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1.  International Digestive Endoscopy Network to Strengthen Network for Lower Gastrointestinal Diseases Including Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):251-253.
The International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012 organized by Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy was held at Seoul, Korea on June 9 to 10, 2012, during which invited lectures of world renowned experts on the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract were given with a wide range of the latest knowledge and novel imaging of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). There were very informative five sessions in the lower GI part consisting of: Colonoscopy in IBD; what can we do in 2012?; A look into the bowel beyond colon in IBD; How to estimate the invasion depth of early GI cancer?; No more no man's land: small bowel exploration; and colorectal ESD: can it be a popular procedure?
PMCID: PMC3429746  PMID: 22977812
Lower gastrointestinal tract; Inflammatory bowel disease; Colonoscopy; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
2.  Highlights of International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2013 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(5):425-435.
Rapid advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as the evolution of science have made it necessary for us to continue update in either various endoscopic techniques or state of art lectures relevant to endoscopy. International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2013 was held in conjunction with Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KJSGE) during June 8 to 9, 2013 at Seoul, Korea. Two days of impressive scientific program dealt with a wide variety of basic concerns from upper gastrointestine (GI), lower GI, pancreaticobiliary endoscopy to advanced knowledge including endoscopic submucosal dissection forum. IDEN seems to be an excellent opportunity to exchange advanced information of the latest issues on endoscopy with experts from around the world. In this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy, we prepared state of art review articles from contributing authors and the current highlights will skillfully deal with very hot spots of each KJSGE, upper GI, lower GI, and pancreaticobiliary sessions by associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3797920  PMID: 24143297
International Digestive Endoscopy Network; Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy; Japan Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Society; Highlight; Clinical Endoscopy
3.  International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012: A Patchwork of Networks for the Future 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):209-210.
This special September issue of Clinical Endoscopy will discuss various aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic advancement of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, explaining what is new in digestive endoscopy and why international network should be organized. We proposed an integrated model of international conference based on the putative occurrence of Digestive Endoscopy Networks. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, role of endoscopy in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus, endoscopy beyond submucosa, endoscopic treatment for stricture and leakage in upper GI, how to estimate the invasion depth of early GI cancers, colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a look into the bowel beyond colon in IBD, management of complications in therapeutic colonoscopy, revival of endoscopic papllirary balloon dilation, evaluation and tissue acquisition for indeterminate biliopancreatic stricture, updates in the evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions, issues for tailored endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoluminal stents, management of upper GI bleeding, endoscopic management of frustrating situations, small bowel exploration, colorectal ESD, valuable tips for frustrating situations in colonoscopy, choosing the right stents for endoscopic stenting of biliary strictures, advanced techniques for pancreaticobiliary visualization, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliopancreatic drainage, and how we can overcome the obstacles were deeply touched. We hope that IDEN 2012, as the very prestigious endoscopy networks, served as an opportunity to gain some clues for further understanding of endoscopic technologies and to enhance up-and-coming knowledge and their clinical implications from selected 25 peer reviewed articles and 112 invited lectures.
PMCID: PMC3429737  PMID: 22977803
IDEN; Network; Digestive endoscopy
4.  Past, Present, and Future of the Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 
Clinical Endoscopy  2011;44(1):1-5.
We herein discuss the history, the present situation, and the future prospects of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) and Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES). Through the symposiums, endoscopy medicine in both countries has developed and matured remarkably, and Korea and Japan have taken a leadership position in this field. In the future, we continuously challenge to advance the symposium further, to hold international sessions, to develop the new KSGE journal Clinical Endoscopy and the JGES journal Digestive Endoscopy through friendly competition. Through those above, we will share useful information with the world and provide leadership in the field of endoscopy medicine.
