Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed hypoplastic thyroid in its normal location. A thyroid scan with Technetium-99 m pertechnate showed two intensely hyperfunctioning foci of ectopic thyroid tissue at a higher level in the midline consistent with dual ectopic thyroid, one at the base of tongue and the other in submental region. No uptake was seen in the normal bed.
Thyroglobulin gene mutation is a rare cause of congenital hypothyroidism, but thyroglobulin gene mutations are thought to be associated with thyroid cancer development. A 21-year-old Japanese man treated with levothyroxine for congenital hypothyroidism had an enlarged thyroid gland with undetectable serum thyroglobulin despite elevated serum TSH level. The patient was diagnosed with thyroglobulin gene mutation, with compound heterozygosity for Gly304Cys missense mutation and Arg432X nonsense mutation. Ultrasonography showed a hypovascular large tumor in the left lobe that appeared as a cold nodule on thyroid scintigraphy. He underwent total thyroidectomy, but pathological study did not reveal findings of thyroid carcinoma, but rather a hyperplastic nodule with hemorrhage. Strong cytoplasmic thyroglobulin immunostaining was observed, but sodium iodide symporter immunostaining was hardly detected in the hyperplastic nodule. The clinical characteristics of patients with thyroglobulin gene mutations are diverse, and some patients are diagnosed by chance on examination of goiter in adults. The presence of thyroid tumors that appear as cold nodules on thyroid scintigraphy should consider the potential for thyroid carcinoma, if the patient has relatively low serum thyroglobulin concentration in relation to the degree of TSH without thyroglobulin autoantibody.
Loss-of-function mutations of the PAX8 gene are considered to mainly cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to thyroid hypoplasia. However, some patients with PAX8 mutation have demonstrated a normal-sized thyroid gland.
Here we report a CH patient caused by a PAX8 mutation, which manifested as iodide transport defect (ITD). Hypothyroidism was detected by neonatal screening and L-thyroxine replacement was started immediately. Although 123I scintigraphy at 5 years of age showed that the thyroid gland was in the normal position and of small size, his iodide trapping was low. The ratio of the saliva/plasma radioactive iodide was low. He did not have goiter; however laboratory findings suggested that he had partial ITD. Gene analyses showed that the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene was normal; instead, a mutation in the PAX8 gene causing R31H substitution was identified. The present report demonstrates that individuals with defective PAX8 can have partial ITD, and thus genetic analysis is useful for differential diagnosis.
Thyroid gland agenesis is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism and is usually sporadic. We investigated a brother and sister from consanguineous parents, ascertained through systematic newborn screening, and initially diagnosed with thyroid agenesis. Careful cervical ultrasonography in both patients revealed a very hypoplastic thyroid gland. By direct sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor gene, we identified the substitution of threonine in place of a highly conserved alanine at position 553, in the fourth predicted transmembrane domain. The mutation was found homozygous in the affected siblings, and heterozygous in both parents and two unaffected siblings. Functional analysis in transfected COS-7 cells showed that it resulted in extremely low expression at the cell surface as compared with the wild-type receptor, in spite of an apparently normal intracellular synthesis. The small amount of mutated receptor expressed at the surface of transfected cells bound thyrotropin with normal affinity and responded in terms of cAMP production, but the in vivo significance of these data from overexpressed receptor in transfected cells is unclear. Of note, blood thyroglobulin was unexpectedly elevated in the patients at the time of diagnosis, a finding that might prove useful in refining etiologies of congenital hypothyroidism.
Objective: Developmental defects of the thyroid gland are the most frequent causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD).
Methods: Medical records of 234 patients with TD followed between the years 2008 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography.
Results: Of 234 patients, 120 (51.3%) were male and 114 (48.7%) were female. Male to female ratio was 1.08 and there were no significant differences in epidemiologic and clinical findings between girls and boys. One hundred eighty-three patients (78.2%) were diagnosed as hypoplasia, 35 (14.9%) as thyroid agenesis, 4 as ectopic thyroid gland and 12 as hemiagenesis. The mean maternal age of the group was 28.9±0.4 years (range 18 to 45 years), which is significantly higher than the recently reported mean maternal ages for Turkish women.
