The International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012 organized by Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy was held at Seoul, Korea on June 9 to 10, 2012, during which invited lectures of world renowned experts on the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract were given with a wide range of the latest knowledge and novel imaging of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). There were very informative five sessions in the lower GI part consisting of: Colonoscopy in IBD; what can we do in 2012?; A look into the bowel beyond colon in IBD; How to estimate the invasion depth of early GI cancer?; No more no man's land: small bowel exploration; and colorectal ESD: can it be a popular procedure?
Lower gastrointestinal tract; Inflammatory bowel disease; Colonoscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
This special September issue of Clinical Endoscopy will discuss various aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic advancement of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, explaining what is new in digestive endoscopy and why international network should be organized. We proposed an integrated model of international conference based on the putative occurrence of Digestive Endoscopy Networks. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, role of endoscopy in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus, endoscopy beyond submucosa, endoscopic treatment for stricture and leakage in upper GI, how to estimate the invasion depth of early GI cancers, colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a look into the bowel beyond colon in IBD, management of complications in therapeutic colonoscopy, revival of endoscopic papllirary balloon dilation, evaluation and tissue acquisition for indeterminate biliopancreatic stricture, updates in the evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions, issues for tailored endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoluminal stents, management of upper GI bleeding, endoscopic management of frustrating situations, small bowel exploration, colorectal ESD, valuable tips for frustrating situations in colonoscopy, choosing the right stents for endoscopic stenting of biliary strictures, advanced techniques for pancreaticobiliary visualization, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliopancreatic drainage, and how we can overcome the obstacles were deeply touched. We hope that IDEN 2012, as the very prestigious endoscopy networks, served as an opportunity to gain some clues for further understanding of endoscopic technologies and to enhance up-and-coming knowledge and their clinical implications from selected 25 peer reviewed articles and 112 invited lectures.
IDEN; Network; Digestive endoscopy
We herein discuss the history, the present situation, and the future prospects of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) and Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES). Through the symposiums, endoscopy medicine in both countries has developed and matured remarkably, and Korea and Japan have taken a leadership position in this field. In the future, we continuously challenge to advance the symposium further, to hold international sessions, to develop the new KSGE journal Clinical Endoscopy and the JGES journal Digestive Endoscopy through friendly competition. Through those above, we will share useful information with the world and provide leadership in the field of endoscopy medicine.
Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy; Japanese Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society; Endoscopy medicine; Joint symposium; History of Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Topics related with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) made up considerable portion among many invited lectures presented in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012 meeting. While the scientific programs were divided into the fields of upper gastrointestinal (UGI), lower gastrointestinal, and pancreato-biliary (PB) categories, UGI and PB parts mainly dealt with EUS related issues. EUS diagnosis in subepithelial lesions, estimation of the invasion depth of early gastrointestinal cancers with EUS, and usefulness of EUS in esophageal varices were discussed in UGI sessions. In the PB part, pancreatic cystic lesions, EUS-guided biliopancreatic drainage, EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and improvement of diagnostic yield in indeterminate biliary lesions by using intraductal ultrasound were discussed. Advanced techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, EUS elastography and forward-viewing echoendoscopy were also discussed. In this paper, I focused mainly on topics of UGI and briefly mentioned about advanced EUS techniques since more EUS related papers by other invited speakers were presented afterwards.
Endosonography; Early gastrointestinal cancer; Subepithelial lesion; Technique
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the most basic part of endoscopy field. Although old and basic procedures are still in use, a line of innovative techniques and devices are being introduced to allow much complex and difficult procedures in endoscopy unit. High quality upper endoscopic procedures can replace or obviate surgical treatment. Selected reviews dealing with non-variceal upper GI bleeding, challenging esophageal stenting, endoscopic management of subpeithelial tumor, and endoscopic evaluation for candidate lesions of endoscopic submucosal dissection were selected among the topics from International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012.
Endoscopy; Hemorrhage; International Digestive Endoscopy Network
AIM: To compare the cost and accuracy of upper gastrointestinal (GI) X-ray and upper endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer using data from the 2002-2004 Korean National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP).
METHODS: The study population included 1 503 646 participants in the 2002-2004 stomach cancer screening program who underwent upper GI X-ray or endoscopy. The accuracy of screening was defined as the probability of detecting gastric cancer. We calculated the probability by merging data from the NCSP and the Korea Central Cancer Registry. We estimated the direct costs of the medical examination and the tests for upper GI X-ray, upper endoscopy, and biopsy.
