Gastric cancer is most common cancer in Korea. Surgery is still the main axis of treatment. Due to early detection of gastric cancer, the innovation of surgical instruments and technological advances, gastric cancer treatment is now shifting to a new era. One of the most astonishing changes is that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is becoming more dominant treatment for early gastric cancer. These MIS are represented by endoscopic resection, laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery, single-port surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Among them, laparoscopic gastrectomy is most actively performed in the field of surgery. Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for early gastric cancer (EGC) has already gained popularity in terms of the short-term outcomes including patient's quality of life. We only have to wait for the long-term oncologic results of Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. Upcoming top issues following oncologic safety of LADG are function-preserving surgery for EGC, application of laparoscopy to advanced gastric cancer and sentinel lymph node navigation surgery. In the aspect of technique, laparoscopic surgery at present could reproduce almost the whole open procedures. However, the other fields mentioned above need more evidences and experiences. All these new ideas and attempts provide technical advances, which will minimize surgical insults and maximize the surgical outcomes and the quality of life of patients.
Gastric cancer; Future perspective; Laparoscopy; Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery; Minimally invasive surgery
Recently, laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) has become popular for the treatment of early gastric cancer. Furthermore, the use of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy (TLG), a more difficult procedure than LADG, has been increasing in Japan. Laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy is currently performed more frequently than laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) in hospitals in Japan.
Reconstruction after LDG is commonly performed extra-abdominally and lymph node dissection of the lesser curvature is performed at the same time. We have developed a new method of intra-abdominal lymph node dissection for the lesser curvature.
Our technique showed positive results, is easy to perform, and is reasonable in terms of general oncology theory.
In oncological therapy, this technique could be a valuable surgical option for totally laparoscopic surgery.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Lymph node dissection
Laparoscopic gastrectomy was begun in 1995 in Korea. But, there was 4 years gap to reactivate in 1999. High incidence of gastric cancer and increasing proportion of early cancer through national screening program along with huge effort and enthusiasm of laparoscopic gastric surgeon, and active academic exchange with Japanese doctors contributed development of laparoscopic gastrectomy in Korea. Study group activity of Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study (KLASS) group and Collaborative Action for Gastric Cancer (COACT) group were paramount to evoke large scale multicenter clinical study and various well performed clinical studies. This review encompasses mainly international publications about this area so far in Korea.
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Robotics; History
Several studies have suggested that carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum may have an effect on liver function. This study aimed to compare liver function after laparoscopically assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) and open distal gastrectomy (ODG) for patients with liver disease.
Between January 2006 and December 2007, the study enrolled 50 patients with EGC and liver disease including 18 liver cirrhosis patients, 3 fatty liver patients (n = 3), and 29 healthy hepatitis B or C virus carriers. Albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as the volume of drainage in the LADG (n = 18) and ODG (n = 32) groups were determined to assess liver function.
The albumin level on postoperative day 7 was significantly higher in the LADG group (3.5 mg/dl) than in the ODG group (3.1 mg/dl; p = 0.042), and the volume of drainage on postoperative day 2 was significantly lower in the LADG group (154.3 ml) than in the ODG group (403.1 ml; p = 0.013). Diuretics were needed by three patients (16.7%) in the LADG group and six patients (18.7%) in the ODG group for control of ascites (p = 0.587). For the patients with liver cirrhosis, none of the parameters between the two groups were significantly different.
For gastric cancer patients with chronic liver disease, LADG can be considered a safe surgical procedure showing surgical outcomes comparable with those for ODG.
Gastric cancer; LADG; Liver disease
Most stomach surgeons have been educated sufficiently in conventional open distal gastrectomy (ODG) but insufficiently in laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG). We compared learning curves and clinical outcomes between ODG and LADG by a single surgeon who had sufficient education of ODG and insufficient education of LADG.
Materials and Methods
ODG (90 patients, January through September, 2004) and LADG groups (90 patients, June 2006 to June 2007) were compared. The learning curve was assessed with the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes, operation time, and postoperative morbidity/mortality.
