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1.  Case-matched comparison of laparoscopy-assisted and open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 
AIM: To compare short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted and open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by comparing the outcomes of 54 patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with those of 54 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy (ODG) between October 2004 and October 2007. The patients’ demographic data (age and gender), date of surgery, extent of lymphadenectomy, and differentiation and tumor-node-metastasis stage of the tumor were examined. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative recovery, complications, pathological findings, and follow-up data were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: The mean operative time was significantly longer in the LADG group than in the ODG group (259.3 ± 46.2 min vs 199.8 ± 40.85 min; P < 0.05), whereas intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications were significantly lower (160.2 ± 85.9 mL vs 257.8 ± 151.0 mL; 13.0% vs 24.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, the time to first flatus, time to initiate oral intake, and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the LADG group than in the ODG group (3.9 ± 1.4 d vs 4.4 ± 1.5 d; 4.6 ± 1.2 d vs 5.6 ± 2.1 d; and 9.5 ± 2.7 d vs 11.1 ± 4.1 d, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the LADG group and ODG group with regard to the number of harvested lymph nodes. The median follow-up was 60 mo (range, 5-97 mo). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 94.3%, 90.2%, and 76.7%, respectively, in the LADG group and 89.5%, 84.7%, and 82.3%, respectively, in the ODG group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 98.0%, 91.9%, and 81.1%, respectively, in the LADG group and 91.5%, 86.9%, and 82.1%, respectively, in the ODG group. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the survival rate.
CONCLUSION: LADG is suitable and minimally invasive for treating distal gastric cancer and can achieve similar long-term results to ODG.
PMCID: PMC3691043  PMID: 23801871
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Survival; Case matched study
2.  Comparison of Learning Curves and Clinical Outcomes between Laparoscopy-assisted Distal Gastrectomy and Open Distal Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2010;10(4):247-253.
Most stomach surgeons have been educated sufficiently in conventional open distal gastrectomy (ODG) but insufficiently in laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG). We compared learning curves and clinical outcomes between ODG and LADG by a single surgeon who had sufficient education of ODG and insufficient education of LADG.
Materials and Methods
ODG (90 patients, January through September, 2004) and LADG groups (90 patients, June 2006 to June 2007) were compared. The learning curve was assessed with the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes, operation time, and postoperative morbidity/mortality.
Mean operation time was 168.3 minutes for ODG and 183.6 minutes for LADG. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was 37.9. Up to about the 20th to 25th cases, the slope decrease in the learning curve for LADG was more apparent than for ODG, although they both reached plateaus after the 50th cases. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes reached the overall mean after the 30th and 40th cases for ODG and LADG, respectively. For ODG, complications were evenly distributed throughout the subgroups, whereas for LADG, complications occurred in 10 (33.3%) of the first 30 cases.
Compared with conventional ODG, LADG is feasible, in particular for a surgeon who has had much experience with conventional ODG, although LADG required more operative time, slightly more time to get adequately retrieved lymph nodes and more complications. However, there were more minor problems in the first 30 LADG than ODG cases. The unfavorable results for LADG can be overcome easily through an adequate training program for LADG.
PMCID: PMC3204502  PMID: 22076193
Laparoscopic; Gastrectomy; Learning curve
3.  Comparison of Short-Term Postoperative Outcomes in Totally Laparoscopic Distal Gastrectomy Versus Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2014;14(2):105-110.
The advantages of totally laparoscopic surgery in early gastric cancer (EGC) are unproven, and some concerns remain regarding the oncologic safety and technical difficulty. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical benefits of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) for the treatment of gastric cancer compared with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG).
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review of 211 patients who underwent either TLDG (n=134; 63.5%) or LADG (n=77; 36.5%) for EGC between April 2005 and October 2013 was performed. Clinicopathologic features and surgical outcomes were analyzed and compared between the groups.
The operative time in the TLDG group was significantly shorter than that in the LADG group (193 [range, 160~230] vs. 215 minutes [range, 170~255]) (P=0.021). The amount of blood loss during TLDG was estimated at 200 ml (range, 100~350 ml), which was significantly less than that during LADG, which was estimated at 400 ml (range, 400~700 ml) (P<0.001). The hospital stay in the TLDG group was shorter than that in the LADG group (7 vs. 8 days, P<0.001). One patient from each group underwent laparotomic conversion. Two patients in the TLDG group required reoperation: one for hemostasis after intraabdominal bleeding and 1 for repair of wound dehiscence at the umbilical port site.