PMCID: PMC3363048  PMID: 22741105
Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy; Japanese Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society; Endoscopy medicine; Joint symposium; History of Korea-Japan Joint Symposium on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
5.  Endoscopic Ultrasound, Where Are We Now in 2012? 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):321-323.
Topics related with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) made up considerable portion among many invited lectures presented in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012 meeting. While the scientific programs were divided into the fields of upper gastrointestinal (UGI), lower gastrointestinal, and pancreato-biliary (PB) categories, UGI and PB parts mainly dealt with EUS related issues. EUS diagnosis in subepithelial lesions, estimation of the invasion depth of early gastrointestinal cancers with EUS, and usefulness of EUS in esophageal varices were discussed in UGI sessions. In the PB part, pancreatic cystic lesions, EUS-guided biliopancreatic drainage, EUS-guided tissue acquisition, and improvement of diagnostic yield in indeterminate biliary lesions by using intraductal ultrasound were discussed. Advanced techniques such as contrast-enhanced EUS, EUS elastography and forward-viewing echoendoscopy were also discussed. In this paper, I focused mainly on topics of UGI and briefly mentioned about advanced EUS techniques since more EUS related papers by other invited speakers were presented afterwards.
PMCID: PMC3429761  PMID: 22977827
Endosonography; Early gastrointestinal cancer; Subepithelial lesion; Technique
6.  Highlights of the 48th Seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(3):203-211.
This special May issue of Clinical Endoscopy discusses the tutorial contents dealing with either the diagnostic or therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy that contain very fundamental and essential points in this filed. The seminar of Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) had positioned as one of prime educational seminars covering the very beginner to advanced experts of GI endoscopy. Besides of four rooms allocated for each lecture, two additional rooms were open for either live demonstration or hands-on course, covering totally 20 sessions including one special lecture. Among these prestigious lectures, 12 lectures were selected for the current review articles in this special issue of Clinical Endoscopy journal. Basic course for beginner to advanced tips to expert were all covered in this seminar. This introductory review prepared by four associated editors of Clinical Endoscopy contained core contents divided into four sessions-upper gut, lower gut, pancreaticobiliary, and specialized topic session part-to enhance understandings not covered by enlisted review articles in this issue.
PMCID: PMC3678054  PMID: 23767027
Clinical endoscopy; Seminar; Hands-on course; Highlight
7.  Upper Endoscopy in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012: Towards Upper End of Quality 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):217-219.
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the most basic part of endoscopy field. Although old and basic procedures are still in use, a line of innovative techniques and devices are being introduced to allow much complex and difficult procedures in endoscopy unit. High quality upper endoscopic procedures can replace or obviate surgical treatment. Selected reviews dealing with non-variceal upper GI bleeding, challenging esophageal stenting, endoscopic management of subpeithelial tumor, and endoscopic evaluation for candidate lesions of endoscopic submucosal dissection were selected among the topics from International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012.
PMCID: PMC3429739  PMID: 22977805
Endoscopy; Hemorrhage; International Digestive Endoscopy Network
8.  Communication strategies to help reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases: Proceedings from the inaugural IFIC Foundation Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit 
Nutrition Reviews  2012;70(5):301-310.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, all of which are associated with the common risk factors of poor diet and insufficient physical activity, caused 63% of all deaths globally in 2008. The increasing discussion of global NCDs, including at the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, and a request for multi-stakeholder engagement, prompted the International Food Information Council Foundation to sponsor the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit: “Insights to Motivate Healthful, Active Lifestyles” on September 19, 2011, in New York City. The Summit brought together a diverse group of stakeholders, representing 34 nations from governments; communication, health, nutrition, and fitness professions; civil society; nonprofits; academia; and the private sector. The Summit provided expert insights and best practices for the use of science-based, behavior-focused communications to motivate individuals to achieve healthful, active lifestyles, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of NCDs. Presented here are some of the highlights and key findings from the Summit.
PMCID: PMC3415678  PMID: 22537216
behavior; communication; energy balance; messages; non-communicable disease
9.  Comparing upper gastrointestinal X-ray and endoscopy for gastric cancer diagnosis in Korea 
AIM: To compare the cost and accuracy of upper gastrointestinal (GI) X-ray and upper endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer using data from the 2002-2004 Korean National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP).
METHODS: The study population included 1 503 646 participants in the 2002-2004 stomach cancer screening program who underwent upper GI X-ray or endoscopy. The accuracy of screening was defined as the probability of detecting gastric cancer. We calculated the probability by merging data from the NCSP and the Korea Central Cancer Registry. We estimated the direct costs of the medical examination and the tests for upper GI X-ray, upper endoscopy, and biopsy.