Mean operation time was 168.3 minutes for ODG and 183.6 minutes for LADG. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 37.9. Up to about the 20th to 25th cases, the slope decrease in the learning curve for LADG was more apparent than for ODG, although they both reached plateaus after the 50th cases. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes reached the overall mean after the 30th and 40th cases for ODG and LADG, respectively. For ODG, complications were evenly distributed throughout the subgroups, whereas for LADG, complications occurred in 10 (33.3%) of the first 30 cases.
Compared with conventional ODG, LADG is feasible, in particular for a surgeon who has had much experience with conventional ODG, although LADG required more operative time, slightly more time to get adequately retrieved lymph nodes and more complications. However, there were more minor problems in the first 30 LADG than ODG cases. The unfavorable results for LADG can be overcome easily through an adequate training program for LADG.
Laparoscopic; Gastrectomy; Learning curve
Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) is a widely accepted surgery for early gastric cancer. However, its use in advanced gastric cancer has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and survival outcomes of LADG for pT2 gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2004 and December 2009, we evaluated 67 and 52 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy (ODG) and LADG, respectively, with diagnosis of pT2 gastric cancer. The clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and survival were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
There were statistically significant differences in the proximal margin of the clinicopathological parameters. The operation time was significantly longer in LADG than in ODG (207.7 vs. 159.9 minutes). There were 6 (9.0%) and 5 (9.6%) complications in ODG and LADG, respectively. During follow-up periods, tumor recurrence occurred in 7 (10.4%) patients of the ODG and in 4 (7.7%) patients of the LADG group. The 5-year survival rate of ODG and LADG was 88.6% and 91.3% (p=0.613), respectively. In view of lymph node involvement, 5-year survival rates were 96.0% in ODG versus 97.0% in LADG for patients with negative nodal metastasis (p=0.968) and 80.9% in ODG versus 78.7% in LADG for those with positive nodal metastasis (p=0.868).
Although prospective study is necessary to compare LADG with open gastrectomy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy might be considered as an alternative treatment for some pT2 gastric cancer.
Laparoscopy; pT2 gastric cancer; subtotal gastrectomy
Laparoscopic gastrectomy has been adopted for the treatment of gastric cancer, and despite the technical difficulties, totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy has been considered less invasive than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy. Although there have been many reports regarding the feasibility and safety of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy at large volume centers, few reports have been conducted at low-volume centers. The purpose of this study is to try to assess the feasibility and safety of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy at a low volume center through the analysis of short-term outcomes of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy compared with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy.
Materials and Methods
The clinical data and short-term surgical outcomes of 35 patients who had undergone laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy between April 2007 and March 2010, and 37 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy between April 2010 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.
There was no significant difference in the demographic and clinical data. However the reconstruction method and extent of lymphadenectomy showed statistically significant differences. Operation time and estimated blood loss did not show significant differences. Surgical and medical complications did not show significant differences but postoperative courses including time-to-first oral intake and postoperative hospital stay were significantly increased.
Our study shows that totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is technically feasible at a low volume center. Therefore, totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy can be considered as one of the surgical treatment for early gastric cancer. However the possibility that totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy may have less benefit should also be considered.
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy
AIM: To compare short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted and open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by comparing the outcomes of 54 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with those of 54 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy (ODG) between October 2004 and October 2007. The patients’ demographic data (age and gender), date of surgery, extent of lymphadenectomy, and differentiation and tumor-node-metastasis stage of the tumor were examined. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative recovery, complications, pathological findings, and follow-up data were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: The mean operative time was significantly longer in the LADG group than in the ODG group (259.3 ± 46.2 min vs 199.8 ± 40.85 min; P < 0.05), whereas intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were significantly lower (160.2 ± 85.9 mL vs 257.8 ± 151.0 mL; 13.0% vs 24.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, the time to first flatus, time to initiate oral intake, and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the LADG group than in the ODG group (3.9 ± 1.4 d vs 4.4 ± 1.5 d; 4.6 ± 1.2 d vs 5.6 ± 2.1 d; and 9.5 ± 2.7 d vs 11.1 ± 4.1 d, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no signiﬁcant difference between the LADG group and ODG group with regard to the number of harvested lymph nodes. The median follow-up was 60 mo (range, 5-97 mo). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 94.3%, 90.2%, and 76.7%, respectively, in the LADG group and 89.5%, 84.7%, and 82.3%, respectively, in the ODG group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 98.0%, 91.9%, and 81.1%, respectively, in the LADG group and 91.5%, 86.9%, and 82.1%, respectively, in the ODG group. There was no signiﬁcant difference between the two groups with regard to the survival rate.