TLDG for distal EGC is a technically feasible and safe procedure when performed by a surgeon with sufficient experience in laparoscopic gastrectomy and might provide the benefits of reduced operating time and intraoperative blood lossand shorter convalescence compared with LADG.
PMCID: PMC4105374  PMID: 25061537
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy
4.  Comparison of short-term outcomes and acute inflammatory response between laparoscopy-assisted and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer 
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is widely used to treat early gastric cancer. The advantages of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) are unproven, and some concerns remain regarding the early surgical outcomes due to its technical difficulty. We compared the early surgical outcomes and acute inflammatory response between patients undergoing TLDG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for treatment of early gastric cancer.
We performed a retrospective study on 212 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer between January 2008 and June 2014. A total of 179 LADG cases and 33 TLDG cases were included. After age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score were matched using propensity score matching (PSM), we compared the short-term surgical outcomes between the LADG and TLDG groups.
The TLDG group had a shorter hospital stay (9.5 days vs. 11.0 days, P = 0.046) and less blood loss (116.6 mL vs. 141.5 mL, P = 0.031) than those in the LADG group. There were no differences in the preoperative WBC count and CRP level and the other clinical data between the two groups after PSM. Postoperative WBC count, serum CRP level, and decrease rate of WBC count in the TLDG group were significantly lower than those in the LADG group.
The short-term outcomes of TLDG revealed better than that of LADG in this study. Therefore, TLDG is one of the safe and feasible procedure for the treatment of early gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC4595817  PMID: 26446446
Stomach neoplams; Laparoscopy; Short-term outcome; Acute-phase reaction; Propensity score
5.  Comparative Study of Laparoscopy-Assisted versus Open Subtotal Gastrectomy for pT2 Gastric Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(5):952-959.
Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) is a widely accepted surgery for early gastric cancer. However, its use in advanced gastric cancer has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and survival outcomes of LADG for pT2 gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between January 2004 and December 2009, we evaluated 67 and 52 patients who underwent open distal gastrectomy (ODG) and LADG, respectively, with diagnosis of pT2 gastric cancer. The clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and survival were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
There were statistically significant differences in the proximal margin of the clinicopathological parameters. The operation time was significantly longer in LADG than in ODG (207.7 vs. 159.9 minutes). There were 6 (9.0%) and 5 (9.6%) complications in ODG and LADG, respectively. During follow-up periods, tumor recurrence occurred in 7 (10.4%) patients of the ODG and in 4 (7.7%) patients of the LADG group. The 5-year survival rate of ODG and LADG was 88.6% and 91.3% (p=0.613), respectively. In view of lymph node involvement, 5-year survival rates were 96.0% in ODG versus 97.0% in LADG for patients with negative nodal metastasis (p=0.968) and 80.9% in ODG versus 78.7% in LADG for those with positive nodal metastasis (p=0.868).
Although prospective study is necessary to compare LADG with open gastrectomy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy might be considered as an alternative treatment for some pT2 gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3423848  PMID: 22869478
Laparoscopy; pT2 gastric cancer; subtotal gastrectomy
6.  Systematic review and meta-analysis of totally laparoscopic versus laparoscopic assisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 
Totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) has been developed in the hope of improving surgical quality and overcoming the limitations of conventional laparoscopic assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of evidence in support of these ideals.
A systematic review of the two operation types (LADG and TLDG) was carried out to evaluate short-term outcomes including duration of operation, retrieved lymph nodes, estimated blood loss, resection margin status, technical postoperative complications, and hospital stay.
Twelve non-randomized observational clinical studies involving 2,255 patients satisfied the eligibility criteria. Operative time was not statistically different between groups (P > 0.05). The number of retrieved lymph nodes and the resection margin length in TLDG were comparable with those in LADG. Estimated blood loss was significantly less in TLDG than that in LAG (P < 0.01). Compared to LADG, TLDG also involved lesser postoperative hospital stay (P < 0.01) and earlier time to soft diet intake (P < 0.05). Time to flatus and postoperative complications were similar for those two operative approaches.
