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1.  Thermoreversible Pluronic® F127-based hydrogel containing liposomes for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel: in vitro drug release, cell cytotoxicity, and uptake studies 
To develop an in situ gel system comprising liposome-containing paclitaxel (PTX) dispersed within the thermoreversible gel (Pluronic® F127 gel) for controlled release and improved antitumor drug efficiency.
The dialysis membrane and membrane-less diffusion method were used to investigate the in vitro drug release behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis was used to investigate the “micellization” and “sol/gel transition” process of in situ gel systems. In vitro cytotoxicity and drug uptake in KB cancer cells were determined by MTT, intercellular drug concentration, and fluorescence intensity assay.
The in vitro release experiment performed with a dialysis membrane model showed that the liposomal gel exhibited the longest drug-release period compared with liposome, general gel, and commercial formulation Taxol®. This effect is presumably due to the increased viscosity of liposomal gel, which has the effect of creating a drug reservoir. Both drug and gel release from the in situ gel system operated under zero-order kinetics and showed a correlation of release of PTX with gel, indicating a predominating release mechanism of the erosion type. Dispersing liposomes into the gel replaced larger gel itself for achieving the same gel dissolution rate. Both the critical micelle temperature and the sol/gel temperature, detected by DSC thermal analysis, were shifted to lower temperatures by adding liposomes. The extent of the shifts depended on the amount of embedded liposomes. MTT assay and drug uptake studies showed that the treatment with PTX-loaded liposomal 18% Pluronic F127 yielded cytotoxicities, intercellular fluorescence intensity, and drug concentration in KB cells much higher than that of conventional liposome, while blank liposomal 18% Pluronic F127 gel was far less than the Cremophor EL® vehicle and empty liposomes.
A thermosensitive hydrogel with embedded liposome is a promising carrier for hydrophobic anticancer agents, to be used in parenteral formulations for treating local cancers.
PMCID: PMC3075891  PMID: 21499415
controlled release; cytotoxicity evaluation; drug uptake
2.  Rheological Characterization and Drug Release Studies of Gum Exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(3):885-890.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60°C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.
PMCID: PMC2977048  PMID: 18661243
controlled release; dextromethorphan hydrobromide; gum exudates of Terminalia catappa; viscosity
3.  Nanoengineered drug-releasing Ti wires as an alternative for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the brain 
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) blocks the passage of active molecules from the blood which makes drug delivery to the brain a challenging problem. Oral drug delivery using chemically modified drugs to enhance their transport properties or remove the blocking of drug transport across the BBB is explored as a common approach to address these problems, but with limited success. Local delivery of drugs directly to the brain interstitium using implants such as polymeric wafers, gels, and catheters has been recognized as a promising alternative particularly for the treatment of brain cancer (glioma) and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to introduce a new solution by engineering a drug-releasing implant for local drug delivery in the brain, based on titanium (Ti) wires with titania nanotube (TNT) arrays on their surfaces. Drug loading and drug release characteristics of this system were explored using two drugs commonly used in oral brain therapy: dopamine (DOPA), a neurotransmitter agent; and doxorubicin (DOXO), an anticancer drug. Results showed that TNT/Ti wires could provide a considerable amount of drugs (>170 μg to 1000 μg) with desirable release kinetics and controllable release time (1 to several weeks) and proved their feasibility for use as drug-releasing implants for local drug delivery in the brain.
In this report, a new drug-releasing platform in the form of nanoengineered Ti wires with TNT arrays is proposed as an alternative for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the brain to bypass the BBB. To prove this concept, drug loading and release characteristics of two drugs important for brain therapy (the neurotransmitter DOPA and the anticancer drug DOXO) were explored.
