patients after HC and in 6 (14%) patients who underwent IPAA. Intra-abdominal sepsis developed in 4 (12%) patients after HC and in 8 (17%) undergoing IPAA. Fascia dehiscence was present in 3 (8%) patients after HC and in 4 (9%) with IPAA. Bowel obstruction occurred in 1 (4%) patient after the former operation and in 3 (6%) patients after the latter one. Wound infection was diagnosed in 6 (20%) patients after HC and in 9 (20%) after IPAA. The differences between the investigated groups of patients were not statistically significant.
The IPAA could be performed for urgent indications only in the patients with no critical dilatation of the colon or with active UC but without signs of severe malnutrition.
PMCID: PMC3648821  PMID: 23671439
acute ulcerative colitis; urgent indications for surgery; Hartmann's colectomy; restorative proctocolectomy; early complications
17.  Ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy-the experience in China 
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and long-term functional outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy.
METHODS: From January 2002 to March 2011, fourty-five patients underwent ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique and the clinical data obtained for these patients were reviewed.
RESULTS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 29) and familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 16) underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy. Twenty-eight patients underwent one-stage restorative proctocolectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, protective ileostomy and the ileostomy was closed 4-12 mo postoperatively. Two-stage procedures were performed in seventeen urgent patients, proctectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis were completed after previous colectomy with ileostomy. Morbidity within the first 30 d of surgery occurred in 10 (22.2%) patients, all of them could be treated conservatively. During the median follow-up of 65 mo, mild to moderate anastomotic narrowing was occurred in 4 patients, one patient developed persistent anastomotic stricture and need surgical intervention. Thirty-five percent of patients developed at least 1 episode of pouchitis. There was no incontinence in our patients, the median functional Oresland score was 6, 3 and 2 after 1 year, 2.5 years and 5 years respectively. Nearly half patients (44.4%) reported “moderate functioning”, 37.7% reported “good functioning”, whereas in 17.7% of patients “poor functioning” was observed after 1 year. Five years later, 79.2% of patients with good function, 16.7% with moderate function, only 4.2% of patients with poor function.
CONCLUSION: The results of ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique are promising, with a low complication rate and good long-term functional results.
PMCID: PMC3587488  PMID: 23483639
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Stapled mucosectomy; Ulcerative colitis; Familial adenomatous polyposis; Surgical technique
18.  Effect of anorectal eversion on long-term clinical outcome of restorative proctocolectomy. 
Eversion of the rectum during restorative proctocolectomy with stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains a controversial surgical manoeuvre because of concern that it may impair anal sphincter function and adversely affect outcome. We have reviewed the long-term results in 41 patients whose operation included formation of a 20 cm J-pouch with stapled IPAA by the technique of rectal eversion. At median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-6 years), 4 pouches (10%) had been removed (2 for pelvic sepsis, 1 for rectovaginal fistula and 1 for Crohn's disease). In 34 patients with functioning pouches in situ, median stool frequency was 5 per 24 h (range 2-10). 11 patients (33%) regularly had to evacuate their pouch at night and 4 (12%) used antidiarrhoeal medication. No patients reported major incontinence; 2 (6%) had minor leakage, and in another 2 minor leakage had now ceased. 4 patients had had episodes of pouchitis. These favourable results offer no support for the contention that rectal eversion substantially worsens the long-term results of restorative proctocolectomy.
PMCID: PMC1296381  PMID: 9290418
19.  Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in sera from colectomised ulcerative colitis patients and its relation to the presence of pouchitis. 