TLDG may be a technically safe, feasible, and favorable approach in terms of better cosmesis, less blood loss, and faster recovery compared with LADG.
PMCID: PMC4384388  PMID: 25889971
Gastric cancer; Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Intracorporeal anastomosis; Meta-analysis
7.  Comparison of early-term effects between totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with delta-shaped anastomosis and conventional laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy: a retrospective study 
Objective: To compare early-term effects of totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with delta-shaped anastomosis (D-STLDG) with conventional laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG). Methods: Clinical data of 24 patients who received D-STLDG from April 2013 to April 2014, and 45 patients who received LADG from March 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative recovery time of intestinal function, post-operative pain, the length of post-operative hospital stay and the incidence of post-operative complications (infection, obstruction and delayed gastric emptying) were compared between the two groups. Results: All procedures were completed successfully and all patients of both groups were discharged smoothly from hospital. Compared with LADG, D-STLDG had shorter operative time (175.3±64.7 min vs. 205.8±42.2 min, P<0.05), less intra-operative blood (50.8±25.3 ml vs. 75.2±22.5 ml, P<0.05), shorter post-operative recovery time of intestinal function (1.2±0.5 d vs. 2.1±0.8 d, P<0.05), less post-operative pain (5.6±0.7 vs. 7.8±0.5, P<0.05), shorter post-operative hospital stay (8.5±2.2 d vs. 10.5±3.5 d, P<0.05). There were no significant difference in surgical margins achieved, the number of lymph nodes retrieved or the incidence of post-operative complications (infection, obstruction and delayed gastric emptying) (P>0.05). Conclusion: The delta-shaped anastomosis of reconstructing the digestive tract in TLDG appears to be safe, feasible and associated to faster recovery.
PMCID: PMC4538117  PMID: 26309684
Surgery; laparoscope; gastric cancer; delta-shaped anastomosis
8.  Intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping guides laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer 
Aims: The aim of this retrospective study is to explore the effects of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping guided laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for distal gastric cancer. Methods: Two hundred patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and one patients undergoing SLN guided LADG were designated as the SLN group. Ninety-nine patients having conventional LADG with D1 or D2 lymph node dissection were designated as the control group. Intraoperative and postoperative indicators such as the number of lymph nodes dissected, intraoperative and postoperative conditions, flow cytometry analysis of T lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cells, survival rates, recurrence rates and postoperative complications were investigated between these two groups. Results: The number of lymph nodes dissected in the SLN group was significantly lesser than that in the control group. Furthermore, in the SLN group, the patients achieved better immunization status, improved intraoperative and postoperative conditions and decreased postoperative complications. There were no significant differences were found in the positive lymph nodes detected, the distance between proximal and distal cutting edge, postoperative survival or recurrence rates. Conclusions: SLN guided LADG for gastric cancer is a safe and effective method and could achieve an equal clinical effect as traditional laparoscopic D1 or D2 radical operation with less operation trauma and better recovery.
PMCID: PMC4483915  PMID: 26131162
Sentinel lymph node mapping; laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy; gastric cancer
9.  Meta-analysis of short-term outcomes after laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy 
AIM: To elucidate the current status of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with regard to its short-term outcomes by comparing it with conventional open distal gastrectomy (CODG).
METHODS: Original articles published from January 1991 to August 2006 were searched in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Clinical appraisal and data extraction were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model.
