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1.  Complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis 
AIM: To investigate the outcomes of treatments for complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis.
METHODS: Between March 1998 and February 2013, 72 patients (28 male and 44 female, median age 43.0 years ± 14.0 years) underwent total proctocolectomy with IPAA. The study cohort was registered prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, medical management histories, operative findings, pathology reports and postoperative clinical courses, including early postoperative and late complications and their treatments, were reviewed from a medical record system. All of the ileal pouches were J-pouch and were performed with either the double-stapling technique (n = 69) or a hand-sewn (n = 3) technique.
RESULTS: Thirty-one (43.1%) patients had early complications, with 12 (16.7%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Pouch bleeding, pelvic abscesses and anastomosis ruptures were managed conservatively. Patients with pelvic abscesses were treated with surgical drainage. Twenty-seven (38.0%) patients had late complications during the follow-up period (82.5 ± 50.8 mo), with 21 (29.6%) patients with complications related to the pouch. Treatment for pouchitis included antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs. Pouch-vaginal fistulas, perianal abscesses or fistulas and anastomosis strictures were treated surgically. Pouch failure developed in two patients (2.8%). Analyses showed that an emergency operation was a significant risk factor for early pouch-related complications compared to elective procedures (55.6% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05). Pouchitis was related to early (35.3%) and the other late pouch-related complications (41.2%) (P < 0.05). The complications did not have an effect on pouch failure nor pouch function.
CONCLUSION: The complications following IPAA can be treated successfully. Favorable long-term outcomes were achieved with a lower pouch failure rate than reported in Western patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i23.7488
PMCID: PMC4064095  PMID: 24966620
Ulcerative colitis; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; Complications; Pouch failure; Pouch function
2.  Postoperative Outcome of Colectomy for Pediatric Patients With Ulcerative Colitis 
Background
Few studies have reported on the surgical outcomes of colectomy in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).
Patients and Methods
We conducted a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients diagnosed with UC who underwent colectomy at UCSF between 1980 and 2005 to identify early (within 30 days) and later complications of surgery.
Results
Complete medical records were available for 31 patients [12.4 ± 3.3 (range 6–19) years] with UC who underwent colectomy at UCSF Children’s Hospital. Total colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) was performed in 21 of the 31 patients (12 without diverting ileostomy). Five of the 31 patients had an initial colectomy with IPAA and J-pouch performed later; 4 had an initial subtotal colectomy for urgent indications. Only one of 31 had IPAA with S-pouch. The median number of early postoperative complications was 1.0; 4 required additional surgery to treat complications. The most common early complications were small intestinal obstruction in 6 (19%) and wound infection in 4 (13%). Preoperative medications included corticosteroids in 25 (81%), 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine in 10 (32%), and 5-aminosalicylates in 19 (61%). Medication exposure was not related to postoperative complications. Late complications included pouchitis in 12 (39%), anastomotic, anal, or rectal strictures in 5 (16%), and fistulas in 5 (16%); 1 (3%) was subsequently diagnosed as having Crohn disease.
Conclusions
Postcolectomy morbidity is common among pediatric patients with UC. Preoperative medications were not associated with postoperative complications. Investigations to determine preoperative factors affecting surgical outcomes and long-term satisfaction following this surgery in a large pediatric cohort are needed.
doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181c99290
PMCID: PMC3119923  PMID: 20410838
adolescents; children; complications; corticosteroids; inflammatory bowel disease; pouchitis; prednisone; surgery
3.  Multiphasic analysis of the temporal development of the distal gut microbiota in patients following ileal pouch anal anastomosis 
Microbiome  2013;1:9.
Background
The indigenous gut microbiota are thought to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the abnormal inflammatory responses that are the hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease. Direct tests of the role of the gut microbiome in these disorders are typically limited by the fact that sampling of the microbiota generally occurs once disease has become manifest. This limitation could potentially be circumvented by studying patients who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for the definitive treatment of ulcerative colitis. A subset of patients who undergo IPAA develops an inflammatory condition known as pouchitis, which is thought to mirror the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Following the development of the microbiome of the pouch would allow characterization of the microbial community that predates the development of overt disease.