Conclusions: Advanced maternal age was more prevalent in patients with TD. Our clinical and epidemiologic findings suggested no evidence of sexual dimorphism.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Permanent congenital hypothyroidism; thyroid dysgenesis; hypoplasia; maternal age
Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and 99mTc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59%) patients (6 males and 4 females) had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect). Five (29%) had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41%) had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.
To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis.
Materials and Methods
Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results.
In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107).
Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.
Hyperfunctioning nodule; Radionuclide imaging; Thyroid cancer; Ultrasonography; Guideline
The role of Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases is not well established. In particular, Doppler ultrasonography findings in children with Hashimoto's thyroiditis are very limited. We examined gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound findings in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children in an attempt to understand the feasibility of future prospective controlled studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twenty-one children with newly diagnosed Hashimoto's thyroiditis were recruited in the study. The patients were euthyroid or had subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of the ultrasonography examination. According to the color Doppler scale developed by Schulz et al., thyroid glands were classified into four patterns based on visual scoring and the mean resistive index (RI), which was calculated via measurements from both lobes, and these results were compared with gray-scale findings.
The mean RI value, calculated as the mean of the RI values of both lobes obtained from each patient, was found to be 0.57±0.05 (range 0.48-0.67) cm/sn. The distribution of thyroid classifications was as follows: Pattern 0, n = 7; Pattern I, n = 6; Pattern II, n = 4; and Pattern III (“thyroid inferno”), n = 4. The mean RI values in patients with normal or near-normal gray-scale findings (n = 10) and patients with more substantial gray-scale changes (n = 11) were not significantly different and were lower than the values in normal children previously presented in the literature.
The results indicated that the RI may be more sensitive than other ultrasound parameters for the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Doppler Ultrasound; Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
AIM: To evaluate the role of thyroid blood flow assessment by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and compare it to technetium pertechnetate thyroid scanning.
METHODS: Twenty-six patients with thyrotoxicosis were included in the study. Clinical history was taken and physical examination and thyroid function tests were performed for all patients. Thyroid autoantibodies were measured. The thyroid glands of all patients were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography for size, shape and echotexture. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid tissue was performed and spectral flow analysis of both inferior thyroid arteries was assessed. Technetium99 pertechnetate scanning of the thyroid gland was done for all patients. According to thyroid scintigraphy, the patients were divided into two groups: 18 cases with Graves’ disease and 8 cases with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All patients had suppressed thyrotropin. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was supported by the clinical picture and follow up of patients.
RESULTS: Peak systolic velocities of the inferior thyroid arteries were significantly higher in patients with Graves’ disease than in patients with thyroiditis (P = 0.004 in the right inferior thyroid artery and P = 0.001 in left inferior thyroid artery). Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography parameters demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 87.5% in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.
CONCLUSION: Color Doppler flow of the inferior thyroid artery can be used in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, especially when there is a contraindication of thyroid scintigraphy by radioactive material in some patients.
Doppler; Thyrotoxicosis; Thyroid scintigraphy; Graves’ diseases; Thyroiditis
A 27-year-old man presented with chronic hematospermia, painful ejaculation, and primary infertility. Physical examination, transrectal ultrasonography, and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated left seminal vesicle cyst, left renal agenesia, and contralateral seminal vesicle hypoplasia. Hormone workup (LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone) was normal. Sperm analysis showed oligoasthenozoospermia and low ejaculate volume. We performed transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TUR-ED) using methylene blue vasography guidance without surgical-related complications. Hematospermia and painful ejaculation completely improved at 2-month followup, and the patient's wife experienced a missed abortion thereafter. This patient was considered as a rare variant of Zinner's syndrome and was managed effectively with a less invasive treatment modality (TUR-ED).