RESULTS: Outcomes of 1611 procedures from 4 randomized controlled trials and 12 retrospective studies were analyzed. Compared to CODG, LADG was a longer procedure (weighted mean difference [WMD] 54.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 38.8 to 69.8; P < 0.001), but was associated with a lower associated morbidity (odds ratio [OR] 0.54; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77; P < 0.001); this was most significant for postoperative ileus (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.84; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the two groups in anastomotic, pulmonary, and wound complications and mortality. Duration from surgery to first passage of flatus was faster (WMD -0.68; 95% CI -0.85 to -0.50; P < 0.001) and the frequency of additional analgesic requirement (WMD -1.36; 95% CI -2.44 to -0.28; P = 0.01), and duration of hospital stay (WMD -5.51; 95% CI -7.61 to -3.42; P < 0.001) were significantly lower after LADG. However, a significantly higher number of lymph nodes were dissected by CODG (WMD -4.35; 95% CI -5.73 to -2.98; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: LADG for early gastric cancer is associated with a lower morbidity, less pain, faster bowel function recovery, and shorter hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC4088052  PMID: 17171799
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Postoperative complications; Mortality; Lymphadenectomy; Meta-analysis
10.  Effect of visceral fat area on outcomes of laparoscopyassisted distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: subgroup analysis by gender and parameters of obesity 
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the visceral fat area (VFA) of patients with gastric cancer undergoing laparoscopic surgery on operative outcomes such as number of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) and operative time.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and the CT scans of 597 patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with partial omentectomy and LN dissection (>D1 plus beta). Patients were stratified by gender, VFA, and body mass index (BMI), and the clinicopathologic characteristics and operative outcomes were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the effects of VFA and BMI on the number of retrieved LNs and operative time in male and female patients.
The mean number of retrieved LNs was significantly decreased for both male and female patients with high VFA. The operative time was significantly longer for both male and female patients with high VFA. The number of retrieved LNs had a statistically significant negative correlation with VFA in both men and women, but not with BMI. The operative time had a statistically significant positive correlation with VFA in men, whereas the operative time had a statistically significant positive correlation with BMI in women.
The preoperative VFA of male patients with gastric cancer who undergo LADG may affect the number of retrieved LNs and operative time. VFA was more useful than BMI for predicting outcomes of LADG.
PMCID: PMC4443263  PMID: 26029677
Stomach neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Visceral fat; Body mass index
11.  Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy in a Patient With Situs Inversus Totalis 
We report on a patient with situs inversus totalis who underwent laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) involving standard lymph node dissection (LND) for early gastric cancer.
Case Description:
A 42-y-old man presented at the Department of Internal Medicine in our hospital with the diagnosis of early gastric cancer detected elsewhere by upper endoscopy. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for this early gastric cancer was performed at our hospital. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen yielded the diagnosis of type 0-IIc, T1b1(SM), ly (+), v (−), UL (−), HM0, VM0, R0, according to the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma. Additional surgery was deemed necessary, and he was referred to our department. Preoperative computed tomography showed no liver or lung metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was cStage IA (pT1b1, cN0, cH0, cP0, and cM0). Standard LADG with LND (D1+No.7, 8a, 9) was performed successfully. Histological examination disclosed stage IB (pT1b1, pN1, sH0, sP0, and sM0). The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14 after an uneventful postoperative course. Eighteen months after the operation, he is doing well without recurrent gastric cancer.
Laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer with SIT should be considered a feasible, safe, and curative procedure.
PMCID: PMC4035646  PMID: 24960499
Situs inversus totalis; Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy; Gastric cancer
12.  Benefits of intracorporeal gastrointestinal anastomosis following laparoscopic distal gastrectomy 
Laparoscopic gastrectomy has recently been gaining popularity as a treatment for cancer; however, little is known about the benefits of intracorporeal (IC) gastrointestinal anastomosis with pure laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) compared with extracorporeal (EC) anastomosis with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG).
Between June 2000 and December 2011, we assessed 449 consecutive patients with early-stage gastric cancer who underwent LDG. The patients were classified into three groups according to the method of reconstruction LADG followed by EC hand-sewn anastomosis (LADG + EC) (n = 73), using any of three anastomosis methods (Billroth-I (B-I), Billroth-II (B-II) or Roux-en-Y (R-Y); LDG followed by IC B-I anastomosis (LDG + B-I) (n = 248); or LDG followed by IC R-Y anastomosis (LDG + R-Y) (n = 128)). The analyzed parameters included patient and tumor characteristics, operation details, and post-operative outcomes.
The tumor location was significantly more proximal in the LDG + R-Y group than in the LDG + B-I group (P < 0.01). Mean operation time, intra-operative blood loss, and the length of post-operative hospital stay were all shortest in the LDG + B-I group (P < 0.05). Regarding post-operative morbidities, anastomosis-related complications occurred significantly less frequently in with the LDG + B-I group than in the LADG + EC group (P < 0.01), whereas there were no differences in the other parameters of patients’ characteristics.