RESULTS: The probability of detecting gastric cancer via upper endoscopy was 2.9-fold higher than via upper GI X-ray. The unit costs of screening using upper GI X-ray and upper endoscopy were $32.67 and $34.89, respectively. In 2008, the estimated cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer was $53 094.64 using upper GI X-ray and $16 900.43 using upper endoscopy. The cost to detect one case of gastric cancer was the same for upper GI X-ray and upper endoscopy at a cost ratio of 1:3.7.
CONCLUSION: Upper endoscopy is slightly more costly to perform, but the cost to detect one case of gastric cancer is lower.
PMCID: PMC2806564  PMID: 20066745
Gastric cancer; Mass screening; Endoscopy; Early diagnosis; X-ray diagnosis
10.  Knowledge of quality performance measures associated with endoscopy among gastroenterology trainees and the impact of a web-based intervention 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2012;76(1):100-6.e1-4.
Knowledge of quality measures in endoscopy among trainees is unknown.
To assess knowledge of endoscopy-related quality indicators among U.S. trainees and determine whether it improves with a Web-based intervention.
Randomized, controlled study.
This study involved trainees identified from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy membership database.
Participants were invited to complete an 18-question online test. Respondents were randomized to receive a Web-based tutorial (intervention) or not. The test was readministered 6 weeks after randomization to determine the intervention’s impact.
Main Outcome Measurements
Baseline knowledge of endoscopy-related quality indicators and impact of the tutorial.
A total of 347 of 1220 trainees (28%) completed the test; the mean percentage of correct responses was 55%. For screening colonoscopy, 44% knew the adenoma detection rate benchmark, 42% identified the cecal intubation rate goal, and 74% knew the recommended minimum withdrawal time. A total of 208 of 347 trainees (59%) completed the second test; baseline scores were similar for the tutorial (n = 106) and no tutorial (n = 102) groups (56.4% vs 56.9%, respectively). Scores improved after intervention for the tutorial group (65%, P = .003) but remained unchanged in the no tutorial group. On multivariate analysis, each additional year in training (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–3.4), training at an academic institution (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–6.3), and receiving the tutorial (OR 3.2; 95% CI, 1.7–5.9) were associated with scores in the upper tertile.
Low response rate.
Knowledge of endoscopy-related quality performance measures is low among trainees but can improve with a Web-based tutorial. Gastroenterology training programs may need to incorporate a formal didactic curriculum to supplement practice-based learning of quality standards in endoscopy. (Gastrointest Endosc 2012;76:100–6.)
PMCID: PMC3739290  PMID: 22421498
11.  Endoscopist-related factors contributing to high-quality colonoscopy: results of a Delphi survey 
Education and competency assessment in gastrointestinal endoscopy is important. Concerning colonoscopy, it is not completely clear what the best way is to learn this procedure, what defines competency in colonoscopy, and which factors define a high-quality colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to determine the endoscopist-related factors that define a high-quality colonoscopy. A three-round Delphi survey among expert endoscopists was carried out. In round 1, the panel was invited to identify factors essential for a good colonoscopy. The listed factors were to be ranked during the second round. In the third round, a 5-point Likert scale was added. A reference panel was invited to assess the items as well. 14 expert endoscopists from the Netherlands were invited, of whom eight participated (57 %). A list of 30 items important for colonoscopy was formulated. After the following rounds, consensus was reached on 16 items. Validation was conducted among eight trainees and eight experienced endoscopists (response 100 %). The groups agreed on the importance of all but one factor (p = 0.001). This Delphi survey has made explicit the endoscopist-related factors that are important for optimal colonoscopy. This might provide trainers more support regarding concrete competency assessment of trainees in endoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3890001  PMID: 24307400
Assessment; Gastrointestinal endoscopist; Delphi; Training
12.  Management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children 
Intensivists are regularly confronted with the question of gastrointestinal bleeding. To date, the latest international recommendations regarding prevention and treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding lack a specific approach to the critically ill patients. We present recommendations for management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children, developed with the GRADE system by an experts group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), with the participation of the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Emergency Medicine (SFMU), the French Society of Gastroenterology (SNFGE), and the French Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SFED). The recommendations cover five fields of application: management of gastrointestinal bleeding before endoscopic diagnosis, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding unrelated to portal hypertension, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, management of presumed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care.