Although hemangioendothelioma (HHE) is a commonly encountered hepatic tumor during infancy, HHE−related hypothyroidism is rare. We present a patient who developed HHE−related hypothyroidism during the neonatal period and showed marked improvement in hypothyroidism by regression of HHE. A 28−day−old boy with TSH level of 77 mIU/mL on neonatal screening and diagnosed as congenital hypothyroidism was started on L−thyroxine (L−T4) (11 μg/kg/day) therapy on the 21th day of life. On physical examination, the liver was palpable 5 cm below the right costal margin, and the thyroid gland was nonpalpable. Thyroid ultrasonography was normal. Although L−T4 dose was increased to 15 μg/kg/day, TSH was not suppressed and free T3 level remained low. HHE in both lobes of the liver was detected by abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was started with prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day and alpha−interferon 3 million U/m2/3 times per week. Thyroid dysfunction was thought to be due to type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity expressed by HHE. L−T4 therapy was changed to Bitiron® tablet, which includes both T4 and T3, and euthyroidism was attained within 1 month. Thyroid hormone requirement was reduced and treatment was discontinued after regression of the HHE. At the most recent visit, the patient was 21 months old and off treatment. His growth and neurological development were normal for age and he was euthyroid. HHE should be considered in cases with severe hypothyroidism resistant to high−dose thyroid hormone replacement. The treatment of HHE in combination with T4 and T3 therapy results in euthyroidism.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Hepatic hemangioendothelioma; consumptive hypothyroidism; type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase
Thyroid imaging is helpful in confirming the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism and in establishing the aetiology. Although isotope scanning is the standard method of imaging, ultrasound assessment may be complementary.
To determine the strengths and weaknesses of thyroid ultrasound and isotope scanning in neonates with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) elevation.
Babies from the West of Scotland with raised capillary TSH (>15 mU/l) on neonatal screening between January 1999 and 2004 were recruited. Thyroid dimensions were measured using ultrasonography, and volumes were calculated. Isotope scanning was carried out with a pinhole collimator after an intravenous injection of 99m‐technetium pertechnetate.
40 infants (29 female) underwent scanning at a median of 17 days (range 12 days to 15 months). The final diagnosis was athyreosis (n = 11), ectopia (n = 12), hypoplasia (n = 8; 3 cases of hemi‐agenesis), dyshormonogenesis (n = 5), transient hypothyroidism (n = 2), transient hyperthyrotropinaemia (n = 1) and uncertain status with gland in situ (n = 1). 6 infants had discordant scans with no isotope uptake but visualisation of thyroid tissue on ultrasound. This was attributed to TSH suppression from thyroxine (n = 3); maternal blocking antibodies (n = 1); cystic degeneration of the thyroid (n = 1); and possible TSH receptor defect (n = 1).
Isotope scanning was superior to ultrasound in the detection of ectopic tissue. However, ultrasound detected tissue that was not visualised on isotope scanning, and showed abnormalities of thyroid volume and morphology. We would therefore advocate dual scanning in newborns with TSH elevation as each modality provides different information.
We wanted to describe the characteristic ultrasonography (US) features and clinical findings for making the diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis.
Materials and Methods
A total of 31 lesions from 27 patients were confirmed as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis by US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings such as the lesion's size, margin and shape, the discrepancy between length and breadth and the vascularity. The clinical findings such as acute neck pain or fever were reviewed. The follow-up clinical and ultrasonographic data were reviewed for 15 patients.
The thyroid gland was found to be enlarged in five patients, it was normal size in 20 patients and it was smaller in two patients. All the lesions had focally ill-defined hypoechogenicity. Hypervascularity was not noted in any of the lesions. Painful neck swelling was present in 18 patients. An accompanying fever was documented in nine of the 18 patients. Twelve patients showed disappearance (n = 3) or a decreased size (n = 9) of their lesions on follow-up US.