RESULTS: The probability of detecting gastric cancer via upper endoscopy was 2.9-fold higher than via upper GI X-ray. The unit costs of screening using upper GI X-ray and upper endoscopy were $32.67 and $34.89, respectively. In 2008, the estimated cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer was $53 094.64 using upper GI X-ray and $16 900.43 using upper endoscopy. The cost to detect one case of gastric cancer was the same for upper GI X-ray and upper endoscopy at a cost ratio of 1:3.7.
CONCLUSION: Upper endoscopy is slightly more costly to perform, but the cost to detect one case of gastric cancer is lower.
Gastric cancer; Mass screening; Endoscopy; Early diagnosis; X-ray diagnosis
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, all of which are associated with the common risk factors of poor diet and insufficient physical activity, caused 63% of all deaths globally in 2008. The increasing discussion of global NCDs, including at the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, and a request for multi-stakeholder engagement, prompted the International Food Information Council Foundation to sponsor the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit: “Insights to Motivate Healthful, Active Lifestyles” on September 19, 2011, in New York City. The Summit brought together a diverse group of stakeholders, representing 34 nations from governments; communication, health, nutrition, and fitness professions; civil society; nonprofits; academia; and the private sector. The Summit provided expert insights and best practices for the use of science-based, behavior-focused communications to motivate individuals to achieve healthful, active lifestyles, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of NCDs. Presented here are some of the highlights and key findings from the Summit.
behavior; communication; energy balance; messages; non-communicable disease
The field of endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in recent years. Besides the ‘traditional’ endoscopic procedures (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), advances in imaging technology (endoscopic ultrasonography, wireless capsule endoscopy, and double balloon enteroscopy) have allowed GI specialists to detect and manage disorders throughout the digestive system. This article reviews various endoscopic procedures and provides up-to-date endoscopic indications based on the recommendations of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and American Cancer Society for primary care providers in order to achieve high-quality and cost-effective care.
endoscopy; endoscopic indications; endoscopic procedures; imaging; primary care; gastrointestinal disorders; appropriate use
Intensivists are regularly confronted with the question of gastrointestinal bleeding. To date, the latest international recommendations regarding prevention and treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding lack a specific approach to the critically ill patients. We present recommendations for management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children, developed with the GRADE system by an experts group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), with the participation of the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Emergency Medicine (SFMU), the French Society of Gastroenterology (SNFGE), and the French Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SFED). The recommendations cover five fields of application: management of gastrointestinal bleeding before endoscopic diagnosis, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding unrelated to portal hypertension, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, management of presumed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care.
Gastrointestinal bleeding; Intensive care; Ulcer; Gastric/esophageal varices; Recommendations
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Operation teams for developing the guideline were organized into four areas: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel preparation, Crohn's disease, and small bowel tumor. A total of 20 key questions were selected. In preparing this guideline, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, KMbase, KISS, and KoreaMed literature searches were performed. After writing a draft of the guideline, opinions from various experts were reflected before approving the final document. The guideline should be regarded as recommendations only to gastroenterologists in providing care to their patients. These are not absolute rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care. Although further revision may be necessary as new data appear, this guideline is expected to play a role for adequate diagnostic approaches of various small bowel diseases.
Capsule endoscopy; Small bowel disease; Guideline
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but for an endoscopy service to be effective it is essential that it is not overloaded with inappropriately referred patients. A joint working party in Britain has considered the available literature on indications for endoscopy, assessed standard practice through a questionnaire, and audited randomly selected cases using an independent panel of experts and an American database system. They used these data to produce guidelines on the appropriate and inappropriate indications for referral for endoscopy, although they emphasise that under certain circumstances there may be reasons to deviate from the advice given. The need for endoscopy is most difficult to judge in patients with dyspepsia, and this aspect is discussed in detail. Early endoscopy will often prove more cost effective than delaying until the indications are clearer.
The main objectives of this study were to establish expert validity (a convincing realistic representation of colonoscopy according to experts) and construct validity (the ability to discriminate between different levels of expertise) of the Simbionix GI Mentor II virtual reality (VR) simulator for colonoscopy tasks, and to assess the didactic value of the simulator, as judged by experts.
Four groups were selected to perform one hand–eye coordination task (EndoBubble level 1) and two virtual colonoscopy simulations on the simulator; the levels were: novices (no endoscopy experience), intermediate experienced (<200 colonoscopies performed before), experienced (200–1,000 colonoscopies performed before), and experts (>1,000 colonoscopies performed before). All participants filled out a questionnaire about previous experience in flexible endoscopy and appreciation of the realism of the colonoscopy simulations. The average time to reach the cecum was defined as one of the main test parameters as well as the number of times view of the lumen was lost.