Titania nanotube arrays on the surface of Ti wires (TNT/Ti) were fabricated using a simple anodization process, followed by separate loading of two drugs (DOPA and DOXO) inside the nanotube structures. The loading and in vitro release characteristics of prepared TNT/Ti implants were examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed that well-ordered, vertically aligned, densely packed nanotube arrays with an average diameter of 170 nm and length 70 μm were formed on the surface of TNT/Ti wires. TGA results showed a total drug loading of 170 μg and 1200 μg inside the TNTs for DOPA and DOXO respectively. Two-phase drug release behavior was observed including a fast release (burst) for the first 6 hours and a prolonged slow release phase for 8 days, both with acceptable dosage and desirable release kinetics. The physical, structural, loading and release characteristics of prepared TNT/Ti implants showed several advantages in comparison with existing and clinically proved brain implants.
Our results confirmed that TNT/Ti wires can be successfully employed as a suitable platform to release neurotransmitters such as DOPA and anticancer drugs such as DOXO. Hence, they are a feasible alternative as drug-releasing implants for local drug delivery in the brain to combat neurodegenerative disorders or brain tumors.
PMCID: PMC3356184  PMID: 22619543
titania nanotubes; brain implants; local drug delivery; dopamine; doxorubicin
4.  Transfersomes: A Novel Vesicular Carrier for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Sertraline: Development, Characterization, and Performance Evaluation 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2012;80(4):1061-1080.
The aim of the present study was to investigate transfersomes as a transdermal delivery system for the poorly soluble drug, sertraline, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different transfersomal formulations were prepared with non-ionic surfactant (span 80), soya lecithin, and carbopol 940 by the rotary evaporation sonication method. The prepared formulations were characterized for light microscopy, particle size analysis, drug entrapment, turbidity, drug content, rheological studies, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and stability studies. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo studies using the modified forced swim model test. FTIR studies showed compatibility of the drug with excipients. The result revealed that sertraline in all of the formulations was successfully entrapped with uniform drug content. Transfersomal gel containing 1.6% of the drug and 20% of span 80 was concluded to be the optimized formulation (EL-SP4), as it showed maximum drug entrapment (90.4±0.15%) and cumulative percent drug release(73.8%). The ex vivo permeation profile of EL-SP4 was compared with the transfersomal suspension, control gel, and drug solution. The transfersomal gel showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) cumulative amount of drug permeation and flux along with lower lag time than the drug solution and drug gel. It also owed to better applicability due to the higher viscosity imparted by the gel rather than the transfersomal suspension, and no skin irritation was observed. The modified forced swim test in mice revealed that the transfersomal gel had better antidepressant activity as compared to the control gel. Thus, the study substantiated that the transfersomal gel can be used as a feasible alternative to the conventional formulations of sertraline with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application.
PMCID: PMC3528046  PMID: 23264950
Sertraline; Transfersomes; Transdermal; Permeation studies; In vivo study
5.  Formulation Study and Evaluation of Matrix and Three-layer Tablet Sustained Drug Delivery Systems Based on Carbopols with Isosorbite Mononitrate 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2008;9(3):917-923.
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate different preparations of sustained delivery systems, using Carbopols as carriers, in the form of matrices and three-layer tablets with isosorbite mononitrate. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression whereas three-layer tablets were prepared by compressing polymer barrier layers on both sides of the core containing the drug. The findings of the study indicated that all systems demonstrated sustained release. The properties of the polymer used and the structure of each formulation appear to considerably affect drug release and its release rate. The three-layer formulations exhibit lower drug release compared to the matrices. This was due to the fact that the barrier-layers hindered the penetration of liquid into the core and modified drug dissolution and release. The geometrical characteristics/structure of the tablets as well as the weight/thickness of the barriers-layers considerably influence the rate of drug release and the release mechanisms. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated that drug release from matrices was mainly attributed to Fickian diffusion while three-layer tablets exhibited either anomalous diffusion or erosion/relaxation mechanisms. The advantage of Carbopol formulations is that a range of release profiles can easily be obtained through variations in tablet structure and thus Carbopols are appropriate carriers of oral sustained drug delivery systems for soluble drugs such as the isosorbite mononitrate.