The presence of ill-defined hypoechoic thyroid lesions without a discrete round or oval shape is characteristic for subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, and particularly when this is associated with painful neck swelling and/or fever.
Thyroid; Ultrasound (US); Thyroiditis
Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted.
Ectopic thyroid; multiple ectopia; SPECT/CT; sub-lingual thyroid; thyroglossal cyst
A 68-year-old man had a rapidly growing, painless neck mass, thought to be nodular goiter. Ultrasonography showed a giant, heterogeneous mass occupying the middle and superior poles and protruding outside of the left thyroid lobe. The results of the thyroid function tests were normal. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed a large hypoactive nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Complete surgical removal of tumor was performed and macroscopically demonstrated a well-demarked lesion outside the thyroid gland. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of fibroblast-like spindle cells in a patternless architecture and extensive stromal hyalinization. Immunohistochemistry showed positive reaction for CD34 in spindle cells and diffuse bcl-2 staining. The pathology was confirmed as solitary fibrous tumor. In the follow-up period after surgery, thyroid scintigraphy showed normal left thyroid lobe. Solitary fibrous tumor originated from or associated with thyroid gland is extremely rare. According to our knowledge, this is the first reported solitary fibrous tumor presenting like a cold thyroid nodule. This pathology must be considered for differential diagnosis of neck masses in the thyroid region.
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection of TC in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Moreover, this rare situation can be complicated by a synchronous thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma can be detected if diagnostic scintigraphy is performed after total thyroidectomy.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Congenital; hypothyroidism; differentiated thyroid carcinoma; synchronous; thyroglossal duct carcinoma
In order to localise neuroendocrine tumours of the foregut type (that is, of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), 18 patients were studied prospectively by endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. These 18 patients had a total of 25 primary tumour lesions which were verified histologically in tissue obtained by surgery or by ultrasound or endoscopy guided biopsy. Tumours were found in the stomach (n = 1), duodenum (n = 6), pancreas (n = 17), and liver (n = 1). Endoscopic ultrasonography had the highest sensitivity for tumour detection, followed by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (88%, 52%, 36%, 32%, and 24% respectively). Endoscopic ultrasonography was especially sensitive in tumours smaller than 2 cm in diameter (88% v somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 35%; computed tomography 12%; transabdominal ultrasonography 6%; and magnetic resonance imaging 0%). Of 17 tumours located in the pancreas, endoscopic ultrasonography showed a sensitivity of 94% (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 47%; computed tomography 47%; transabdominal ultrasonography 41%; and magnetic resonance imaging 29%). Of eight extrapancreatic tumours, six were identified by endoscopic ultrasonography, five by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and only one by computed tomography, transabdominal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. One neuroendocrine tumour that was not detected by endoscopic ultrasonography was correctly identified by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Endoscopic ultrasound allowed correct determination of the tumour size and tumour spread into parapancreatic structures, especially the large vessels (T stage), in all 14 patients operated upon. The lymph node stage (N stage) was correctly determined in 10 of these 14 patients. In summary, endoscopic ultrasonography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were the most sensitive imaging methods for the localisation of these tumours and should be used as early diagnostic procedures to accurately stage neuroendocrine tumours of the foregut type.
The aim of this study was to report a rare case of non-functional ectopic thyroid tissue in the neck with a coexisting normal thyroid. A 36-year-old female presented with a mass in the anterior neck. The thyroid function of the patient was normal. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal thyroid gland and a solid mass in the middle lower neck. Scintigraphy showed a normal thyroid and the mass did show any uptake of 99mTcO4−. The patient underwent en bloc resection. During surgery, the mass was observed to be well encapsulated and completely separated from the thyroid gland. Histology revealed it as ectopic thyroid tissue. The patient had an uneventful recovery.