Intracorporeal mechanical anastomosis by either the B-I or R-Y method following LDG has several advantages over at the LADG + EC, including small wound size, reduced invasiveness, and safe anastomosis. Although additional randomized control studies are warranted to confirm these findings, we consider that pure LDG is a useful technique for patients with early gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC3546847  PMID: 23232031
Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy; Intracorporeal anastomosis; Extracorporeal anastomosis; Billroth I; Roux-en-Y
13.  Comparison of the Invasiveness Between Reduced-Port Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy and Conventional Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
International Surgery  2013;98(3):247-253.
It is unknown whether reduced-port gastrectomy has a less invasive nature than conventional laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (C-LADG). So we compared 30 cases of dual-port laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (DP-LADG; using an umbilical port plus a right flank 5-mm port) as a reduced-port gastrectomy with 30 cases of C-LADG alternately performed by a single surgeon. No significant differences were observed in blood loss, intraoperative complications, the number of dissected lymph nodes, postoperative complications, the day of first defecation, analgesic agents required, changes in body temperature, heart rate, white blood cell count, serum albumin level, or lymphocyte count between the 2 groups. The amounts of oral intake in the DP-LADG group were significantly higher on postoperative days 9 and 10. We concluded that the amount of oral intake in the DP-LADG group was superior to that in the C-LADG group; however, no other evidence of DP-LADG being less invasive than C-LADG was obtained.
PMCID: PMC3756848  PMID: 23971779
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Single incision; Single port; Reduced port
14.  Comprehension of readmission after laparoscopy assisted distal gastrectomy: what are the causes? 
The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes regarding readmission for laparoscopy-assisted distal subtotal gastrectomy (LADG) compared to conventional open distal subtotal gastrectomy (CODG) for early gastric cancer (EGC).
Between January 2003 and December 2006, 223 and 106 patients underwent LADG and CODG, respectively, for EGC by one surgeon. The clinicopathologic characteristics, postoperative outcomes, postoperative complications, overall 5-year survival, recurrence, and readmission were retrospectively compared between the two groups.
Multiple readmission rate in LADG was significantly less than that in CODG (0.4% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.039), although the readmission rate, reoperation rate after discharge, and mean readmission days were not significantly different between the two groups. Readmission rates of the LADG and CODG groups were 12.6% and 14.2%, respectively. First flatus time and postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LADG group. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Overall 5-year survival rates of the LADG and CODG group were 100% and 99.1% (P = 0.038), respectively.
Compared to the CODG group, the LADG group has several advantages in surgical short-term outcome and some benefit in terms of readmission in surgical long-term outcome for patients with EGC, even though the oncologic outcome of LADG is similar to that of CODG over 5 years.
PMCID: PMC4024929  PMID: 24851224
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Gastric neoplasms; Patient readmission; Prognosis
15.  Learning curve of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2005;11(47):7508-7511.
AIM: To evaluate the nature of the “learning curve” for laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer.
METHODS: The data of 90 consecutive patients with early gastric cancer who underwent LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy between April 2003 and November 2004 were reviewed. The 90 patients were divided into 9 sequential groups of 10 cases in each group and the average operative time of these 9 groups were determined. Other learning indicators, such as transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complication, time to first flatus, and postoperative hospital stay, were evaluated.
RESULTS: After the first 10 LADGs, the operative time reached its first plateau (230-240 min/operation) and then reached a second plateau (<200 min/operation) for the final 30 cases. Although a significant improvement in the operative time was noted after the first 50 cases, there were no significant differences in transfusion requirements, conversion rates to open surgery, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, or postoperative hospital stay between the groups.
CONCLUSION: Based on operative time analysis, this study show that experience of 50 cases of LADG with systemic lymphadenectomy for early gastric cancer is required to achieve optimum proficiency.
PMCID: PMC4725181  PMID: 16437724
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Systemic lymphadenectomy; Learning curve
16.  Lessons Learned from a Comparative Analysis of Surgical Outcomes of and Learning Curves for Laparoscopy-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2015;15(1):29-38.