PMCID: PMC2977044  PMID: 18686040
Carbopol; isosorbide mononitrate; release kinetics; sustained release; three-layer tablets
6.  Carbopol/Chitosan Based pH Triggered In Situ Gelling System for Ocular Delivery of Timolol Maleate 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2010;78(4):959-976.
The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic preparations due to rapid precorneal elimination, dilution and nasolacrimal drainage of the drug may be vanquished by the use of in situ gelling systems that are instilled as drops in to the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. Timolol eye drops may cause systemic side effects in glaucoma patients due to absorption of the drug into systemic circulation. In situ gelling system of this drug can provide localized effect with reduced contraindications, improved patient compliance and better therapeutic index. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antiglaucoma drug, timolol maleate (TM) based on the concept of pH-triggered in situ gelation. Polyacrylic acid (carbopol) was used as the gelling agent in combination with chitosan (amine polysaccharide), which was acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. Formulations were evaluated for pH, viscosity, gelling capacity and drug content. The 0.4% w/v carbopol/0.5% w/v chitosan based in situ gelling system was in liquid state at room temperature and at the pH formulated (pH 6.0) and underwent rapid transition into the viscous gel phase at the pH of the tear fluid (lacrimal fluid) (pH 7.4). The in vitro drug release and in vivo effects of the developed in situ gelling system were compared with that of Glucomol® (a 0.25% TM ophthalmic solution), 0.4% w/v carbopol solution as well as liposomal formulation. The results clearly demonstrated that developed carbopol-chitosan based formulation was therapeutically efficacious and showed a fickian (diffusion controlled) type of release behaviour over 24 h periods. The developed system is thus a viable alternative to conventional eye drops and can also prevent the rapid drainage as in case of liposomes.
PMCID: PMC3007614  PMID: 21179328
Ocular delivery; In situ gelation; Timolol maleate; Glaucoma; Sustained delivery
7.  Development and Evaluation of a Novel Modified-Release Pellet-Based Tablet System for the Delivery of Loratadine and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride as Model Drugs 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(2):910-916.
Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion–spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated.
PMCID: PMC2902326  PMID: 20496016
extrusion–spheronization; loratadine; modified-release multiple-unit tablet; pseudoephedrine hydrochloride
8.  Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Oral In Situ Gelling System of Amoxicillin 
ISRN Pharmaceutics  2011;2011:276250.
Purpose. Effective Helicobacter pylori eradication requires delivery of the antibiotic locally in the stomach. High dose of amoxicillin (750 to 1000 mg) is difficult to incorporate in floating tablets but can easily be given in liquid dosage form. Keeping the above facts in mind, we made an attempt to develop a new floating in situ gelling system of amoxicillin with increased residence time using sodium alginate as gelling polymer to eradicate H. pylori. Methods. Floating in situ gelling formulations were prepared using sodium alginate, calcium chloride, sodium citrate, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K100, and sodium bicarbonate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for solution viscosity, floating lag time, total floating time, and in vitro drug release. The formulation was optimized using a 32 full factorial design. Dissolution data were fitted to various models to ascertain kinetic of drug release. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed for dependent variables. Results. All formulations (F1–F9) showed floating within 30 s and had total floating time of more than 24 h. All the formulations showed good pourability. It was observed that concentration of sodium alginate and HPMC K100 had significant influence on floating lag time, cumulative percentage drug release in 6 h and 10 h. The batch F8 was considered optimum since it showed more similarity in drug release (f2 = 74.38) to the theoretical release profile. Conclusion. Floating in situ gelling system of amoxicillin can be formulated using sodium alginate as a gelling polymer to sustain the drug release for 10 to 12 h with zero-order release kinetics.
PMCID: PMC3263723  PMID: 22389849
9.  Preparation and Characterization of Nicotine–Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Complex-Loaded Sodium Alginate Matrix Tablets for Buccal Delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;12(2):683-692.