Results
We monitored the development of the pouch microbiota in four patients who underwent IPAA. Mucosal and luminal samples were obtained prior to takedown of the diverting ileostomy and compared to samples obtained 2, 4 and 8 weeks after intestinal continuity had been restored. Through the combined analysis of 16S rRNA-encoding gene amplicons, targeted 16S amplification and microbial cultivation, we observed major changes in structure and function of the pouch microbiota following ileostomy. There is a relative increase in anaerobic microorganisms with the capacity for fermentation of complex carbohydrates, which corresponds to the physical stasis of intestinal contents in the ileal pouch. Compared to the microbiome structure encountered in the colonic mucosa of healthy individuals, the pouch microbial community in three of the four individuals was quite distinct. In the fourth patient, a community that was much like that seen in a healthy colon was established, and this patient also had the most benign clinical course of the four patients, without the development of pouchitis 2 years after IPAA.
Conclusions
The microbiota that inhabit the ileal-anal pouch of patients who undergo IPAA for treatment of ulcerative colitis demonstrate significant structural and functional changes related to the restoration of fecal flow. Our preliminary results suggest once the pouch has assumed the physiologic role previously played by the intact colon, the precise structure and function of the pouch microbiome, relative to a normal colonic microbiota, will determine if there is establishment of a stable, healthy mucosal environment or the reinitiation of the pathogenic cascade that results in intestinal inflammation.
doi:10.1186/2049-2618-1-9
PMCID: PMC3971607  PMID: 24451366
Pouchitis; Microbiome; Microbial ecology; Inflammatory bowel disease
4.  Clinical Outcomes After Restorative Proctocolectomy With Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis Using Ultrasonically Activated Scalpel for Ulcerative Colitis 
International Surgery  2012;97(3):210-218.
We compared 3 different initial operative procedures performed in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent an ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure with a Harmonic Scalpel (HS). We selected 775 patients who underwent a restorative proctocolectomy with a mucosectomy using an HS and hand-sewn IPAA. Ninety-six patients underwent a total colectomy (3-stage procedure) as the initial operation, whereas 258 underwent IPAA without ileostomy (1-stage procedure) and 421 underwent IPAA with ileostomy (2-stage procedure). There were no significant differences regarding early pouch functional rate among the 3 groups. After 5 years with a functioning ileal pouch, the survival rates for the total colectomy, IPAA with ileostomy, and IPAA without ileostomy groups were 100%, 99.3%, and 99.0%, respectively. There was low operative mortality, and acceptable rates of early and late complications in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA using an HS.
doi:10.9738/CC60.1
PMCID: PMC3723225  PMID: 23113848
Ulcerative colitis; Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Mucosectomy; Ultrasonically activated scalpel
5.  Diagnosis and Management of Postoperative Ileal Pouch Disorders 
Although restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) or UC with dysplasia, surgical, inflammatory, and noninflammatory adverse sequelae are common. Pouchitis, representing a spectrum of disease phenotypes, is the most common long-term complication of IPAA. De novo Crohn disease (CD) of the pouch can occur in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of UC. Differential diagnosis between fibrostenotic or fistulizing CD and surgery-associated strictures, sinuses, and fistulas often requires a combined assessment of symptom, endoscopy, histology, radiography, and examination under anesthesia. There is a role for endoscopic therapy for stricturing complications of IPAA. Chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis, refractory cuffitis, as well as fibrostenotic or fistulizing CD of the pouch are the leading late-onset causes for pouch failure.
doi:10.1055/s-0030-1268252
PMCID: PMC3134805  PMID: 22131896
Complication; ileal pouch; inflammatory bowel disease; restorative proctocolectomy
6.  Functional Outcomes and Quality of Life after Restorative Proctocolectomy in Paediatric Patients: A Case-Control Study 
Background. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) has some peculiarities in paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Aims. The primary aim was to compare the bowel function of patients undergoing IPAA between those operated on in childhood and adulthood. The secondary aim was to compare the quality of life (QoL) and outcomes for children between medical and surgical therapies. Method. Children undergoing IPAA were compared with adult patients undergoing IPAA between 2007 and 2012. Function was assessed 1 year after ileostomy closure. Function and QoL of medically managed paediatric patients were compared with their surgical counterparts. Results. Twelve paediatric IPAA patients were compared with 24 adult ones. Acute presentation was common in the former, usually after failed biological treatment. Recurrent pouchitis was more frequent in children. Younger patients exhibited a trend toward better discrimination and continence. QoL was excellent in both groups. Twelve medically treated children were enrolled for secondary aim. Functioning was similar in IPAA- and medically managed children, but the former had a better QoL, confirmed by parents' perception. Conclusions. Similar function is achieved by IPAA in childhood or adulthood. IPAA may offer a better QoL compared to prolonged medical management. The beneficial effects of IPAA experienced by children were similarly observed by their parents.
doi:10.1155/2014/340341
PMCID: PMC3976779  PMID: 24744776
7.  Early postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes of laparoscopic treatment for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis 
Purpose
We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPC/IPAA) for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Also, we assessed the oncologic outcomes in FAP patients with coexisting malignancy.