PMCID: PMC3526517  PMID: 23140348
Gastrointestinal bleeding; Intensive care; Ulcer; Gastric/esophageal varices; Recommendations
13.  Appropriate use of endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases: up-to-date indications for primary care providers 
The field of endoscopy has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in recent years. Besides the ‘traditional’ endoscopic procedures (esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), advances in imaging technology (endoscopic ultrasonography, wireless capsule endoscopy, and double balloon enteroscopy) have allowed GI specialists to detect and manage disorders throughout the digestive system. This article reviews various endoscopic procedures and provides up-to-date endoscopic indications based on the recommendations of American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and American Cancer Society for primary care providers in order to achieve high-quality and cost-effective care.
PMCID: PMC2990396  PMID: 21116340
endoscopy; endoscopic indications; endoscopic procedures; imaging; primary care; gastrointestinal disorders; appropriate use
14.  Guideline for Capsule Endoscopy: Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(1):45-53.
Capsule endoscopy (CE) is considered as a noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool of examining the entire small bowel. CE has been performed frequently at many medical centers in South Korea; however, there is no evidence-based CE guideline for adequate diagnostic approaches. To provide accurate information and suggest correct testing approaches for small bowel disease, the guideline on CE was developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, a part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Operation teams for developing the guideline were organized into four areas: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, small bowel preparation, Crohn's disease, and small bowel tumor. A total of 20 key questions were selected. In preparing this guideline, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, KMbase, KISS, and KoreaMed literature searches were performed. After writing a draft of the guideline, opinions from various experts were reflected before approving the final document. The guideline should be regarded as recommendations only to gastroenterologists in providing care to their patients. These are not absolute rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care. Although further revision may be necessary as new data appear, this guideline is expected to play a role for adequate diagnostic approaches of various small bowel diseases.
PMCID: PMC3572350  PMID: 23423225
Capsule endoscopy; Small bowel disease; Guideline
15.  Guidelines on appropriate indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Working Party of the Joint Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Anaesthetists, Association of Surgeons, the British Society of Gastroenterology, and the Thoracic Society of Great Britain. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;310(6983):853-856.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but for an endoscopy service to be effective it is essential that it is not overloaded with inappropriately referred patients. A joint working party in Britain has considered the available literature on indications for endoscopy, assessed standard practice through a questionnaire, and audited randomly selected cases using an independent panel of experts and an American database system. They used these data to produce guidelines on the appropriate and inappropriate indications for referral for endoscopy, although they emphasise that under certain circumstances there may be reasons to deviate from the advice given. The need for endoscopy is most difficult to judge in patients with dyspepsia, and this aspect is discussed in detail. Early endoscopy will often prove more cost effective than delaying until the indications are clearer.
PMCID: PMC2549224  PMID: 7711627
16.  Expert and construct validity of the Simbionix GI Mentor II endoscopy simulator for colonoscopy 
Surgical Endoscopy  2007;22(1):158-162.
The main objectives of this study were to establish expert validity (a convincing realistic representation of colonoscopy according to experts) and construct validity (the ability to discriminate between different levels of expertise) of the Simbionix GI Mentor II virtual reality (VR) simulator for colonoscopy tasks, and to assess the didactic value of the simulator, as judged by experts.
Four groups were selected to perform one hand–eye coordination task (EndoBubble level 1) and two virtual colonoscopy simulations on the simulator; the levels were: novices (no endoscopy experience), intermediate experienced (<200 colonoscopies performed before), experienced (200–1,000 colonoscopies performed before), and experts (>1,000 colonoscopies performed before). All participants filled out a questionnaire about previous experience in flexible endoscopy and appreciation of the realism of the colonoscopy simulations. The average time to reach the cecum was defined as one of the main test parameters as well as the number of times view of the lumen was lost.