Nicotine (NCT) buccal tablets consisting of sodium alginate (SA) and nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate (NCT–MAS) complexes acting as drug carriers were prepared using the direct compression method. The effects of the preparation pH levels of the NCT–MAS complexes and the complex/SA ratios on NCT release, permeation across mucosa, and mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated. The NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets had good physical properties and zero-order release kinetics of NCT, which indicate a swelling/erosion-controlled release mechanism. Measurement of unidirectional NCT release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa using a modified USP dissolution apparatus 2 showed that NCT delivery was controlled by the swollen gel matrix of the tablets. This matrix, which controlled drug diffusion, resulted from the molecular interactions of SA and MAS. Tablets containing the NCT–MAS complexes prepared at pH 9 showed remarkably higher NCT permeation rates than those containing the complexes prepared at acidic and neutral pH levels. Larger amounts of SA in the tablets decreased NCT release and permeation rates. Additionally, the presence of SA could enhance the mucoadhesive properties of the tablets. These findings suggest that SA plays the important role not only in controlling release and permeation of NCT but also for enhancing the mucoadhesive properties of the NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets, and these tablets demonstrate a promising buccal delivery system for NCT.
PMCID: PMC3134650  PMID: 21594728
buccal tablets; magnesium aluminum silicate; nicotine; release and permeation; sodium alginate
10.  Design and study of lamivudine oral controlled release tablets 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2007;8(4):167-175.
The objective of this study was to design oral controlled release matrix tablets of lamivudine using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the retardant polymer and to study the effect of various formulation factors such as polymer proportion, polymer viscosity, and compression force on the in vitro release of drug. In vitro release studies were performed using US Pharmacopeia type 1 apparatus (basket method) in 900 mL of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer at 100 rpm. The release kinetics were analyzed using the zero-order model equation, Higuchi’s square-root equation, and the Ritger-Peppas empirical equation. Compatibility of the drug with various excipients was studied. In vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increase in polymer proportion and viscosity grade. Increase in compression force was found to decrease the rate of drug release. Matrix tablets containing 60% HPMC 4000 cps were found to show good initial release (26% in first hour) and extended the release up to 16 hours. Matrix tablets containing 80% HPMC 4000 cps and 60% HPMC 15 000 cps showed a first-hour release of 22% but extended the release up to 20 hours. Methematical analysis of the release kinetics indicated that the nature of drug release from the matrix tablets was dependent on drug diffusion and polymer relaxation and therefore followed non-Fickian or anomalous release. No incompatibility was observed between the drug and excipients used in the formulation of matrix tablets. The developed controlled release matrix tablets of lamivudine, with good initial release (20%–25% in first hour) and extension of release up to 16 to 20 hours, can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of lamivudine.
PMCID: PMC2750687  PMID: 18181522
Controlled release; matrix tablets; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; lamivudine
11.  Formulation of anastrozole microparticles as biodegradable anticancer drug carriers 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2006;7(3):E38-E46.
The purpose of this study was to develop poly(d,1-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA)-based anastrozole microparticles for treatment of breast cancer. An emulsion/extraction method was used to prepare anastrozole sustained-release PLGA-based biodegradable microspheres. Gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection was used for the quantitation of the drug throughout the studies. Microparticles were formulated and characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, surface morphology, and drug release profile. Preparative variables such as concentrations of stabilizer, drug-polymer ratio polymer viscosity, stirring rate, and ratio of internal to external phases were found to be important factors for the preparation of anastrozole-loaded PLGA microparticles. Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to determine any interactions between drug and polymer. An attempt was made to fit the data to various dissolution kinetics models for multiparticulate systems, including the zero order, first order, square root of time kinetics, and biphasic models. The FTIR-ATR studies revealed no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymer. DSC results indicated that the anastrozole trapped in the microspheres existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the Higuchi model, suggesting a diffusion mechanism for the drug release. The results demonstrated that anastrozole microparticles with PLGA could be an alternative delivery method for the long-term treatment of breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC2750503  PMID: 17025242
Breast cancer; microencapsulation; biodegradation; anastrozole; PLGA
12.  Effect of carbopol and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the mechanical, rheological, and release properties of bioadhesive polyethylene glycol gels 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2000;1(3):69-78.