Methods
From August 1999 to September 2010, 43 FAP patients with or without coexisting malignancy underwent TPC/IPAA by a laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
Results
The median age was 33 years (range, 18 to 58 years) at the time of operation. IPAA was performed by a hand-sewn method in 21 patients (48.8%). The median operative time was 300 minutes (range, 135 to 610 minutes), which reached a plateau after 22 operations. Early postoperative complications within 30 days occurred in 7 patients (16.3%) and long-term morbidity occurred in 15 patients (34.9%) including 6 (14.0%) with desmoid tumors and 3 (7.0%) who required operative treatment. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were diagnosed with coexisting colorectal malignancy. The median follow-up was 58.5 months (range, 7.9 to 97.8 months). There was only 1 case of local recurrence in the pelvic cavity. No cases of adenocarcinoma at the residual rectal mucosa developed. 5-year disease-free survival rate for 22 patients who had coexisting malignancy was 86.5% and 5-year overall survival rate was 92.6%. Three patients died from pulmonary or hepatic metastasis.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic TPC/IPAA in patients with FAP is feasible and offers favorable postoperative outcomes. It also delivered acceptable oncological outcomes in patients with coexisting malignancy. Therefore, laparoscopic TPC/IPAA may be a favorable treatment option for FAP.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.5.288
PMCID: PMC3491231  PMID: 23166888
Laparoscopic total proctocolectomy; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis; Familial adenomatous polyposis
8.  High level perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) in ulcerative colitis patients before colectomy predicts the development of chronic pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis 
Gut  2001;49(5):671-677.
BACKGROUND—The reported cumulative risk of developing pouchitis in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) approaches 50% after 10 years. To date, no preoperative serological predictor of pouchitis has been found.
AIMS—To assess whether preoperative perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) expression was associated with acute and/or chronic pouchitis after IPAA.
METHODS—Patients were prospectively assessed for the development of clinically and endoscopically proved pouchitis. Serum obtained at the time of colectomy in 95 UC patients undergoing IPAA was analysed for pANCA by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. pANCA+ patients were stratified into high level (>100 ELISA units (EU)/ml) (n=9), moderate level (40-100 EU/ml) (n=32), and low level (<40 EU/ml) (n=19) subgroups.
RESULTS—Sixty of the 95 patients (63%) expressed pANCA. After a median follow up of 32 months (range 1-89), 32 patients (34%) developed either acute (n=14) or chronic (n=18) pouchitis. Pouchitis was seen in 42% of pANCA+ patients compared with 20% of pANCA− patients (p=0.09). There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute pouchitis between the three pANCA+ patient subgroups. The cumulative risk of developing chronic pouchitis among patients with high level pANCA (56%) before colectomy was significantly higher than in patients with medium level (22%), low level (16%), and those who were pANCA− (20%) (p=0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that the sole parameter significantly associated with the development of chronic pouchitis after IPAA was the presence of high level pANCA before colectomy (p=0.005).
CONCLUSION—High level pANCA before colectomy is significantly associated with the development of chronic pouchitis after IPAA.


Keywords: pouchitis; perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; ileal pouch-anal anastomosis
doi:10.1136/gut.49.5.671
PMCID: PMC1728523  PMID: 11600470
9.  Impact of anal manipulation and pouch design on ileal pouch function. 
The frequency of defecation, leakage, maximum resting pressure, and maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, maximum tolerated volume, and pouch compliance were evaluated in 116 consecutive patients following total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) and after temporary ileostomy closure. Sixty-nine patients had a double ileal loop pouch ("J") and 47 a triple ("S") design. Seventy patients had mucosal proctectomy and hand-sewn IPAA (mucosectomy) and 46 a stapled IPAA without mucosal proctectomy (stapled). Fifty percent of the S and 30% of the J pouch patients did not have nocturnal defecations. The avoidance of anal manipulation in the stapled group resulted in higher anal canal resting pressures and a lower incidence of leakage. The maximum tolerated volume and compliance was greater in the S pouch group than in the J group. Although the median frequency of defecation was equal in both pouch groups, fewer S pouch patients had nocturnal defecations. Anal canal resting tone may be the primary factor affecting continence following TPC and IPAA, but a compliant pouch may prevent leakage if sphincter function is compromised.