Before expanding our indications for laparoscopic gastrectomy to advanced gastric cancer and adopting reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy, we analyzed and audited the outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for adenocarcinoma; this was done during the adoptive period at our institution through the comparative analysis of short-term surgical outcomes and learning curves (LCs) of two surgeons with different careers.
Materials and Methods
A detailed comparative analysis of the LCs and surgical outcomes was done for the respective first 95 and 111 LADGs performed by two surgeons between July, 2006 and June, 2011. The LCs were fitted by using the non-linear ordinary least squares estimation method.
The postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 14.6% and 0.0%, respectively, and there was no significant difference in the morbidity rates (12.6% vs. 16.2%, P=0.467). More than 25 lymph nodes were retrieved by each surgeon during LADG procedures. The LCs of both surgeons were distinct. In this study, a stable plateau of the LC was not achieved by both surgeons even after performing 90 LADGs.
Regardless of the experience with gastrectomy or laparoscopic surgery for other organs, or the age of surgeon, the outcome was quite acceptable; the learning process differ according to the surgeon's experience and individual characteristics.
PMCID: PMC4389094  PMID: 25861520
Laparoscopy; Gastrectomy; Learning curve; Treatment outcome
17.  Port Site Metastasis After Laparoscopic-Assisted Distal Gastrectomy (LADG) 
International Surgery  2013;98(4):363-366.
This report describes a case of port site metastasis after laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. A 57-year-old man with clinical cTNM stage II (T2 N0 M0) gastric cancer was admitted to our hospital. After administration of an oral fluoropyrimidine drug (S-1) for 2 weeks, he underwent laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, the pTNM stage was IA (T1b N0 M0). Eighteen months later, the patient developed a subcutaneous metastasis at the trocar site. A second operation was performed, and the abdominal wall mass was resected. The histological finding confirmed a diagnosis of metastatic gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed micrometastasis in fat tissue adjacent to the lymph node near the left gastric artery. Surgeons should be aware that port site metastasis can occur in patients undergoing LADG for gastric cancer with lymphatic micrometastasis, which is undetectable on routine hematoxylin and eosin staining.
PMCID: PMC3829064  PMID: 24229024
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Port site recurrence; Gastric cancer
18.  Comparison of liver function after laparoscopically assisted and open distal gastrectomies for patients with liver disease 
Surgical Endoscopy  2011;25(6):1761-1765.
Several studies have suggested that carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum may have an effect on liver function. This study aimed to compare liver function after laparoscopically assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) and open distal gastrectomy (ODG) for patients with liver disease.
Between January 2006 and December 2007, the study enrolled 50 patients with EGC and liver disease including 18 liver cirrhosis patients, 3 fatty liver patients (n = 3), and 29 healthy hepatitis B or C virus carriers. Albumin, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels as well as the volume of drainage in the LADG (n = 18) and ODG (n = 32) groups were determined to assess liver function.
The albumin level on postoperative day 7 was significantly higher in the LADG group (3.5 mg/dl) than in the ODG group (3.1 mg/dl; p = 0.042), and the volume of drainage on postoperative day 2 was significantly lower in the LADG group (154.3 ml) than in the ODG group (403.1 ml; p = 0.013). Diuretics were needed by three patients (16.7%) in the LADG group and six patients (18.7%) in the ODG group for control of ascites (p = 0.587). For the patients with liver cirrhosis, none of the parameters between the two groups were significantly different.
For gastric cancer patients with chronic liver disease, LADG can be considered a safe surgical procedure showing surgical outcomes comparable with those for ODG.
PMCID: PMC3098342  PMID: 21424207
Gastric cancer; LADG; Liver disease
19.  V-shaped lymph node dissection in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy; new technique of intra-abdominal dissection and surgical outcomes 
Recently, laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) has become popular for the treatment of early gastric cancer. Furthermore, the use of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy (TLG), a more difficult procedure than LADG, has been increasing in Japan. Laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy is currently performed more frequently than laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) in hospitals in Japan.
Reconstruction after LDG is commonly performed extra-abdominally and lymph node dissection of the lesser curvature is performed at the same time. We have developed a new method of intra-abdominal lymph node dissection for the lesser curvature.