Gut  1996;38(6):894-898.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the influence of colectomy on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity in ulcerative colitis (UC). In small series of patients it has been suggested that ANCA positivity in UC might be predictive for development of pouchitis after colectomy. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of ANCA in UC patients treated by colectomy and a Brooke's ileostomy (UC-BI) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (UC-IPAA), and the relation between the presence of ANCA, the type of surgery, and the presence of pouchitis. SUBJECTS: 63 UC patients treated by colectomy (32 with UC-BI and 31 with UC-IPAA), 54 UC, and 24 controls. METHODS: Samples were obtained at least two years after colectomy. ANCA were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients with (36.3%) or without pouchitis (35.0%) and between patients with UC (55%), UC-BI (40.6%), and UC-IPAA (35.4%). However, ANCA prevalence significantly decreases in the whole group of operated patients (38.0%) compared with non-operated UC (p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ANCA in operated patients was significantly lower than in non-operated UC, suggesting that it might be related either to the presence of inflamed or diseased tissue. ANCA persistence is not related to the surgical procedure and it should not be used as a marker for predicting the development of pouchitis.
PMCID: PMC1383198  PMID: 8984029
20.  Complications and functional outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in the elderly 
BMC Surgery  2013;13(Suppl 2):S9.
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for intractable or complicated ulcerative colitis (UC). Debate exists concerning outcomes of IPAA in the elderly and literature data are scarce. We report our experience of IPAA in older population.
We gathered data on a prospective database of patients undergoing IPAA for UC over 70 years of age in our Unit from January 1990 through January 2010. Patients were compared with randomly selected younger controls on a 1:3 ratio. Patients underwent IPAA in 2 or 3 stages. Demographical data, disease characteristics, comorbidities, concomitant medications, peri-operative management, intra- and post-operative complications were analyzed. Function and quality of life were assessed by clinical visit and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire 1 and 3 years after ileostomy takedown.
Twenty-seven elderly patients underwent IPAA for UC in the study period; these were compared with 81 younger controls. The former had more comorbidities and higher ASA score. All patients underwent loop-ileostomy closure. There were no differences between groups concerning the rate of major complications, but elderly patients more frequently had nuisances due to stoma output. Younger patients experienced significantly more episodes of small bowel obstruction. No significant differences in bowel control and health-related quality of life was observed, except for an higher rate of elderly patients taking antidiarrhoeals at 1-year follow-up; this observation was not confirmed at 3-year follow-up. A minimal decrease in continence was observed, but this did not affect overall satisfaction.
IPAA can be safely offered to selected elderly UC patients who are strongly motivated and with no clinical disturbances of continence. In experienced hands no differences are likely to be expected concerning complications, quality of life and function. Results are stable with time and comparable to those of younger patients.
PMCID: PMC3851043  PMID: 24267006
Ileopouch-anal anastomosis; IPAA; ulcerative colitis; elderly patients; restorative proctocolectomy; quality of life
21.  Adverse Metabolic Sequelae Following Restorative Proctocolectomy with an Ileal Pouch 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology  2012;8(5):322-326.
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) following total proctocolectomy has become the surgical treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis patients who have medically refractory disease or neoplasia. Unfortunately, various metabolic complications have been reported with this surgical procedure, including anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, bile salt and fat malabsorption, vitamin D deficiency, bone loss, and nephrolithiasis. Recognition and early diagnosis of these complications are important when managing IPAA patients.
PMCID: PMC3424428  PMID: 22933864
Inflammatory bowel disease; ileal pouch—anal anastomosis; metabolic consequences; anemia; vitamin B12 deficiency; vitamin D deficiency
22.  Family History of Crohn’s Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk for Crohn’s Disease of the Pouch 
Inflammatory bowel diseases  2009;15(2):163-170.
Crohn’s disease (CD) of the pouch can occur in patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis originally performed for a pre-operative diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC). CD of the pouch was often observed in patients with a family history of CD.
To determine whether the family history of CD increased the risk for CD of the pouch in patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy.
A total of 558 eligible patients seen in the Pouchitis Clinic were enrolled, including 116 patients with CD of the pouch and 442 patients with a normal pouch or other pouch disorders. Demographic and clinical variables were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
The adjusted multivariable logistic analyses revealed that the risk for CD of the pouch was increased in patients with a family history of CD with odds ratio (OR) of 3.22 (95%CI 1.56–6.67), or with a first-degree relative with CD (OR=4.18, 95%CI 1.48–11.8), or with a greater number of family members with CD (OR=2.00 per family member, 95% CI 1.19–3.37), adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, duration of IBD, duration of having a pouch, and a pre-op diagnosis of indeterminate colitis or CD. In addition, patients with a younger age and longer duration of having a pouch had a higher risk for CD of the pouch. A diagnosis of CD of the pouch was associated with a poor outcome with a greater than 5-fold estimated increased odds of pouch failure (OR=5.58 and 95% CI, 2.74 – 11.4).