PMCID: PMC2571687  PMID: 1813639
10.  Volvulus of ileal S-pouch: A rare complication of ileal pouch anal anastomoses 
INTRODUCTION
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) after total proctocolectomy is a frequently performed surgery for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Volvulus of the ileal pouch as a complication of IPAA is extremely rare. We present a case of volvulus of S-type ileal pouch.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 28 year old male, with history of total proctocolectomy with IPAA for severe UC in 2009 presented with signs of bowel obstruction. Emergency laparotomy was done and a volvulus of the S-type ileal pouch was derotated and pouchpexy done.
DISCUSSION
The IPAA has a wide spectrum of complications, with obstruction of proximal small bowel occurring frequently. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is extremely rare with only 3 reported cases. Early diagnosis and intervention is important to salvage the pouch. Computed tomography (CT) may aid the diagnosis in stable patients.
CONCLUSION
The diagnosis of ileal pouch volvulus although rare, should be kept in mind when dealing with patients complaining of recurrent obstruction following IPAA.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.07.005
PMCID: PMC4189055  PMID: 25212904
Ileal pouch volvulus; Ileal S-pouch; Volvulus; IPAA; Pouchpexy
11.  Relationship between pouch microbiota and pouchitis following restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis 
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the surgical treatment of choice for many patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). UC patients with IPAA (UC-IPAA) are, nevertheless, susceptible to inflammatory and noninflammatory sequelae such as pouchitis, which is only rarely noted in FAP patients with IPAA. Pouchitis is the most frequent long-term complication of UC-IPAA patients, with a cumulative prevalence of up to 50%. Although the aetiology of pouchitis remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that a dysbiosis of the pouch microbiota and an abnormal mucosal immune response are implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies using culture and molecular techniques have detected a dysbiosis of the pouch microbiota in patients with pouchitis. Risk factors, genetic associations, and serological markers suggest that interactions between the host immune response and the pouch microbiota underlie the aetiology of this idiopathic inflammatory condition. This systematic review focuses on the dysbiosis of the microbiota that inhabit the pouch in UC and FAP patients and its interaction with the mucosal immune system. A meta-analysis was not attempted due to the highly heterogeneous microbiota composition and the different detection methods used by the various studies. Although no specific bacterial species, genus, or family has as yet been identified as pathogenic, there is evidence that a dysbiosis characterized by decreased gut microbiota diversity in UC-IPAA patients may, in genetically predisposed subjects, lead to aberrant mucosal immune regulation triggering an inflammatory process.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9665
PMCID: PMC4123357  PMID: 25110406
Pouchitis; Inflammation of the ileal pouch; Microbiota; Bacteria; Microbiome; Ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; Inflammatory bowel disease
12.  Characterization of the Gut-Associated Microbiome in Inflammatory Pouch Complications Following Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e66934.
Introduction
Inflammatory complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) are common and thought to arise through mechanisms similar to de novo onset inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific organisms in the tissue-associated microbiota are associated with inflammatory pouch complications.
Methods
Patients having previously undergone IPAA were recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital. Clinical and demographic information were collected and a pouchoscopy with biopsy of both the pouch and afferent limb was performed. Patients were classified based on post-surgical phenotype into four outcome groups: familial adenomatous polyposis controls (FAP), no pouchitis, pouchitis, and Crohn’s disease-like (CDL). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 hypervariable region, and quantitative PCR for bacteria of interest, were used to identify organisms present in the afferent limb and pouch. Associations with outcomes were evaluated using exact and non-parametric tests of significance.
Results
Analysis at the phylum level indicated that Bacteroidetes were detected significantly less frequently (P<0.0001) in the inflammatory outcome groups (pouchitis and CDL) compared to both FAP and no pouchitis. Conversely, Proteobacteria were detected more frequently in the inflammatory groups (P=0.01). At the genus level, organisms associated with outcome were detected less frequently among the inflammatory groups compared to those without inflammation. Several of these organisms, including Bacteroides (P<0.0001), Parabacteroides (P≤2.2x10-3), Blautia (P≤3.0x10-3) and Sutterella (P≤2.5x10-3), were associated with outcome in both the pouch and afferent limb. These associations remained significant even following adjustment for antibiotic use, smoking, country of birth and gender. Individuals with quiescent disease receiving antibiotic therapy displayed similar reductions in these organisms as those with active pouch inflammation.