Our technique showed positive results, is easy to perform, and is reasonable in terms of general oncology theory.
In oncological therapy, this technique could be a valuable surgical option for totally laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3536664  PMID: 23021309
Laparoscopic gastrectomy; Lymph node dissection
20.  The current status and future perspectives of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer 
Gastric cancer is most common cancer in Korea. Surgery is still the main axis of treatment. Due to early detection of gastric cancer, the innovation of surgical instruments and technological advances, gastric cancer treatment is now shifting to a new era. One of the most astonishing changes is that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is becoming more dominant treatment for early gastric cancer. These MIS are represented by endoscopic resection, laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery, single-port surgery and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Among them, laparoscopic gastrectomy is most actively performed in the field of surgery. Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for early gastric cancer (EGC) has already gained popularity in terms of the short-term outcomes including patient's quality of life. We only have to wait for the long-term oncologic results of Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. Upcoming top issues following oncologic safety of LADG are function-preserving surgery for EGC, application of laparoscopy to advanced gastric cancer and sentinel lymph node navigation surgery. In the aspect of technique, laparoscopic surgery at present could reproduce almost the whole open procedures. However, the other fields mentioned above need more evidences and experiences. All these new ideas and attempts provide technical advances, which will minimize surgical insults and maximize the surgical outcomes and the quality of life of patients.
PMCID: PMC3204545  PMID: 22066116
Gastric cancer; Future perspective; Laparoscopy; Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery; Minimally invasive surgery
21.  Production of Intraperitoneal Interleukin-6 Following Open or Laparoscopic Assisted Distal Gastrectomy 
International Surgery  2014;99(6):812-818.
The interleukin (IL)-6 concentration in plasma or serum has been considered to represent the degree of stress resulting from surgery. However, IL-6 in peritoneal fluid has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration and amount of IL-6 in peritoneal fluid as indicators of surgical stress. To obtain basic data on peritoneal release of IL-6 during gastric cancer surgery, we measured IL-6 in peritoneal drainage samples, stored for up to 72 hours postoperatively, from patients who had undergone conventional open (ODG group, n = 20) and laparoscopic-assisted (LADG group, n = 19) distal gastrectomy. Within 24 hours, 61 and 77% of the IL-6 was released into the peritoneal cavity in the LADG and ODG groups, respectively. In both groups, the concentration and amount of peritoneal fluid IL-6 were significantly correlated with each other (LADG group: Spearman's rank correlation test [rS] = 0.48, P = 0.04; ODG group: rS = 0.58, P = 0.01). The concentration and amount of IL-6 in peritoneal fluid was 2.8- and 3.6-fold higher in the ODG than in the LADG group, respectively (P < 0.01). With regard to the relationship between the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) peak and the concentration or amount of peritoneal fluid IL-6 released within 24 hours, only the concentration of peritoneal fluid IL-6 in the LADG group was significantly correlated (rS = 0.60, P = 0.01) with the serum CRP peak. Our findings suggest that the amount and concentration of IL-6 released into the peritoneal cavity for up to 24 hours after surgery can each be a reliable parameter for assessment of surgical stress.
PMCID: PMC4254245  PMID: 25437592
Interleukin (IL)-6; Cytokine; Peritoneal fluid; Surgical stress; Gastric cancer; Laparoscopic surgery; Gastrectomy
22.  Standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC): a prospective, observational, multicenter study [NCT01283893] 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:209.
Extended systemic lymphadenectomy (D2) is standard procedure for surgical treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) although less extensive lymphadenectomy (D1) can be applied to early gastric cancer. Complete D2 lymphadenectomy is the mandatory procedure for studies that evaluate surgical treatment results of AGC. However, the actual extent of D2 lymphadenectomy varies among surgeons because of a lacking consensus on the anatomical definition of each lymph node station. This study is aimed to develop a consensus for D2 lymphadenectomy and also to qualify surgeons that can perform both laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy.