CONCLUSION: LADG is suitable and minimally invasive for treating distal gastric cancer and can achieve similar long-term results to ODG.
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Survival; Case matched study
In an effort to minimize the limitations of laparoscopy, a robotic surgery system was introduced, but its role for gastric cancer is still unclear. The objective of this article is to assess the current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer and to predict future prospects. Although the current study was limited by its small number of patients and retrospective nature, robot-assisted gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer is a feasible and safe procedure for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Most studies have reported satisfactory results for postoperative short-term coutcomes, such as: postoperative oral feeding, gas out, hospital stay and complications, compared with laparoscopic surgery; the difference is a longer operation time. However, robotic surgery showed a shallow learning curve compared with the familarity of conventional open surgery; after the accumulation of several cases, robotic surgery could be expected to result in a similar operation time. Robotic-assisted gastrectomy can expand the indications of minimally invasive surgery to include advanced gastric cancer by improving the ability to perform lymphadenectomy. Moreover, ”total” robotic gastrectomy can be facilitated using a robot-sewing technique and gastric submucosal tumors near the gastroesophageal junction or pylorus can be resected safely by this novel technique. In conclusion, robot-assisted gastrectomy may offer a good alternative to conventional open or laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, provided that long-term oncologic outcomes can be confirmed.
Robot surgery; Stomach; Minimally invasive surgery
Laparoscopic gastrectomy has recently been gaining popularity as a treatment for cancer; however, little is known about the benefits of intracorporeal (IC) gastrointestinal anastomosis with pure laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) compared with extracorporeal (EC) anastomosis with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG).
Between June 2000 and December 2011, we assessed 449 consecutive patients with early-stage gastric cancer who underwent LDG. The patients were classified into three groups according to the method of reconstruction LADG followed by EC hand-sewn anastomosis (LADG + EC) (n = 73), using any of three anastomosis methods (Billroth-I (B-I), Billroth-II (B-II) or Roux-en-Y (R-Y); LDG followed by IC B-I anastomosis (LDG + B-I) (n = 248); or LDG followed by IC R-Y anastomosis (LDG + R-Y) (n = 128)). The analyzed parameters included patient and tumor characteristics, operation details, and post-operative outcomes.
The tumor location was significantly more proximal in the LDG + R-Y group than in the LDG + B-I group (P < 0.01). Mean operation time, intra-operative blood loss, and the length of post-operative hospital stay were all shortest in the LDG + B-I group (P < 0.05). Regarding post-operative morbidities, anastomosis-related complications occurred significantly less frequently in with the LDG + B-I group than in the LADG + EC group (P < 0.01), whereas there were no differences in the other parameters of patients’ characteristics.
Intracorporeal mechanical anastomosis by either the B-I or R-Y method following LDG has several advantages over at the LADG + EC, including small wound size, reduced invasiveness, and safe anastomosis. Although additional randomized control studies are warranted to confirm these findings, we consider that pure LDG is a useful technique for patients with early gastric cancer.
Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy; Intracorporeal anastomosis; Extracorporeal anastomosis; Billroth I; Roux-en-Y
Since a patient's obesity can affect the mortality and morbidity of the surgery, less drastic surgeries may have a major benefit for obese individuals. This study evaluated the feasibility of performing a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, with intracorporeal anastomosis, in obese patients suffering from gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of the 138 patients, who underwent a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy from April 2005 to March 2009, at the National Kyushu Cancer Center. The body mass index of 20 patients was ≥25, and in 118 patients, it was <25 kg/m2.
The mean values of body mass index in the 2 groups were 27.3±2.2 and 21.4±2.3. Hypertension was significantly more frequent in the obese patients than in the non-obese patients. The intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, post-operative complication rate, post-operative hospital stay, and a number of retrieved lymph nodes were not significantly different between the two groups.