ectopic; thyroid; cervical mass; non-functional; histology
Introduction: Alveolointerstitial involvement is a common manifestation in patients with connective tissue disorders. The aim of our study is to investigate the utility of modified TTUS scoring system compared with HRCT findings of pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid lung disease. Material and Methods: Thirty one consecutive patients with a suspected diagnosis of rheumatoid lung involvement were examined with high resolution transthoracic ultrasonography for detecting of ultrasonographic comet tail signe as a ultrasonographic marker of lung involvement in alveolointerstitial involvement in rheumatoid lung disease and the results of them were compared with High resolution computed tomography as gold standard method for diagnosis of lung involvement in this patients. Results: In comparison with HRCT as gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of TTUS was 73.58%, 88.23%, 95.12% and 51.72% respectively. Conclusion: Modified TTUS can be a useful imaging modality in the evaluation of even early stages of pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid lung disease.
Ultrasound; lung; comet tail
Thyroid ectopia (TE) is an embryological aberration of the thyroid gland migration most commonly observed in the lingual region followed by the sublingual, hyoid, and mediastinal regions. TE is often complicated by local compressive symptoms resulting in dysphagia, dysphonia, and dyspnea. Surgical removal of TE is frequently complicated by difficulties in intubation, increased perioperative bleeding, and severe primary hypothyroidism; on the other hand, I131 ablation is limited by high doses needed and the concern for long-term effects especially in children. We report three children with TE who all presented with compressive symptoms and were managed conservatively with levothyroxine resulting in resolution of compressive symptoms and favorable outcomes. Levothyroxine supplementation is effective and has an important role in managing TE, not only in correcting the associated hypothyroidism but also in resolving the associated compressive symptoms by reducing the size of the ectopic thyroid tissue.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Thyroid ectopia; lingual thyroid; submandibular thyroid; thyroglossal cyst thyroid; dual ectopic thyroid; levothyroxine
For the atypical cases of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules, ultrasonographic findings are a primary guideline for the surgical treatment. However, they have the intrinsic risk of overtreatment, as well. In this study we examined whether the Bethesda system could provide a real effect on the diagnostic rate of atypical cytology, and thereby reduce the number of cases diagnosed as atypical from FNA cytology.
We reviewed 166 cases diagnosed as atypical by FNA cytology at this institute between the years 2005 to 2010. We classified these cases on the basis of ultrasonographic and cytological findings and compared them with the histological results.
Ultrasonographically, findings suspicious for malignancy and indeterminate were associated with 83.7% and 47.2% of malignancy rates, respectively. Cytopathologically, the malignancy rates varied according to the main cytological features and the highest malignancy rate was 77.3%. Based on the Bethesda system, 39.2% of the cases diagnosed as atypical could be grouped into the category of suspicious for malignancy and yielded a malignancy rate of 76.9%.
Although ultrasonography provides an excellent guideline for the surgical treatment of atypical cases, it also showed considerable risk of overtreatment. The Bethesda system did not offer definitive effects on the rate of atypical cytology, but this system seemed to provide stricter boundaries for the atypical cytology and to aid in reducing the rates thereof. This in turn may permit that more limited cases are allotted to ultrasonographic decision making.
Thyroid nodule; Cytology; Atypical; The Bethesda system; Ultrasonography
Hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (HICA) is a rare congenital anomaly caused by an incomplete development of the organ, and only a few cases are reported in the literature. The prevalence of HICA (including agenesia and aplasia) is estimated to about 0.01%.
We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with hearing loss on the left side and no other symptoms or signs related to vascular impairment. HICA was discovered incidentally by color duplex sonography of the extracranial cerebral vessel and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging angiography (angio MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the head.
Compensatory flow allows HICA patients to remain asymptomatic, but complications may occur. The pathways of the collateral circulation in association with aplasia or HICA are described. A differential diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasonographic (US) detection of diffuse luminal narrowing of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Recognition of this disease has important clinical implications.