Novices (N = 35) reached the cecum in an average time of 29:57 (min:sec), intermediate experienced (N = 15) in 5:45, experienced (N = 20) in 4:19 and experts (N = 35) in 4:56. Novices lost view of the lumen significantly more often compared to the other groups, and the EndoBubble task was also completed significantly faster with increasing experience (Kruskal Wallis Test, p < 0.001). The group of expert endoscopists rated the colonoscopy simulation as 2.95 on a four-point scale for overall realism. Expert opinion was that the GI Mentor II simulator should be included in the training of novice endoscopists (3.51).
In this study we have demonstrated that the GI Mentor II simulator offers a convincing realistic representation of colonoscopy according to experts (expert validity) and that the simulator can discriminate between different levels of expertise (construct validity) in colonoscopy. According to experts the simulator should be implemented in the training programme of novice endoscopists.
Endoscopy; Simulator; Training; Colonoscopy; Validation
The conjunction of “hard genetics” research centers, with well established biomedical and bioethics research groups, and the exceptional possibility to hold the 6th annual meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG, 13th–15th March 2009) was an excellent opportunity to get together in synergy the entire Cameroonian “DNA/RNA scientists” . This laid to the foundation of the Cameroonian Society of Human Genetics (CSHG) that was privilege to hold its inaugural meeting in conjunction to the 6th annual meeting of the AfSHG. The theme was "Human Origin, Genetic Diversity and Health”. The AfSHG and CSHG invited leading African and international scientists in genomics and population genetics to review recent data and provide an understanding of the state-of-knowledge of Human Origin and Genetic Diversity. Overall one opening ceremony eight session, five keynote and guest speakers, 18 invited oral communications, 13 free oral communications, 43 posters and two social events could summarize the meeting. This year’s conference was graced by the presence of one Nobel Prize winner Dr Richard Roberts (Physiology and Medicine 1993). The meeting registered up to ten contributions of Cameroonian scientists from the Diaspora (currently in USA, Belgium, Gambia, Sudan and Zimbabwe). Such Diaspora participation is an opportunity to generate collaborations with home country scientists and ultimately turn the “brain drain” to “brain circulation” that could reduce the impact of the migration of health professional from Africa. Interestingly, the personal implication of the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Heath who opened the meeting in the presence of the Secretary General of the Ministry of Higher Education and a representative of the Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation was a wonderful opportunity for advocacy of genetic issues at the decision-makers level. Beyond our expectation, a major promise of the Cameroonian government was the creation of the National Human Genome Institute. If this goal comes true, this will be a critical step to bring more genetics for the purpose of Public Health to the Cameroonian people. The sub-Saharan African Region needs significant capacity building in the broad area of basic research in general and Genetics (especially Human Genetics) in particular. In that respect, the existence and current activities of the AfSHG and its impact at the National levels in Africa, is a major development for the continent and an initiative that needs further encouragement from the international community.
The pancreatobiliary organ is composed of one of the most complicated structures and complex physiological functions among other digestive organs in our body. This is why endoscopic procedure in pancreaticobiliary system requires rather complicated techniques. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, many interesting pancreatobiliay endoscopy related topics were presented. Basic procedures like endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), advanced techniques like endoscopic necrosectomy, prevention and management of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and spyglass system are reviewed in this highlight summary.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Common bile duct stones; Endoscopic necrosectomy; Spyglass
There is a lack of agreement on which gastric cancer screening method is the most effective in the general population. The present study compared the relative performance of upper-gastrointestinal series (UGIS) and endoscopy screening for gastric cancer.
A population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We analyzed data on 2,690,731 men and women in Korea who underwent either UGIS or endoscopy screening for gastric cancer between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005. Final gastric cancer diagnosis was ascertained through linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry. We calculated positivity rate, gastric cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of UGIS and endoscopy screening.
The positivity rates for UGIS and endoscopy screening were 39.7 and 42.1 per 1,000 screenings, respectively. Gastric cancer detection rates were 0.68 and 2.61 per 1,000 screenings, respectively. In total, 2,067 interval cancers occurred within 1 year of a negative UGIS screening result (rate, 1.17/1,000) and 1,083 after a negative endoscopy screening result (rate, 1.17/1,000). The sensitivity of UGIS and endoscopy screening to detect gastric cancer was 36.7 and 69.0%, respectively, and specificity was 96.1 and 96.0%. The sensitivity of endoscopy screening to detect localized gastric cancer was 65.7%, which was statistically significantly higher than that of UGIS screening.