Intracorporeal anastomosis seemed to have a benefit for obese individuals. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy is, therefore, considered to be a safe and an effective modality for obese patients.
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Stomach neoplasms; Obesity; Body mass index
These authors conclude that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy can be safely and effectively performed by surgeons skilled in basic laparoscopy and does not require specialized training or to be performed in a specialized center.
Laparoscopic management of distal pancreatic malignancies has been slow to gain a foothold in all but high-volume tertiary referral centers. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and outcomes of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) performed in a low-volume community hospital by a diverse group of surgeons, none of whom have a specialized laparoscopic background.
We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent open distal pancreatectomies (ODPs) and LDPs between August 2001 and June 2008. Data included type of surgery, open versus laparoscopy, demographics, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, histopathologic diagnosis, postoperative complications, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and mortality.
Twenty-seven patients with pancreatic masses underwent distal pancreatic resection during the study period. Fifty-nine percent (n = 16) underwent LDP, and 41% (n = 11) underwent ODP. Mean patient age was 66 y (range, 40 to 86) for the LDP group and 62 (range, 40 to 84) for the ODP group. Mean operative time was 231 min (range, 195 to 305) for LDP and 240 (range, 150 to 210) for the ODP technique. Mean length of stay for LDP and ODP was 8 (range, 3 to 22) and 12 d (range, 5 to 2), respectively. Morbidity was 25% (n = 4) in the LDP group and 36% (n = 4) in the ODP group. None of the differences between the LDP and ODP groups were statistically significant. No mortalities occurred in either group.
This study supports the idea that LDP can be safely and effectively performed by any surgeon comfortable with basic laparoscopy and may not require specialized training or a specialized center. Further data are required to make more definitive conclusions.
Laparoscopy; Pancreatectomy; Pancreas; Distal Pancreatectomy; IPMN; Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas
Port-site herniation is a rare but potentially dangerous complication after laparoscopic surgery. Closure of port sites, especially those measuring 10 mm or more, has been recommended to avoid such an event.
We herein report the only case of a port site hernia among a series 52 consecutive cases of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) carried out by our unit between July 2002 and March 2007. In this case the small bowel herniated and incarcerated through the port site on day 4 after LADG despite closure of the fascia. Initial manifestations experienced by the patient, possibly due to obstruction, and including mild abdominal pain and nausea, occurred on the third day postoperatively. The definitive diagnosis was made on day 4 based on symptoms related to leakage from the duodenal stump, which was considered to have developed after severe obstruction of the bowel. Re-operation for reduction of the incarcerated bowel and tube duodenostomy with peritoneal drainage were required to manage this complication.
We present this case report and review of literature to discuss further regarding methods of fascial closure after laparoscopic surgery.
A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer is currently ongoing in Korea. Patients with cT1N0M0-cT2aN0M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 6th edition) distal gastric cancer were randomized to receive either laparoscopic or open distal gastrectomy. For surgical quality control, the surgeons participating in this trial had to have performed at least 50 cases each of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy and open distal gastrectomy and their institutions should have performed more than 80 cases each of both procedures each year. Fifteen surgeons from 12 institutions recruited 1,415 patients. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, morbidity, mortality, quality of life, inflammatory and immune responses, and cost-effectiveness (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00452751).
Gastric cancer; Laparoscopy distal gastrectomy; Open distal gastrectomy; Randomized controlled trial
The aims are to: (i) display the multidimensional learning curve of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, and (ii) verify the feasibility of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy after learning curve completion by comparing it with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy.
Materials and Methods
From January 2005 to June 2012, 247 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (n=136) and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (n=111) for early gastric cancer were enrolled. Their clinicopathological characteristics and early surgical outcomes were analyzed. Analysis of the totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy learning curve was conducted using the moving average method and the cumulative sum method on 180 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy.