Conclusions
Specific genera are associated with inflammation of the ileal pouch, with a reduction of typically ubiquitous organisms characterizing the inflammatory phenotypes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066934
PMCID: PMC3782502  PMID: 24086242
13.  Possible role of human cytomegalovirus in pouchitis after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis 
AIM: To detect the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins and genes on the ileal pouch of patients with ulcerative colitis who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR sequencing methods were utilized to test the presence of HCMV in pouch specimens taken from 34 patients in 86 endoscopies.
RESULTS: HCMV genes and proteins were detected in samples from 12 (35.2%) patients. The rate of detection was significant in the endoscopies from patients diagnosed with pouchitis (5 of 12, 41.6%), according to the Japanese classification of pouchitis, in comparison to patients with normal pouch (7 of 62, 11.2%; P = 0.021). In all patients with pouchitis in which the HCMV was detected, it was the first episode of pouchitis. The virus was not detected in previous biopsies taken in normal endoscopies of these patients. During the follow-up, HCMV was detected in one patient with recurrent pouchitis and in 3 patients whose pouchitis episodes improved but whose positive endoscopic findings persisted.
CONCLUSION: HCMV can take part in the inflammatory process of the pouch in some patients with ulcerative colitis who have undergone proctocolectomy with IPAA.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i7.1085
PMCID: PMC4146872  PMID: 17373744
Human cytomegalovirus; Pouchitis; Inflammatory bowel disease; Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis
14.  Ileoanal anastomosis with reservoirs: complications and long-term results  
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1999;42(5):345-352.
Objective
To determine the rate of complications of ileoanal pouch anastomosis, their treatment and their influence on a successful outcome.
Design
A computerized database and chart review.
Setting
Three academic tertiary care health centres.
Patients
All 239 patients admitted for surgery between 1981 and 1994 with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli.
Interventions
Sphincter-saving total proctocolectomy and construction of either S-type or J-type ileoanal reservoir.
Outcome measures
Indications, early and late complications, incidence of pouch excision.
Results
Of the 239 patients, 228 (95.4%) were operated on for ulcerative colitis and 11 (4.6%) for familial polyposis coli. One patient in each group was found to have a carcinoma not previously diagnosed. Twenty-eight patients had poor results: in 17 (7.1%) the ileostomy was never closed or was re-established because of pelvic sepsis or complex fistulas, sclerosing cholangitis or severe diarrhea; 11 (4.6%) patients required excision of the pouch because of anal stenosis, perirectal abscess-fistula or rectovaginal fistula. Three patients died — of suicide, and complications of liver transplantation and HIV infection. Thus, 208 patients maintained a functioning pouch. The early complication rate (within 30 days of operation) was 57.7% (138 patients) and the late complication rate was 52.3% (125 patients). Pouchitis alone did not lead to failure or pouch excision. Emptying difficulties in 25 patients with anal stenosis were helped in 2 by resorting to intermittent catheterization. Patients with indeterminate colitis had a higher rate of anorectal septic complications, and all patients having Crohn’s disease after pouch construction had complicated courses.
Conclusions
The complication rate associated with ileoanal pouch anastomosis continues to be relatively high despite increasing experience with this technique. Overall, however, a satisfactory outcome was obtained in 87% of patients.
PMCID: PMC3788898  PMID: 10526518
15.  Ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy-the experience in China 
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and long-term functional outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy.
METHODS: From January 2002 to March 2011, fourty-five patients underwent ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique and the clinical data obtained for these patients were reviewed.
RESULTS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 29) and familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 16) underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy. Twenty-eight patients underwent one-stage restorative proctocolectomy, ileal pouch anal anastomosis, protective ileostomy and the ileostomy was closed 4-12 mo postoperatively. Two-stage procedures were performed in seventeen urgent patients, proctectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis were completed after previous colectomy with ileostomy. Morbidity within the first 30 d of surgery occurred in 10 (22.2%) patients, all of them could be treated conservatively. During the median follow-up of 65 mo, mild to moderate anastomotic narrowing was occurred in 4 patients, one patient developed persistent anastomotic stricture and need surgical intervention. Thirty-five percent of patients developed at least 1 episode of pouchitis. There was no incontinence in our patients, the median functional Oresland score was 6, 3 and 2 after 1 year, 2.5 years and 5 years respectively. Nearly half patients (44.4%) reported “moderate functioning”, 37.7% reported “good functioning”, whereas in 17.7% of patients “poor functioning” was observed after 1 year. Five years later, 79.2% of patients with good function, 16.7% with moderate function, only 4.2% of patients with poor function.