This (KLASS-02-QC) is a prospective, observational, multicenter study to qualify the surgeons that will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT, which is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for AGC. Surgeons and reviewers participating in the study will be required to complete a questionnaire detailing their professional experience and specific gastrectomy surgical background/training, and the gastrectomy metrics of their primary hospitals. All surgeons must submit three laparoscopic and three open D2 gastrectomy videos, respectively. Each video will be allocated to five peer reviewers; thus each surgeon’s operations will be assessed by a total of 30 reviews. Based on blinded assessment of unedited videos by experts’ review, a separate review evaluation committee will decide whether or not the evaluated surgeon will participate in the KLASS-02-RCT. The primary outcome measure is each surgeon’s proficiency, as assessed by the reviewers based on evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy.
We believe that our study for standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC) will guarantee successful implementation of the subsequent KLASS-02-RCT study. After making consensus on D2 lymphadenectomy, we developed evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. We also developed a unique surgical standardization and quality control system that consists of recording unedited surgical videos, and expert review according to evaluation criteria for completeness of D2 lymphadenectomy. We hope our systematic approach will set a milestone in surgical standardization that is essential for surgical clinical trials. Additionally, our methods will serve as a novel system for educating surgeons and assessing surgical proficiency.
Trial registration
PMCID: PMC4000001  PMID: 24646327
Neoplasms of stomach; D2 lymphadenectomy; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Standardization; Quality control
23.  Short-term surgical and long-term survival outcomes after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer 
BMC Gastroenterology  2014;14:41.
Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) for gastric cancer has gradually gained popularity. However, the long-term oncological outcomes of LDG have rarely been reported. This study aimed to investigate the survival outcomes of LDG, and evaluate the early surgical outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) and totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG).
Clinical outcomes of 240 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent LDG at our institution between October 2004 and April 2013 were analyzed. Early surgical outcomes of LADG and TLDG were compared and operative experiences were evaluated.
Of the 240 patients, 93 underwent LADG and 147 underwent TLDG. There were 109 T1, 36 T2, 31 T3, and 64 T4a lesions. The median follow-up period was 31.5 months (range: 4–106 months). Tumor recurrence was observed in 40 patients and peritoneal recurrence was observed most commonly. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates according to tumor stage were 90.3% and 93.1% in stage I, 72.7% and 67.6% in stage II, and 34.8% and 41.5% in stage III, respectively. No significant differences in early surgical outcomes were noted such as operation time, blood loss and postoperative recovery between LADG and TLDG (P >0.05).
LDG for gastric cancer had acceptable long-term oncologic outcomes. The early surgical outcomes of the two commonly used LDG methods were similar.
PMCID: PMC3939636  PMID: 24568165
Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy; Laparoscopy; Lymphadenectomy; Survival
24.  Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer with situs inversus totalis: A case report 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2015;21(35):10246-10250.
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare anomaly in which the abdominal and thoracic cavity structures are located opposite to their usual positions. Occasionally, patients with this condition are diagnosed with malignant tumors. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with gastric cancer and SIT. Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth II anastomosis were performed successfully on the patient by careful consideration of the mirror-image anatomy. The operation required 230 min, and no intraoperative complications occurred. The final pathological report was pT4aN0M0, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition staging guidelines. The postoperative course was favorable, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 8. We believe that this is the first case of LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy reported in a SIT patient with advanced gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC4572807  PMID: 26401091
Situs inversus totalis; Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy; Gastric cancer; Lymph node dissection; Laparoscopic surgery
25.  Port site herniation of the small bowel following laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy: a case report 
Port-site herniation is a rare but potentially dangerous complication after laparoscopic surgery. Closure of port sites, especially those measuring 10 mm or more, has been recommended to avoid such an event.
Case presentation
We herein report the only case of a port site hernia among a series 52 consecutive cases of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) carried out by our unit between July 2002 and March 2007. In this case the small bowel herniated and incarcerated through the port site on day 4 after LADG despite closure of the fascia. Initial manifestations experienced by the patient, possibly due to obstruction, and including mild abdominal pain and nausea, occurred on the third day postoperatively. The definitive diagnosis was made on day 4 based on symptoms related to leakage from the duodenal stump, which was considered to have developed after severe obstruction of the bowel. Re-operation for reduction of the incarcerated bowel and tube duodenostomy with peritoneal drainage were required to manage this complication.
We present this case report and review of literature to discuss further regarding methods of fascial closure after laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC2276505  PMID: 18275616

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