Novices (N = 35) reached the cecum in an average time of 29:57 (min:sec), intermediate experienced (N = 15) in 5:45, experienced (N = 20) in 4:19 and experts (N = 35) in 4:56. Novices lost view of the lumen significantly more often compared to the other groups, and the EndoBubble task was also completed significantly faster with increasing experience (Kruskal Wallis Test, p < 0.001). The group of expert endoscopists rated the colonoscopy simulation as 2.95 on a four-point scale for overall realism. Expert opinion was that the GI Mentor II simulator should be included in the training of novice endoscopists (3.51).
In this study we have demonstrated that the GI Mentor II simulator offers a convincing realistic representation of colonoscopy according to experts (expert validity) and that the simulator can discriminate between different levels of expertise (construct validity) in colonoscopy. According to experts the simulator should be implemented in the training programme of novice endoscopists.
PMCID: PMC2169271  PMID: 17516114
Endoscopy; Simulator; Training; Colonoscopy; Validation
17.  Inauguration of the Cameroonian Society of Human Genetics  
The conjunction of “hard genetics” research centers, with well established biomedical and bioethics research groups, and the exceptional possibility to hold the 6th annual meeting of the African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG, 13th–15th March 2009) was an excellent opportunity to get together in synergy the entire Cameroonian “DNA/RNA scientists” . This laid to the foundation of the Cameroonian Society of Human Genetics (CSHG) that was privilege to hold its inaugural meeting in conjunction to the 6th annual meeting of the AfSHG. The theme was "Human Origin, Genetic Diversity and Health”. The AfSHG and CSHG invited leading African and international scientists in genomics and population genetics to review recent data and provide an understanding of the state-of-knowledge of Human Origin and Genetic Diversity. Overall one opening ceremony eight session, five keynote and guest speakers, 18 invited oral communications, 13 free oral communications, 43 posters and two social events could summarize the meeting. This year’s conference was graced by the presence of one Nobel Prize winner Dr Richard Roberts (Physiology and Medicine 1993). The meeting registered up to ten contributions of Cameroonian scientists from the Diaspora (currently in USA, Belgium, Gambia, Sudan and Zimbabwe). Such Diaspora participation is an opportunity to generate collaborations with home country scientists and ultimately turn the “brain drain” to “brain circulation” that could reduce the impact of the migration of health professional from Africa. Interestingly, the personal implication of the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Heath who opened the meeting in the presence of the Secretary General of the Ministry of Higher Education and a representative of the Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation was a wonderful opportunity for advocacy of genetic issues at the decision-makers level. Beyond our expectation, a major promise of the Cameroonian government was the creation of the National Human Genome Institute. If this goal comes true, this will be a critical step to bring more genetics for the purpose of Public Health to the Cameroonian people. The sub-Saharan African Region needs significant capacity building in the broad area of basic research in general and Genetics (especially Human Genetics) in particular. In that respect, the existence and current activities of the AfSHG and its impact at the National levels in Africa, is a major development for the continent and an initiative that needs further encouragement from the international community.
PMCID: PMC2984290  PMID: 21532717
Human Genetics ;  Africa
18.  (E)-1-(4-Nitro­phen­yl)-2-(4-{[(E)-2-(4-nitro­phen­yl)hydrazinyl­idene]meth­yl}benzyl­idene)hydrazine dihydrate 
The 30 non-H atoms in title dihydrazine compound, C20H16N6O4·2H2O, are close to coplanar, the r.m.s. deviation for these atoms being 0.096 Å. The conformation about each of the C=N bonds is E, and the mol­ecule has non-crystallographic 2/m symmetry. The presence of O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding leads to a three-dimensional network in the crystal structure. A highly disordered solvent mol­ecule is present within a mol­ecular cavity defined by the organic and water mol­ecules. Its contribution to the electron density was removed from the observed data in the final cycles of refinement and the formula, molecular weight and density are given without taking into account the contribution of the solvent molecule.
PMCID: PMC2980149  PMID: 21580076
19.  Performance of Different Gastric Cancer Screening Methods in Korea: A Population-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50041.
There is a lack of agreement on which gastric cancer screening method is the most effective in the general population. The present study compared the relative performance of upper-gastrointestinal series (UGIS) and endoscopy screening for gastric cancer.