CONCLUSION: The results of ileal pouch anal anastomosis with modified double-stapled mucosectomy technique are promising, with a low complication rate and good long-term functional results.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i8.1299
PMCID: PMC3587488  PMID: 23483639
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Stapled mucosectomy; Ulcerative colitis; Familial adenomatous polyposis; Surgical technique
16.  The role of antibiotics and probiotics in pouchitis 
Annals of Gastroenterology  2012;25(2):100-105.
Pouchitis is a non-specific inflammation of the ileal reservoir and the most common complication of proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in patients with ulcerative colitis. Its frequency is related to the duration of the follow up, occurring in up to 50% of patients 10 years after IPAA in large series from major referral centers. Treatment of pouchitis is largely empirical and only small placebo-controlled trials have been conducted. The rationale for using probiotics and antibiotics in pouchitis is based on convincing evidence that implicates intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of this disease. Probiotics are living organisms, which, upon ingestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. VSL#3, a highly concentrated cocktail of probiotics has been shown to be effective in the prevention of pouchitis onset and relapses. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment of pouchitis, and metronidazole and ciprofloxacin are the most common initial approaches, often with a rapid response. The use of antibiotics in pouchitis is largely justified although proper controlled trials have not been conducted.
PMCID: PMC3959382  PMID: 24714229
probiotics; antibiotics; pouchitis; IBD
17.  Primary ileo-anal pouch anastomosis in patients with acute ulcerative colitis 
Introduction
Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) was performed in ulcerative colitis (UC) for emergent or urgent indications in three stages. Since the three-step procedure imposes enormous demands on a patient, there was an attempt to introduce primary IPAA for urgent indications. The aim of this study was to compare early complications after Hartmann's colectomy (HC) and IPAA in a selected group of patients.
Material and methods
Medical records of 274 patients who underwent surgery for UC between 1996 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Finally, a group of 77 patients with acute form of UC entered this study.
Results
All patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 (42%) patients who underwent HC, whereas group 2 comprised 45 (58%) patients after IPAA. There was no postoperative mortality. Respiratory failure occurred in 8 (24%) patients after HC and in 6 (14%) patients who underwent IPAA. Intra-abdominal sepsis developed in 4 (12%) patients after HC and in 8 (17%) undergoing IPAA. Fascia dehiscence was present in 3 (8%) patients after HC and in 4 (9%) with IPAA. Bowel obstruction occurred in 1 (4%) patient after the former operation and in 3 (6%) patients after the latter one. Wound infection was diagnosed in 6 (20%) patients after HC and in 9 (20%) after IPAA. The differences between the investigated groups of patients were not statistically significant.
Conclusions
The IPAA could be performed for urgent indications only in the patients with no critical dilatation of the colon or with active UC but without signs of severe malnutrition.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.33175
PMCID: PMC3648821  PMID: 23671439
acute ulcerative colitis; urgent indications for surgery; Hartmann's colectomy; restorative proctocolectomy; early complications
18.  Reoperative Inflammatory Bowel Disease Surgery 
ABSTRACT
With the advent of restorative proctocolectomy or ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC), not only has there been potential for cure of UC but also patients have enjoyed marked improvements in bowel function, continence, and quality of life. However, IPAA can be complicated by postoperative small bowel obstruction, disease recurrence, and pouch failure secondary to pelvic sepsis, pouch dysfunction, mucosal inflammation, and neoplastic transformation. These may necessitate emergent or expeditious elective reoperation to salvage the pouch and preserve adequate function. Local, transanal, and transabdominal approaches to IPAA salvage are described, and their indications, outcomes, and the clinical parameters that affect the need for salvage are discussed. Pouch excision for failed salvage reoperation is reviewed as well. Relaparotomy is also frequently required for recurrent Crohn's disease (CD), especially given the nature of this as yet incurable illness. Risk factors for CD recurrence are examined, and the various surgical options and margins of resection are evaluated with a focus on bowel-sparing policy. Stricturoplasty, its outcomes, and its importance in recurrent disease are discussed, and segmental resection is compared with more extensive procedures such as total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. Lastly, laparoscopy is addressed with respect to its long-term outcomes, effect on surgical recurrence, and its application in the management of recurrent CD.
doi:10.1055/s-2006-956440
PMCID: PMC2780117  PMID: 20011321
Restorative proctocolectomy; pouch failure; salvage/reoperation; ulcerative colitis; recurrent Crohn's disease
19.  Surgical management of ulcerative colitis: a comparison of Canadian and American colorectal surgeons 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2011;54(4):257-262.