This study examined the mechanical (hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) and rheological (zero-rate viscosity and thixotropy) properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG) gels that contain different ratios of Carbopol 934P (CP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 (PVP). Mechanical properties were examined using a texture analyzer (TA-XT2), and rheological properties were examined using a rheometer (Rheomat 115A). In addition, lidocaine release from gels was evaluated using a release apparatus simulating the buccal condition. The results indicated that an increase in CP concentration significantly increased gel compressibility, hardness, and adhesiveness, factors that affect ease of gel removal from container, ease of gel application onto mucosal membrane, and gel bioadhesion. However, CP concentration was negatively correlated with gel cohesiveness, a factor representing structural reformation. In contrast, PVP concentration as negatively correlated with gel hardness and compressibility, but positively correlated with gel cohesiveness. All PEG gels exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy, indicating a general loss of consistency with increased shearing stress. Drug release T50% was affected by the flow rate of the simulated saliva solution. A reduction in the flow rate caused a slower drug release and hence a higher T50% value. In addition, drug release was significantly reduced as the concentrations of CP and PVP increased because of the increase in zero-rate viscosity of the gels. Response surfaces and contour plots of the dependent variables further substantiated that various combinations of CP and PVP in the PEG gels offered a wide range of mechanical, rheological, and drug-release characteristics. A combination of CP and PVP with complementary physical properties resulted in a prolonged buccal drug delivery.
PMCID: PMC2750352  PMID: 14727910
Bioadhesion; Mechanical properties; Rheological properties; Drug release; Carbopol; Polyvinylpyrrolidone
13.  Formulation and evaluation of microemulsion-based hydrogel for topical delivery 
The purpose of this study was to develop microemulsion-based hydrogel formulation for topical delivery of bifonazole with an objective to increase the solubility and skin permeability of the drug.
Materials and Methods:
Oleic acid was screened as the oil phase of microemulsions, due to a good solubilizing capacity of the microemulison systems. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed using oleic acid as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the cosurfactant. Various microemulsion formulations were prepared and optimized by 32 factorial design on the basis of percentage (%) transmittance, globule size, zeta potential, drug release, and skin permeability. The abilities of various microemulsions to deliver bifonazole through the skin were evaluated ex vivo using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skins. The Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) K100 M as a gel matrix was used to construct the microemulsion-based hydrogel for improving the viscosity of microemulsion for topical administration. The optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel was evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, skin irritancy, skin permeability, stability, and antifungal activity by comparing it with marketed bifonazole cream.
The mechanism of drug release from microemulsion-based hydrogel was observed to follow zero order kinetics. The studied optimized microemulsion-based hydrogel showed a good stability over the period of 3 months. Average globule size of optimized microemulsion (F5) was found to be 18.98 nm, zeta potential was found to be -5.56 mv, and permeability of drug from microemulsion within 8 h was observed 84%. The antifungal activity of microemulsion-based hydrogel was found to be comparable with marketed cream.
The results indicate that the studied microemulsion-based hydrogel (F5) has a potential for sustained action of drug release and it may act as promising vehicle for topical delivery of ibuprofen.
PMCID: PMC3555009  PMID: 23373005
Antifungal activity; bifonazole; oleic acid; permeability; phase diagram; zeta potential
14.  Advanced Technologies for Oral Controlled Release: Cyclodextrins for Oral Controlled Release 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;12(4):1276-1292.