A population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We analyzed data on 2,690,731 men and women in Korea who underwent either UGIS or endoscopy screening for gastric cancer between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005. Final gastric cancer diagnosis was ascertained through linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry. We calculated positivity rate, gastric cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of UGIS and endoscopy screening.
The positivity rates for UGIS and endoscopy screening were 39.7 and 42.1 per 1,000 screenings, respectively. Gastric cancer detection rates were 0.68 and 2.61 per 1,000 screenings, respectively. In total, 2,067 interval cancers occurred within 1 year of a negative UGIS screening result (rate, 1.17/1,000) and 1,083 after a negative endoscopy screening result (rate, 1.17/1,000). The sensitivity of UGIS and endoscopy screening to detect gastric cancer was 36.7 and 69.0%, respectively, and specificity was 96.1 and 96.0%. The sensitivity of endoscopy screening to detect localized gastric cancer was 65.7%, which was statistically significantly higher than that of UGIS screening.
Overall, endoscopy performed better than UGIS in the NCSP for gastric cancer. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account the corresponding costs and reduction in mortality.
PMCID: PMC3510189  PMID: 23209638
20.  Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer 
The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of superficial capillaries; then characterization of the morphology of the lesion according to the Paris classification and prediction of the risk of malignancy and depth of invasion, with the help of chromoscopy, magnification and image processing with neutrophil bactericidal index or FICE. Then treatment decision offers 3 options according to histologic prediction: abstention, endoscopic resection, surgery. The rigorous quality control of endoscopy will reduce the miss rate of lesions and the occurrence of interval cancer.
PMCID: PMC3536848  PMID: 23293721
Esophagus; Stomach; Colon; Adenoma; Adenocarcinoma; Endoscopy; Screening
21.  Highlights of Pancreatobiliary Endoscopy in International Digestive Endoscopy Network 2012: How Much Has It Advanced? 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(3):297-298.
The pancreatobiliary organ is composed of one of the most complicated structures and complex physiological functions among other digestive organs in our body. This is why endoscopic procedure in pancreaticobiliary system requires rather complicated techniques. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, many interesting pancreatobiliay endoscopy related topics were presented. Basic procedures like endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), advanced techniques like endoscopic necrosectomy, prevention and management of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and spyglass system are reviewed in this highlight summary.
PMCID: PMC3429756  PMID: 22977822
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Common bile duct stones; Endoscopic necrosectomy; Spyglass
22.  Occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Causes and diagnostic approach in 2009 
Gastrointestinal bleeding can be obscure or occult (OGIB), the causes and diagnostic approach will be discussed in this editorial. The evaluation of OGIB consists on a judicious search of the cause of bleeding, which should be guided by the clinical history and physical findings. The standard approach to patients with OGIB is to directly evaluate the gastrointestinal tract by endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography, angiography, radionuclide scanning, capsule endoscopy. The source of OGIB can be identified in 85%-90%, no bleeding sites will be found in about 5%-10% of cases. Even if the bleedings originating from the small bowel are not frequent in clinical practice (7.6% of all digestive haemorrhages, in our casuistry), they are notoriously difficult to diagnose. In spite of progress, however, a number of OGIB still remain problematic to deal with at present in the clinical context due to both the difficulty in exactly identifying the site and nature of the underlying source and the difficulty in applying affective and durable diagnostic approaches so no single technique has emerged as the most efficient way to evaluate OGIB.
PMCID: PMC2999069  PMID: 21160643
Occult gastrointestinal bleeding; Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding; Bleeding; Gastrointestinal endoscopy
23.  Endoscopist Specialty Is Associated with High-Quality Endoscopy in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(2):310-317.
The present study was aimed to determine whether endoscopist specialty is associated with high-quality endoscopy.
Materials and Methods
We prospectively collected endoscopy quality related data based on the Endoscopy Quality Rating Scale (EQRS) of 277 endoscopy units in a hospital setting from the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea in 2009. Gastroenterology medical professors (n=154) from university hospitals visited each endoscopy unit and graded the unit according to the EQRS. The scores from the EQRS were analyzed and compared in relation to endoscopy training during residency and endoscopy subspecialist certification.