Background
Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically manage ulcerative colitis may involve multiple separate surgical procedures, impacting treatment costs, length of stay in hospital, complication rates and patient outcomes, and there is currently no accepted standard of care regarding the number of stages that should be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the practice patterns of Canadian and American colorectal surgeons regarding the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.
Methods
A questionnaire was mailed to all practisng fellows of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) in Canada and the United States. Surgeons were asked to describe their typical practices for 3 clinical scenarios.
Results
Questionnaires were mailed to 40 Canadian and 873 American ASCRS fellows with response rates of 86% and 62%, respectively. In the case of a patient who has had a prior colectomy, who is not taking steroids and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, 44% of Canadian surgeons would perform IPAA alone and 56% would perform IPAA with a loop ileostomy. In contrast, only 26% of American surgeons would perform IPAA alone and 74% would perform IPAA with a loop ileostomy (p = 0.002). In the case of a patient who has not had previous surgery, who is taking 10 mg/day of prednisone and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, the majority of both Canadian and American surgeons would perform an IPAA with a loop ileostomy (93% and 89%, respectively, p = 0.06). In the case of a patient who has not had previous surgery, who is taking 40 mg/day of prednisone and in whom a tension-free IPAA is possible, 45% of Canadian surgeons would perform a subtotal colectomy with an end ileostomy compared with 14% of American surgeons (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
There are significant differences in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis between Canadian and American colorectal surgeons.
doi:10.1503/cjs.001610
PMCID: PMC3191900  PMID: 21651831
20.  Complications and functional outcomes of restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in the elderly 
BMC Surgery  2013;13(Suppl 2):S9.
Background
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for intractable or complicated ulcerative colitis (UC). Debate exists concerning outcomes of IPAA in the elderly and literature data are scarce. We report our experience of IPAA in older population.
Methods
We gathered data on a prospective database of patients undergoing IPAA for UC over 70 years of age in our Unit from January 1990 through January 2010. Patients were compared with randomly selected younger controls on a 1:3 ratio. Patients underwent IPAA in 2 or 3 stages. Demographical data, disease characteristics, comorbidities, concomitant medications, peri-operative management, intra- and post-operative complications were analyzed. Function and quality of life were assessed by clinical visit and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire 1 and 3 years after ileostomy takedown.
Results
Twenty-seven elderly patients underwent IPAA for UC in the study period; these were compared with 81 younger controls. The former had more comorbidities and higher ASA score. All patients underwent loop-ileostomy closure. There were no differences between groups concerning the rate of major complications, but elderly patients more frequently had nuisances due to stoma output. Younger patients experienced significantly more episodes of small bowel obstruction. No significant differences in bowel control and health-related quality of life was observed, except for an higher rate of elderly patients taking antidiarrhoeals at 1-year follow-up; this observation was not confirmed at 3-year follow-up. A minimal decrease in continence was observed, but this did not affect overall satisfaction.
Conclusions
IPAA can be safely offered to selected elderly UC patients who are strongly motivated and with no clinical disturbances of continence. In experienced hands no differences are likely to be expected concerning complications, quality of life and function. Results are stable with time and comparable to those of younger patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-S2-S9
PMCID: PMC3851043  PMID: 24267006
Ileopouch-anal anastomosis; IPAA; ulcerative colitis; elderly patients; restorative proctocolectomy; quality of life
21.  A Comprehensive Review of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Focusing on Surgical Management 
The two main diseases of inflammatory bowel disease are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The pathogenesis of inflammatory disease is that abnormal intestinal inflammations occur in genetically susceptible individuals according to various environmental factors. The consequent process results in inflammatory bowel disease. Medical treatment consists of the induction of remission in the acute phase of the disease and the maintenance of remission. Patients with Crohn's disease finally need surgical treatment in 70% of the cases. The main surgical options for Crohn's disease are divided into two surgical procedures. The first is strictureplasty, which can prevent short bowel syndrome. The second is resection of the involved intestinal segment. Simultaneous medico-surgical treatment can be a good treatment strategy. Ulcerative colitis is a diffuse nonspecific inflammatory disease that involves the colon and the rectum. Patients with ulcerative colitis need surgical treatment in 30% of the cases despite proper medical treatment. The reasons for surgical treatment are various, from life-threatening complications to growth retardation. The total proctocolectomy (TPC) with an ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the most common procedure for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Medical treatment for ulcerative colitis after a TPC with an IPAA is usually not necessary.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.3.121