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are used in oral pharmaceutical formulations, by means of inclusion complexes formation, with the following advantages for the drugs: (1) solubility, dissolution rate, stability, and bioavailability enhancement; (2) to modify the drug release site and/or time profile; and (3) to reduce or prevent gastrointestinal side effects and unpleasant smell or taste, to prevent drug–drug or drug–additive interactions, or even to convert oil and liquid drugs into microcrystalline or amorphous powders. A more recent trend focuses on the use of CDs as nanocarriers, a strategy that aims to design versatile delivery systems that can encapsulate drugs with better physicochemical properties for oral delivery. Thus, the aim of this work was to review the applications of the CDs and their hydrophilic derivatives on the solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs in order to increase their dissolution rate and get immediate release, as well as their ability to control (to prolong or to delay) the release of drugs from solid dosage forms, either as complexes with the hydrophilic (e.g., as osmotic pumps) and/or hydrophobic CDs. New controlled delivery systems based on nanotechnology carriers (nanoparticles and conjugates) have also been reviewed.
PMCID: PMC3225529  PMID: 21948320
controlled release; cyclodextrin; inclusion complex; solid dosage forms; solubility
15.  In vitro and In vivo characterization of the transdermal delivery of sertraline hydrochloride Films 
Background and the purpose of the study
Sertraline hydrochloride is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor principally used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. To maintain the therapeutic plasma drug concentration of the drug for prolonged period, the transdermal drug delivery has been chosen as an alternative route of drug delivery. The pharmacokinetic properties of sertraline hydrochloride make it suitable for transdermal delivery. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of polymers and penetration enhancers on the transdermal delivery of the drug in order to improve its therapeutic efficacy.
In the preparation of films, Eudragit RL 100, Eudragit RS 100, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and ethyl cellulose were used as polymers. The films were characterized for thickness, tensile strength, drug content, moisture uptake, moisture content, water vapor transmission rate and drug release. The films exhibiting higher rates of drug release were subjected to study the effect of oleic acid and propylene glycol as penetration enhancers on skin permeation of sertraline hydrochloride. In vivo and skin irritation studies were performed for the optimized film.
Films containing Eudragit RL 100, Eudragit RL 100 and HPMC showed the highest drug release of 94.34% and 96.90% respectively in a period of 42 hrs. The release data fitted into kinetic equations, yielded zero-order and fickian mechanism of drug release. There was a two-fold increase in skin permeation of sertraline hydrochloride in the presence of penetration enhancers in the film. The physical evaluation indicated the formation of smooth, flexible and translucent films. No skin irritation occurred on rabbit skin and the infrared studies showed the compatibility of the drug with the formulation excipients. The in vivo study revealed a constant plasma concentration of drug for long periods and the films containing penetration enhancers had achieved adequate plasma levels of the drug.
The obtained results indicated the feasibility for transdermal delivery of sertraline hydrochloride using eudragit RL 100 and HPMC.
PMCID: PMC3436079  PMID: 23008688
Antidepressant; Eudragit; Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose; Ethyl Cellulose; In-Vitro and In-Vivo Skin Permeation
16.  Sugar End-Capped Poly-d,l-lactides as Excipients in Oral Sustained Release Tablets 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2009;10(2):566-573.
Sugar end-capped poly-d,l-lactide (SPDLA) polymers were investigated as a potential release controlling excipient in oral sustained release matrix tablets. The SPDLA polymers were obtained by a catalytic ring-opening polymerization technique using methyl α-d-gluco-pyranoside as a multifunctional initiator in the polymerization. Polymers of different molecular weights were synthesized by varying molar ratios of monomer/catalyst. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression technique from the binary mixtures of SPDLA and microcrystalline cellulose, and theophylline was used as a model drug. The tablet matrices showed in vitro reproducible drug release profiles with a zero-order or diffusion-based kinetic depending on the SPDLA polymer grade used. Further release from the tablet matrices was dependent on the molecular weight of the SPDLA polymer applied. The drug release was the fastest with the lowest molecular weight SPDLA grade, and the drug release followed zero-order rate. With the higher molecular weight SPDLAs, more prolonged dissolution profiles for the matrix tablets (up to 8–10 h) were obtained. Furthermore, the prolonged drug release was independent of the pH of the dissolution media. In conclusion, SPDLAs are a novel type of drug carrier polymers applicable in oral controlled drug delivery systems.