The presence of a family history of CD is associated with an increased risk for CD of the pouch, which in turn has a high risk for pouch failure.
PMCID: PMC2909753  PMID: 18798573
Crohn’s disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Family History; Ileal Pouch; Pouchitis; Restorative Proctocolectomy; Ulcerative Colitis
23.  Technical Aspects of Ileoanal Pouch Surgery in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis 
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis requiring surgery. A J-pouch with a stapled anastomosis has been the preferred technique because it is quicker, safer, and associated with good functional outcomes. A diverting loop ileostomy is usually created at the time of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. In patients with severe fulminant colitis or toxic megacolon, restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is performed in multistages. The technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis are reviewed in this article.
PMCID: PMC3134803  PMID: 22131894
Proctocolectomy; ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; ulcerative colitis; ileostomy; repeat pouch surgery
24.  High level perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) in ulcerative colitis patients before colectomy predicts the development of chronic pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis 
Gut  2001;49(5):671-677.
BACKGROUND—The reported cumulative risk of developing pouchitis in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) approaches 50% after 10 years. To date, no preoperative serological predictor of pouchitis has been found.
AIMS—To assess whether preoperative perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) expression was associated with acute and/or chronic pouchitis after IPAA.
METHODS—Patients were prospectively assessed for the development of clinically and endoscopically proved pouchitis. Serum obtained at the time of colectomy in 95 UC patients undergoing IPAA was analysed for pANCA by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. pANCA+ patients were stratified into high level (>100 ELISA units (EU)/ml) (n=9), moderate level (40-100 EU/ml) (n=32), and low level (<40 EU/ml) (n=19) subgroups.
RESULTS—Sixty of the 95 patients (63%) expressed pANCA. After a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-89), 32 patients (34%) developed either acute (n=14) or chronic (n=18) pouchitis. Pouchitis was seen in 42% of pANCA+ patients compared with 20% of pANCA− patients (p=0.09). There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute pouchitis between the three pANCA+ patient subgroups. The cumulative risk of developing chronic pouchitis among patients with high level pANCA (56%) before colectomy was significantly higher than in patients with medium level (22%), low level (16%), and those who were pANCA− (20%) (p=0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that the sole parameter significantly associated with the development of chronic pouchitis after IPAA was the presence of high level pANCA before colectomy (p=0.005).
CONCLUSION—High level pANCA before colectomy is significantly associated with the development of chronic pouchitis after IPAA.

Keywords: pouchitis; perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; ileal pouch-anal anastomosis
PMCID: PMC1728523  PMID: 11600470
25.  Pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis occurs with increased frequency in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis. 
Gut  1996;38(2):234-239.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), present in 5% of patients with ulcerative colitis, may be associated with pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The cumulative frequency of pouchitis in patients with and without PSC who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis was determined. A total of 1097 patients who had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis, 54 with associated PSC, were studied. Pouchitis was defined by clinical criteria in all patients and by clinical, endoscopic, and histological criteria in 83% of PSC patients and 85% of their matched controls. PSC was defined by clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. One or more episodes of pouchitis occurred in 32% of patients without PSC and 63% of patients with PSC. The cumulative risk of pouchitis at one, two, five, and 10 years after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was 15.5%, 22.5%, 36%, and 45.5% for the patients without PSC and 22%, 43%, 61%, and 79% for the patients with PSC. In the PSC group, the risk of pouchitis was not related to the severity of liver disease. In conclusion, the strong correlation between PSC and pouchitis suggest a common link in their pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC1383029  PMID: 8801203

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