Overall, endoscopy performed better than UGIS in the NCSP for gastric cancer. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account the corresponding costs and reduction in mortality.
The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer.
Esophagus; Stomach; Colon; Adenoma; Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopy; Screening
Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in older populations. Furthermore, iron deficiency anemia is common and merits investigation and treatment, as it usually results from chronic occult bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. In view of a wide use of capsule endoscopy as a diagnostic procedure for occult gastrointestinal bleeding and of the growth of aging population, we performed a literature review about the feasibility of capsule endoscopy in the elderly.
We conducted a literature search in the PubMed database in July 2012, and all English-language publications on capsule endoscopy in elderly patients since 2005 were retrieved. The potential original articles mainly focused on obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were all identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed for further hand data retrieving.
We retrieved only six papers based on different primary end-points. Four were retrospective non randomized studies and two were prospective non randomized studies. In the end 65, 70, 80 and 85 years were used as an age cut-off. All studies evaluate the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in iron deficiency anemia. Only three studies assess the feasibility of capsule examination of the elderly.
Iron deficiency anemia in the elderly with or without obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the major indication for capsule endoscopy after a negative esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy. It is safe and effective to identify a small bowel pathology without a great discomfort for the elderly. Inability to swallow the capsule, battery failure before capsule reaches the cecum, and capsule retention are some of the important problems associated with capsule endoscopy in elderly as well as in younger patients.
The present study was aimed to determine whether endoscopist specialty is associated with high-quality endoscopy.
Materials and Methods
We prospectively collected endoscopy quality related data based on the Endoscopy Quality Rating Scale (EQRS) of 277 endoscopy units in a hospital setting from the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea in 2009. Gastroenterology medical professors (n=154) from university hospitals visited each endoscopy unit and graded the unit according to the EQRS. The scores from the EQRS were analyzed and compared in relation to endoscopy training during residency and endoscopy subspecialist certification.
After excluding data from 3 endoscopy units, EQRS data from 274 endoscopy units were analyzed: 263 esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) screening units and 90 colonoscopy screening units. There were no significant differences in the scores of EQRS with respect to endoscopy training during residency (p=no significance), except for scores of EGDs for "Facility and Equipment" (p=0.030). However, EQRS scores were significantly higher in the endoscopy units where endoscopy subspecialists performed the endoscopies than those where Endoscopy Subspecialists did not perform the endoscopies (p<0.05, except p=0.08 for the "Process" criteria of EGD).
Endoscopist specialty is an important determinant of high-quality endoscopy in Korea.
Endoscopy; Endoscopy Quality Rating Scale (EQRS); endoscopist; quality; specialty
Gastrointestinal bleeding can be obscure or occult (OGIB), the causes and diagnostic approach will be discussed in this editorial. The evaluation of OGIB consists on a judicious search of the cause of bleeding, which should be guided by the clinical history and physical findings. The standard approach to patients with OGIB is to directly evaluate the gastrointestinal tract by endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, angiography, radionuclide scanning, capsule endoscopy. The source of OGIB can be identified in 85%-90%, no bleeding sites will be found in about 5%-10% of cases. Even if the bleedings originating from the small bowel are not frequent in clinical practice (7.6% of all digestive haemorrhages, in our casuistry), they are notoriously difficult to diagnose. In spite of progress, however, a number of OGIB still remain problematic to deal with at present in the clinical context due to both the difficulty in exactly identifying the site and nature of the underlying source and the difficulty in applying affective and durable diagnostic approaches so no single technique has emerged as the most efficient way to evaluate OGIB.
Occult gastrointestinal bleeding; Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding; Bleeding; Gastrointestinal endoscopy
This study was carried out to validate the role of virtual reality computer simulation as a method of assessment of psychomotor skills in gastrointestinal endoscopy. We aimed to investigate whether the GI Mentor II computer system (Simbionix Ltd.) was able to differentiate between subjects with different experience with GI endoscopy.
Twenty-eight subjects were included in the study. They were divided into 3 groups according to their experience with GI endoscopy: experienced [group 1, performed >200 endoscopic procedures, (n=8)] residents [group 2, performed <50 endoscopic procedures, (n=10)] and medical students [group 3, never performed GI endoscopy, (n=10)]. All participants received identical pretest instruction on the simulator. Assessment of endoscopic skills was performed during a simulated colonoscopy and was based on parameters measured by the computer system: time, percentage of mucosa surface examined, efficiency of screening, time with a clear view, excessive local pressure, pain, time with pain, loop formation, and total time with a loop.