PMCID: PMC2690810  PMID: 19430908
direct compression; matrix tablets; poly-d,l-lactide; release kinetics; sustained release; theophylline
17.  Design, formulation and evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel from Quercus brantii L. and coriandrum sativum L. as periodontal drug delivery 
Periodontitis is inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms. Intra-periodontal pocket, mucoadhesive drug delivery systems have been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to formulate a mucoadhesive gel from the seed hull of Quercus brantii and fruits of Coriandrum sativum for the treatment of periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
The semisolid concentrated extracts were incorporated in gel base. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared using carbopol 940, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (sodium CMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC) as bioadhesive polymers. Physicochemical tests, mucoadhesive strength measurement and in vitro drug release study were carried out on two formulations containing carbopol 940 and sodium CMC polymers (Formulations F4 and F5). We investigated the antibacterial activity of formulation F5 against Porphyromonas gingivalis using the disk diffusion method on supplemented Brucella agar.
Eight gel formulations were prepared. Physical appearance, homogeneity and consistency of F4 and F5 were good. Mucoadhesion and viscosity of F5 (1% carbopol 940 and 3% sodium CMC) was more than F4 (0.5% carbopol 940 and 3% sodium CMC). Drug release from F5 was slower. Both of formulations were syringeable through 21 G needle. In the disk diffusion method, F5 produced significant growth inhibition zones against P. gingivalis.
The ideal formulation for the treatment of periodontitis should exhibit high value of mucoadhesion, show controlled release of drug and be easily delivered into the periodontal pocket preferably using a syringe. Based on in vitro release and mucoadhesion studies, F5 was selected as the best formulation.
PMCID: PMC3748668  PMID: 23977649
Coriandrum sativum; herbal gel; periodontal drug delivery; polyphenol; Quercus brantii
18.  Chitosan superporous hydrogel composite-based floating drug delivery system: A newer formulation approach 
In this study efforts have been made to design a drug delivery system based on a superporous hydrogel composite, for floating and sustained delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
Materials and Methods:
The characterization studies were performed by the measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy studies. The prepared formulation was evaluated for buoyant behavior, in vitro drug release, kinetics of drug release, and stability. The release profile of Ranitidine hydrochloride was investigated by changing the release retardant polymer in the formulation. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the drug release profiles were fitted to mathematical models that included zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models.
Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the formation of interconnected pores and capillary channels, and cross-linked Chitosan molecules were observed around the peripheries of the pores. The prepared drug delivery system floated and delivered the Ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 hours. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The values of the diffusion exponent in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model ranged between 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.02, which appeared to indicate a coupling of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms, anomalous non-Fickian transport.
It was concluded that the proposed floating drug delivery system, based on the superporous hydrogel composite containing Chitosan as a composite material, is promising for stomach-specific delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
PMCID: PMC3147096  PMID: 21814446
Chitosan; floating drug delivery; Ranitidine hydrochloride; superporous hydrogel composite; stomach specific drug delivery
19.  Development of a Novel Floating In-situ Gelling System for Stomach Specific Drug Delivery of the Narrow Absorption Window Drug Baclofen 
The present study deals with development of a floating in-situ gel of the narrow absorption window drug baclofen. Sodium alginate-based in-situ gelling systems were prepared by dissolving various concentrations of sodium alginate in deionized water, to which varying concentrations of drug and calcium bicarbonate were added. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to check the presence of any interaction between the drug and the excipients. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization. The concentrations of sodium alginate (X1) and calcium bicarbonate (X2) were selected as the independent variables. The amount of the drug released after 1 h (Q1) and 10 h (Q10) and the viscosity of the solution were selected as the dependent variables. The gels were studied for their viscosity, in-vitro buoyancy and drug release. Contour plots were drawn for each dependent variable and check-point batches were prepared in order to get desirable release profiles. The drug release profiles were fitted into different kinetic models. The floating lag time and floating time found to be 2 min and 12 h respectively. A decreasing trend in drug release was observed with increasing concentrations of CaCO3. The computed values of Q1 and Q10 for the check-point batch were 25% and 86% respectively, compared to the experimental values of 27.1% and 88.34%. The similarity factor (f2) for the check-point batch being 80.25 showed that the two dissolution profiles were similar. The drug release from the in-situ gel follows the Higuchi model, which indicates a diffusion-controlled release. A stomach specific in-situ gel of baclofen could be prepared using floating mechanism to increase the residence time of the drug in stomach and thereby increase the absorption.