PMCID: PMC3398107  PMID: 22816055
Crohn disease; Ulcerative colitis; Inflammatory bowel diseases
22.  Effect of anorectal eversion on long-term clinical outcome of restorative proctocolectomy. 
Eversion of the rectum during restorative proctocolectomy with stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains a controversial surgical manoeuvre because of concern that it may impair anal sphincter function and adversely affect outcome. We have reviewed the long-term results in 41 patients whose operation included formation of a 20 cm J-pouch with stapled IPAA by the technique of rectal eversion. At median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-6 years), 4 pouches (10%) had been removed (2 for pelvic sepsis, 1 for rectovaginal fistula and 1 for Crohn's disease). In 34 patients with functioning pouches in situ, median stool frequency was 5 per 24 h (range 2-10). 11 patients (33%) regularly had to evacuate their pouch at night and 4 (12%) used antidiarrhoeal medication. No patients reported major incontinence; 2 (6%) had minor leakage, and in another 2 minor leakage had now ceased. 4 patients had had episodes of pouchitis. These favourable results offer no support for the contention that rectal eversion substantially worsens the long-term results of restorative proctocolectomy.
PMCID: PMC1296381  PMID: 9290418
23.  Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis 
Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis; these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.769
PMCID: PMC2653377  PMID: 19230038
Anal transition zone; Ileal pouch anal anastomosis; Restorative proctocolectomy; Ulcerative colitis
24.  One-year infliximab administration for the treatment of chronic refractory pouchitis 
Aim
To determine the efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of chronic refractory pouchitis, following ileo-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC).
Methods
Seven patients (4 females, 3 males) with chronic refractory pouchitis were included in an open study. Pouchitis was diagnosed by clinical plus endoscopic and histological criteria. Three patients also had fistulae (pouch-bladder in 1 and perianal in 2). Extraintestinal manifestations were also present in 4 patients (erythema nodosum in 2, arthralgiae in 2). All patients were refractory to standard therapy. Crohn’s disease was carefully excluded in all patients after re-evaluation of the history and examination of the small bowel with enteroclysis or small bowel capsule endoscopy. Patients received Infliximab 5 mg/kg at 0, 2 and 6 weeks and thereafter every 2 months for 1 year. Clinical response was classified as complete, partial, and no response. Fistulae closure was classified as complete, partial, and no closure. The pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI) was also used as an outcome measure.
Results
Clinically, all patients improved. After 1 year of follow-up, 5 of the 7 patients had a complete clinical response, and 2 of the 3 patients with a fistula had complete fistulae closure. At the end of the follow-up period the median PDAI dropped from 11 (baseline) (range, 10-14) to 5 (range, 3-8). Extraintestinal manifestations were in complete remission at the end of the followup period as well.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that infliximab may be recommended for the treatment of chronic refractory pouchitis complicated or not by fistulae following IPAA for UC.
PMCID: PMC3959330  PMID: 24713783
Ulcerative colitis; ileal pouch anal anastomosis; chronic refractory pouchitis
25.  Recurrent Volvulus of an Ileal Pouch Requiring Repeat Pouchopexy: A Lesson Learnt 
Case Reports in Surgery  2014;2014:807640.
Introduction. Restorative surgery for ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is frequently accompanied by complications. Volvulus of the ileal pouch is one of the most rarely reported late complications and to our knowledge no report exists on reoperative surgery for this condition. Case Report. A 58-year-old woman who previously had undergone restorative proctocolectomy due to ulcerative colitis with an IPAA presented with volvulus of the pouch. She was operated with a single row pouchopexy to the presacral fascia. Two months later she returned with a recurrent volvulus. At reoperation, the pouch was found to have become completely detached from the fascia. A new pexy was made by firmly anchoring the pouch with two rows of sutures to the presacral fascia as well as with sutures to the lateral pelvic walls. At follow-up after five months she was free of symptoms. Conclusion. This first report ever on reoperative surgery for volvulus of a pelvic pouch indicates that a single row pouchopexy might be insufficient for preventing retwisting. Several rows seem to be needed.
doi:10.1155/2014/807640
PMCID: PMC4109119  PMID: 25110603

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