Our study indicated that experience with 40 and 20 totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy cases, is required in order to achieve optimum proficiency by two surgeons. There were no remarkable differences in the clinicopathological characteristics between laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy groups. The two groups were comparable in terms of open conversion, combined resection, morbidities, reoperation rate, hospital stay and time to first flatus (P>0.05). However, totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy had a significantly shorter mean operation time than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (P<0.01). We also found that intra-abdominal abscess and overall complication rates were significantly higher before the learning curve than after the learning curve (P<0.05).
Experience with 20~40 cases of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is required to complete the learning curve. The use of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy after learning curve completion is a feasible and timesaving method compared to laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy.
Laparoscopy; Stomach neoplasms; Anastomosis; Learning curve; Morbidity
In laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer, most surgeons prefer extra-corporeal anastomosis because of technical challenges and unfamiliarity with intra-corporeal anastomosis. Herein, we report the feasibility and safety of intra-corporeal Billroth-II anastomosis in gastric cancer.
From April 2004 to March 2011, 130 underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with intra-corporeal Billroth-II reconstruction, and 269 patients underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with extra-corporeal Billroth-II reconstruction. Surgical efficacies and outcomes between two groups were compared.
There were no differences in demographics and clinicopathological characteristics. The mean operation and reconstruction times of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were statistically shorter than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (P = 0.019; P < 0.001). Anastomosis-related complications were observed in 11 (8.5%) totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and 21 (7.8%) laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy patients, and the incidence of these events was not significantly different. Post-operative hospital stays for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were shorter than laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy patients (8.3 ± 3.2 days vs. 9.9 ± 5.3 days, respectively; P = 0.016), and the number of times parenteral analgesic administration was required in laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy patients was more frequent after surgery.
Intra-corporeal Billroth-II anastomosis is a feasible procedure and can be safely performed with the proper experience for laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. This method may be less time consuming and may produce a more cosmetic result.
Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy; Extra-corporeal anastomosis; Intra-corporeal anastomosis; Billroth-II anastomosis
Laparoscopic gastrectomy has become widely used as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of gastric cancer. When it was first introduced, most surgeons preferred a laparoscopic-assisted approach with a minilaparotomy rather than a totally laparoscopic procedure because of the technical challenges of achieving an intracorporeal anastomosis. Recently, with improved skills and instruments, several surgeons have reported the safety and feasibility of a totally laparoscopic gastrectomy with intracorporeal anastomosis. This review describes the recent technical advances in intracorporeal anastomoses using circular and linear staplers that allow for totally laparoscopic distal, total, and proximal gastrectomies. Data that demonstrate advantages in early surgical outcomes of a total laparoscopic method compared to laparoscopic-assisted operations are also discussed.
Intracorporeal anastomosis; Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy; Laparoscopic total gastrectomy; Circular stapler; Linear stapler
Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) has become a technically feasible and safe procedure for early gastric cancer treatment. LAG is being increasingly performed in many centers; however, there have been few reports regarding LAG at low-volume centers. The aim of this study was to report our early experience with LAG in patients with gastric cancer at a low-volume center.
Materials and Methods
The clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes of 39 patients who underwent LAG for gastric cancer between April 2007 and March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.
The mean age was 68.3 years. Thirty-one patients had medical co-morbidities. The mean patient ASA score was 2.0. Among the 39 patients, 4 patients underwent total gastrectomies and 35 patients underwent distal gastrectomies. The mean blood loss was 145.4 ml and the mean operative time was 259.4 minutes. The mean time-to-first flatus, first oral intake, and the postoperative hospital stay was 2.8, 3.1, and 9.3 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 0%. Postoperative complications developed in 9 patients, as follows: anastomotic leakage, 1; wound infection, 1; gastric stasis, 2; postoperative ileus, 1; pneumonia, 1; cerebral infarction, 1; chronic renal failure, 1; and postoperative psychosis, 1.
LAG is technically feasible and can be performed safely at a low-volume center, but an experienced surgical team and careful patient selection are necessary. Furthermore, for early mastery of the learning curve for LAG, surgeons need education and training in addition to an accumulation of cases.