Significant differences in performance existed between surgeons in the 3 groups. Experienced surgeons demonstrated best performance parameters, followed by the residents and the medical students. Significant differences in time (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.001), percentage of mucosa surface examined (P=0.001), efficiency of screening (P=0.001), time with a clear view (P=0.001), pain experienced (P=0.004), time with pain (P=0.012), loop formation (P<0.001), time with a loop (P<0.001), and excessive local pressure (P=0.001) were demonstrated. Significant differences existed between group 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 (Mann-Whitney test, P<0.05). Differences between groups 2 and 3 did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05).
The VR simulator was able to differentiate between subjects with different endoscopic experience. This indicates that the GI Mentor measures skills relevant for gastrointestinal endoscopy and can be used in training programs as an assessment tool.
Virtual reality; Training; Assessment; Psychomotor skills; Endoscopy
Since its development, video capsule endoscopy (VCE) introduced a new area in the study of small bowel disease. We reviewed and discussed current issues from Korean capsule endoscopy multicenter studies. Main results are as follows: First, there was no significant difference in diagnostic yield according to the method of bowel preparation. Second, VCE represents a reliable and influential screening measure in patients with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and this technique could successfully alter the clinical course especially for patients with small bowel tumor. Third, the inter-observer variation in the expert group was lower than that in trainee group. Fourth, studies about the spontaneous capsule passage after retention showed 2.5% of retention rate and the size of lumen was an important factor of spontaneous passage. We need larger scale studies on the effect of bowel preparation methods on the diagnostic yield and further studies about the learning curve or unique capsule endoscopic findings for small intestinal diseases in Korean patients.
Capsule endoscopy; Small intestine; Small bowel disease
Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.
On September 2, 2010 and November 25, 2011, the Korean Research Project on Integrated Exposure Assessment to Hazardous Materials for Food Safety (KRIEFS) organized two international symposia in Seoul, Korea. KRIEFS, established by the Korean Food and Drug Administration in March 2010, envisioned these international symposia as means to obtain advanced experiences from other countries and to reflect on and refine the KRIEFS's survey design and methods.
For the first symposium KRIEFS invited human biomonitoring (HBM) experts from Germany, the US, and Canada. The visiting HBM experts shared the details of their national studies while the KRIEFS discussed study design, as well as the methods, results and policymaking processes of the KRIEFS project. The second symposium was organized to share the survey design and results on endocrine disruptors from Taiwan.
The Speaker from Germany introduced the German Environmental Survey and shared their experiences in HBM design, such as the process of developing reference values, and discussed the new HBM plan in Germany and the European Union. The Representative from Canada shared insights from national HBM approach. In the case of the US, the speaker focused on risk communication with subjects in epidemiological studies. In the second international symposium, the speaker shared the experience of endocrine disruptors'studies from Taiwan.
KRIEFS was able to better understand previous nationwide HBM research designs, policy making process, and risk communication with research subjects.
Hazardous materials; Exposure; Assessment; Cohort studies
The 30 non-H atoms in title dihydrazine compound, C20H16N6O4·2H2O, are close to coplanar, the r.m.s. deviation for these atoms being 0.096 Å. The conformation about each of the C=N bonds is E, and the molecule has non-crystallographic 2/m symmetry. The presence of O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding leads to a three-dimensional network in the crystal structure. A highly disordered solvent molecule is present within a molecular cavity defined by the organic and water molecules. Its contribution to the electron density was removed from the observed data in the final cycles of refinement and the formula, molecular weight and density are given without taking into account the contribution of the solvent molecule.
AIM: To measure the perceived satisfaction with gastric cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in South Korea.
METHODS: Data were derived from the participants in a satisfaction survey of the Quality Evaluation of National Cancer Screening in 2009. This is a population-based nationwide telephone survey of participants who were screened by the NCSP between May and October 2009. This study included 4412 participants who provided full sets of data and who had upper endoscopies for the purpose of gastric cancer screening.
RESULTS: The negative appraisal percentages for each of the seven questions were as follows: explanation in preparation for the upper endoscopy, 12.3%; explanation about the process and procedure of the upper endoscopy, 13.8%; explanation about any pain or discomfort related to the upper endoscopy, 27.5%; level of pain during the procedure, 30.3%; physical environment, 16.2%; manner of the staff, 11.2%, and privacy protection, 8.8%.
CONCLUSION: The critical issues identified by the Pareto analysis include the adequacy of the explanation about any pain or discomfort associated with the upper endoscopy and the level of pain experienced during the procedure.
Gastric cancer; Cancer screening; Upper endoscopy; Satisfaction