After excluding data from 3 endoscopy units, EQRS data from 274 endoscopy units were analyzed: 263 esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) screening units and 90 colonoscopy screening units. There were no significant differences in the scores of EQRS with respect to endoscopy training during residency (p=no significance), except for scores of EGDs for "Facility and Equipment" (p=0.030). However, EQRS scores were significantly higher in the endoscopy units where endoscopy subspecialists performed the endoscopies than those where Endoscopy Subspecialists did not perform the endoscopies (p<0.05, except p=0.08 for the "Process" criteria of EGD).
Endoscopist specialty is an important determinant of high-quality endoscopy in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3282978  PMID: 22318818
Endoscopy; Endoscopy Quality Rating Scale (EQRS); endoscopist; quality; specialty
24.  Endoscopic Experience Improves Interobserver Agreement in the Grading of Esophagitis by Los Angeles Classification: Conventional Endoscopy and Optimal Band Image System 
Gut and Liver  2013;8(2):154-159.
Interobserver variation by experience was documented for the diagnosis of esophagitis using the Los Angeles classification. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interobserver agreement can be improved by higher levels of endoscopic experience in the diagnosis of erosive esophagitis.
Endoscopic images of 51 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms were obtained with conventional endoscopy and optimal band imaging (OBI). Endoscopists were divided into an expert group (16 gastroenterologic endoscopic specialists guaranteed by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) and a trainee group (individuals with fellowships, first year of specialty training in gastroenterology). All endoscopists had no or minimal experience with OBI. GERD was diagnosed using the Los Angeles classification with or without OBI.
The mean weighted paired κ statistics for interobserver agreement in grading erosive esophagitis by conventional endoscopy in the expert group was better than that in the trainee group (0.51 vs 0.42, p<0.05). The mean weighted paired k statistics in the expert group and in the trainee group based on conventional endoscopy with OBI did not differ (0.42, 0.42).
Interobserver agreement in the expert group using conventional endoscopy was better than that in the trainee group. Endoscopic experience can improve the interobserver agreement in the grading of esophagitis using the Los Angeles classification.
PMCID: PMC3964265  PMID: 24672656
Gastroesophageal reflux; Agreement; Experience
25.  Objective Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Skills Using a Virtual Reality Simulator 
This study was carried out to validate the role of virtual reality computer simulation as a method of assessment of psychomotor skills in gastrointestinal endoscopy. We aimed to investigate whether the GI Mentor II computer system (Simbionix Ltd.) was able to differentiate between subjects with different experience with GI endoscopy.
Twenty-eight subjects were included in the study. They were divided into 3 groups according to their experience with GI endoscopy: experienced [group 1, performed >200 endoscopic procedures, (n=8)] residents [group 2, performed <50 endoscopic procedures, (n=10)] and medical students [group 3, never performed GI endoscopy, (n=10)]. All participants received identical pretest instruction on the simulator. Assessment of endoscopic skills was performed during a simulated colonoscopy and was based on parameters measured by the computer system: time, percentage of mucosa surface examined, efficiency of screening, time with a clear view, excessive local pressure, pain, time with pain, loop formation, and total time with a loop.
Significant differences in performance existed between surgeons in the 3 groups. Experienced surgeons demonstrated best performance parameters, followed by the residents and the medical students. Significant differences in time (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.001), percentage of mucosa surface examined (P=0.001), efficiency of screening (P=0.001), time with a clear view (P=0.001), pain experienced (P=0.004), time with pain (P=0.012), loop formation (P<0.001), time with a loop (P<0.001), and excessive local pressure (P=0.001) were demonstrated. Significant differences existed between group 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 (Mann-Whitney test, P<0.05). Differences between groups 2 and 3 did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05).
The VR simulator was able to differentiate between subjects with different endoscopic experience. This indicates that the GI Mentor measures skills relevant for gastrointestinal endoscopy and can be used in training programs as an assessment tool.
PMCID: PMC3015591  PMID: 15984697
Virtual reality; Training; Assessment; Psychomotor skills; Endoscopy

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