Arteries, abnormalities; Hypoplasia internal carotid artery; Extracranial duplex sonography; Transcranial duplex sonography
The properties of specific prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin, PGI2) binding sites in normal thyroid tissue have been characterised. Tissue samples obtained intraoperatively from patients with 'cold' solitary thyroid nodules (as preoperatively selected by thyroid gland scintigraphy, thyroid gland ultrasonography and Papanicolaou cytology following fine needle aspiration of the nodule area) have been used for thyroid membrane preparation. Employing [3H]iloprost, a chemically stable PGI2-analogue as a radioligand, saturation experiments for comparative binding studies have been attempted. Scatchard analysis of the binding data obtained for normal thyroid parenchyma distant to the nodule area revealed heterogeneity of the [3H]iloprost sites exhibiting a high-affinity binding capacity (Bmax) of 613.2 +/- 130.4 fmol mg-1 membrane protein and a low-affinity binding capacity of 5.1 +/- 1.6 pmol mg-1 membrane protein. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) amounted to 18.9 +/- 8.9 nM and to 131.5 +/- 39.2 nM, respectively. Scatchard analysis of the binding data obtained for benign thyroid adenoma indicated significant lower binding capacities exhibiting a Bmax of 325.8 +/- 110.0 fmol mg-1 membrane protein (Kd: 31.0 +/- 7.5 nM) for the high-affinity sites and of 3.9 +/- 2.5 pmol mg-1 membrane protein (Kd: 364.9 +/- 183.6) for the low affinity sites. In cancer tissue a selective loss of the low affinity sites and a significant diminution of the high-affinity sites was observed: in well differentiated cancer the high-affinity sites showed a Bmax of 299.7 +/- 46.0 fmol mg-1 membrane protein (Kd: 38.9 +/- 7.3 nM), in anaplastic cancer, less differentiated papillar and follicular cancers of 180.6 +/- 25.1 fmol mg-1 membrane protein (Kd: 54.6 +/- 16.7 nM). Well differentiated papillar and follicular cancers did not differ from each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This article explores the basic development and pathophysiology of the thyroid gland. New factors in the normal development of the thyroid in the neonate are mentioned. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism continues to increase. We describe congenital hypothyroidism, its possible etiologies, treatment and outcomes. We explore hypothyroxinanemia in pre−term neonates and the risk/benefit of prophylactic thyroid hormone replacement. We discuss the late rise of thyrotropin (TSH) in ill infants and those with very low birth weight. Ill infants or those born premature should have their thyroid function tests routinely monitored. On the occasion of borderline thyroid function test results, TRH testing can be useful in identifying those infants with either persistent or transient hypothyroidism. TRH testing is also helpful in identifying those patients with secondary hypothyroidism. With the early identification and prompt and proper treatment, neonates with congenital hypothyroidism, transient or persistent, should have positive long−term outcomes.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
congenital hypothyroidism; thyroxine
Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation, which is reported to be usually asymptomatic but may have varied presentations. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and the challenges posed in the management of this entity.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective analysis of 6 patients diagnosed to have crossed fused renal ectopia during 1997-2010. The diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in one patient. In one patient it was detected on antenatal ultrasonography and in the other 4 patients it was detected during investigations for abdominal pain, abdominal mass, anorectal malformation and urinary tract infection.
The left moiety was crossed and fused with the right moiety in 4 cases. Ultrasonography was found to be a good screening investigation with useful diagnostic contributions from CT scans, radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance urography. Micturating cystourethrography revealed presence of VUR in 4 cases, 3 of whom have undergone ureteric reimplantation. Two patients required pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction; in one of these patients the upper ureter was entrapped in the isthmus. In one patient, a non-functioning moiety resulted in nephrectomy. All children were asymptomatic at last follow-up with stable renal functions.
Crossed fused renal ectopia was detected in most patients during investigation for other problems. It was found more commonly in boys. The left moiety was crossed to the right in the majority of cases. Associated urological problems were found in most cases and required the appropriate surgical management.
Congenital anomalies of kidney; crossed fused renal ectopia; fusion anomalies of kidney