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy
We report here a case of reexpansion pulmonary edema following laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for early gastric cancer. A 57-year-old Japanese woman with no preoperative comorbidity was diagnosed with early gastric cancer. The patient underwent LADG using the pneumoperitoneum method. During surgery, the patient was unintentionally subjected to single-lung ventilation for approximately 247 minutes due to intratracheal tube dislocation. One hour after surgery, she developed severe dyspnea and produced a large amount of pink frothy sputum. Chest radiography results showed diffuse ground-glass attenuation and alveolar consolidation in both lungs without cardiomegaly. A diagnosis of pulmonary edema was made, and the patient was immediately intubated and received ventilatory support with high positive end-expiratory pressure. The patient gradually recovered and was weaned from the ventilatory support on the third postoperative day. This case shows that single-lung ventilation may be a risk factor for reexpansion pulmonary edema during laparoscopic surgery with pneumoperitoneum.
Since laparoscopic liver resection was first introduced in 2001, Korean surgeons have chosen a laparoscopic procedure as one of the treatment options for benign or malignant liver disease. We distributed and analyzed a nationwide questionnaire to members of the Korean Laparoscopic Liver Surgery Study Group (KLLSG) in order to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea. Questionnaires were sent to 24 centers of KLLSG. The questionnaire consisted of operative procedure, histological diagnosis of liver lesions, indications for resection, causes of conversion to open surgery, and postoperative outcomes. A laparoscopic liver resection was performed in 416 patients from 2001 to 2008. Of 416 patients, 59.6% had malignant tumors, and 40.4% had benign diseases. A total laparoscopic approach was performed in 88.7%. Anatomical laparoscopic liver resection was more commonly performed than non-anatomical resection (59.9% vs 40.1%). The anatomical laparoscopic liver resection procedures consisted of a left lateral sectionectomy (29.3%), left hemihepatectomy (19.2%), right hemihepatectomy (6%), right posterior sectionectomy (4.3%), central bisectionectomy (0.5%), and caudate lobectomy (0.5%). Laparoscopy-related serious complications occurred in 12 (2.8%) patients. The present study findings provide data in terms of indication, type and method of liver resection, and current status of laparoscopic liver resection in Korea.
Laparoscopic Liver Resection; Laparoscopy; Anatomical Liver Resection; Liver Diseases; HCC
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is rapidly expanding despite reservations by some surgeons regarding its safety and radicality. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy for both benign and malignant disease with particular emphasis on technical feasibility, safety, effectiveness and complications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Review of prospectively collected data of patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy from May 2005 to September 2009 under the care of one consultant surgeon.
A total of 61 laparoscopic gastrectomies were performed (35 men and 26 women) with a median age of 68 years (range, 41–90 years). There were 39 distal gastrectomies (19 adenocarcinoma, 6 gastrointestinal stromal tumour [GIST], 4 benign gastric outlet obstruction, 4 high-grade dysplasia in gastric adenomas, 4 non-healing ulcers, 2 gastric antral vascular ectasia [GAVE]); 15 sub-total gastrectomies (13 adenocarcinomas, 2 GIST); and 7 total gastrectomies (5 adenocarcinomas, 1 GIST, 1 carcinoid). Median follow-up was for 48 months (range, 1–72 months). There was one death, two major and six minor complications. All patients with complications made a satisfactory recovery.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is associated with a low mortality (1.75%) and major morbidity (3.50%). Although technically demanding, especially when a D2 lymphadenectomy is performed, our results have shown that tailored laparoscopic resection based on tumour characteristics with either D1 or D2 lymphadenectomy results in good surgical and oncological outcomes.
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Benign gastric disease; Gastric cancer; Audit
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obese patients, with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the technique preferred by many surgeons. Published data reporting the results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in patients with GERD are contradictory. In a previous observational study, we found that relative narrowing of the distal sleeve, hiatal hernia (HH), and dilation of the fundus predispose to GERD after LSG. In this study, we evaluated the effects of standardization of our LSG technique on the incidence of postoperative symptoms of GERD.
This was a concurrent cohort study. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery at our center were followed prospectively. LSG was performed in all patients in this series.
A total of 234 patients underwent surgery. There were no cases of death, fistula, or conversion to open surgery. All 134 patients who completed 6–12 months of postoperative follow-up were evaluated. Excess weight loss at 1 year was 73.5 %. In the study group, 66 patients (49.2 %) were diagnosed with GERD preoperatively, and HH was detected in 34 patients (25.3 %) intraoperatively. HH was treated by reduction in three patients, anterior repair in 28, and posterior repair in three. Only two patients (1.5 %) had symptoms of GERD at 6–12 months postoperatively.
Our results confirm that careful attention to surgical technique can result in significantly reduced occurrence of symptoms of GERD up to 12 months postoperatively, compared with previous reports of LSG in the literature.
Sleeve; Gastroesophageal reflux; Laparoscopic; Technique; Hiatal hernia
The application of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains questionable on account of technical difficulty of D2 lymphadenectomy, and there has been few large-scale follow-up results regarding the oncological adequacy of laparoscopic surgery compared with that of open surgeries for AGC. The aim of this study is to evaluate technical feasibility and oncological efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion.
From January 2008 to December 2012, 1114 patients with gastric cancer underwent D2 gastrectomy, including 336 T2 and T3 patients in term of depth of invasion. Of all 336 patients, 224 underwent LAG, while open gastrectomy (OG) performed on the other 112 patients. The comparison was based on the clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcome, and follow-up results.
There are not significant differences in clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups (P > 0.05). The operation time and first ambulation time was similar in the two groups. However, estimated blood loss, bowel function recovery time and duration of hospital stay were significantly less in the LAG group. No significant difference in morbidity and mortality was found between the LAG group and OG group (11.1% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.266; 0.9% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.859). The mean number of resected lymph nodes (LNS) between the LAG group and OG group was similar (30.6 ± 10.1 vs. 30.3 ± 8.6, P = 0.786). Furthermore, the mean number of removed LNS in each station was not significantly different in the distal gastrectomy and total gastrectomy (P > 0.05). No statistical difference was seen in 1 year survival rate (91.5% vs. 89.8% P > 0.05) and the survival curve after surgery between the LAG group and OG group.
Laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy is feasible, effective and has comparative oncological efficacy compared with open gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion.
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Lymph node; D2 dissection
Omental infarction occurring after open and laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy with partial omentectomy for gastric cancer was a very rare disease in the past, but its incidence has increased as more partial omentectomies are now being performed. But there are few case reports or radiologic studies on its increasing incidence. It is necessary to differentiate omental infarction from carcinomatosis peritonei, since both have similar imaging findings. In this report, we describe two cases of omental infarction; each occurred after open and laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy in early gastric cancer patients. Partial omentectomy was performed in both cases. Omental infarction following distal gastrectomy with partial omentectomy can be discriminated from carcinomatosis peritonei by comparing with different initial and follow up CT findings.
Omental infarction; Gastrectomy; CT; Carcinomatosis peritonei
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and optimal approach for laparoscopic pancreas- and spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymph node dissection in advanced proximal gastric cancer.
METHODS: Between August 2009 and August 2012, 12 patients with advanced proximal gastric cancer treated in Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China were enrolled and subsequently underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with pancreas- and spleen-preserving splenic hilum lymph node (LN) dissection. The clinicopathological characteristics, surgical outcomes, postoperative course and follow-up data of these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed in the study.
RESULTS: Based on our anatomical understanding of peripancreatic structures, we combined the characteristics of laparoscopic surgery and developed a modified approach (combined supra- and infra-pancreatic approaches) for laparoscopic pancreas- and spleen-preserving splenic hilum LN dissection. Surgery was completed in all 12 patients laparoscopically without conversion. Only one patient experienced intraoperative bleeding when dissecting LNs along the splenic artery and was handled with laparoscopic hemostasis. The mean operating time was 268.4 min and mean number of retrieved splenic hilum LNs was 4.8. One patient had splenic hilum LN metastasis (8.3%). Neither postoperative morbidity nor mortality was observed. Peritoneal metastasis occurred in one patient and none of the other patients died or experienced recurrent disease during the follow-up period.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with pancreas- and spleen-preserving splenic hilum LN dissection using the modified approach for advanced proximal gastric cancer could be safely achieved.
Proximal stomach; Stomach neoplasm; Laparoscopy; Lymph node excision; Splenic hilum