PMCID: PMC3870059  PMID: 24381600
Narrow absorption window; Baclofen; Floating in-situ gel
20.  Use of Propranolol-Magnesium Aluminium Silicate Intercalated Complexes as Drug Reservoirs in Polymeric Matrix Tablets 
The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes as drug reservoirs in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tablets. The matrix tablets containing the complexes were prepared and characterised with respect to propranolol release and were subsequently compared with those loading propranolol or a propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate physical mixture. Additionally, the effects of varying viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, compression pressures and calcium acetate incorporation on the drug release characteristics of the complex-loaded tablets were also examined. The results showed that the complex-loaded tablets have higher tablet hardness than those containing propranolol or a physical mixture. The drug release from the complex-loaded tablets followed a zero-order release kinetic, whereas an anomalous transport was found in the propranolol or physical mixture tablets. The drug release rate of the complex tablet significantly decreased with increasing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity grade. Increase in the compression pressure caused a decrease in the drug release rate of the tablets. Furthermore, the incorporation of calcium ions could accelerate propranolol release, particularly in acidic medium, because calcium ions could be exchanged with propranolol molecules intercalated in the silicate layers of magnesium aluminium silicate. These findings suggest that propranolol-magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes show strong potential for use as drug reservoirs in matrix tablets intended for modifying drug release.
PMCID: PMC3630724  PMID: 23626384
Complexes; drug release; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; propranolol; magnesium aluminium silicate; matrix tablets
21.  Formulation and Evaluation of in situ Gels Containing Clotrimazole for Oral Candidiasis 
Gel dosage forms are successfully used as drug delivery systems to control drug release and protect the medicaments from a hostile environment. The main objective is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of clotrimazole based on the concept of pH triggered and ion activated systems. The system utilizes polymers that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters. A pH triggered system consisting of carbopol 934P (0.2-1.4% w/v) and ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.1-0.75% w/v) along with hydroxylpropylmethylcelluose E50LV was used to prolong the release of clotrimazole (0.1% w/v). Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, viscosity, gel strength, bioadhesive force, spreadability, microbiological studies and in vitro release. The use of carbopol as in situ gel forming system was substantiated by the property to transform into stiff gels when the pH was raised, whereas in gellan gum this transformation occurred in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations. Effect of calcium carbonate and other process parameters optimized and found that increase in calcium ions produced stronger gels. The drug content, clarity, and pH of the formulation were found to be satisfactory. The viscosity was found to be in the range 5 to 85 centipoise for the sol, whereas for the gels it was up to 16000 centipoise. The formulation showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotrophy. The maximum gel strength (using texture analyzer) and bioadhesion was found to be up to 6.5 g and 4 g, respectively. The optimized formulations were able to release the drug up to 6 h. The formulation containing gellan gum showed better sustained release compared to carbopol based gels.
PMCID: PMC2865814  PMID: 20502548
Mucoadhesive in situ gels; prolonged release; carbopol; gellan gum; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; clotrimazole
22.  The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels 
Background and the purpose of the study
Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels.
Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.
Results and major conclusion
Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to be used as colon drug delivery device through oral administration.
PMCID: PMC3584726  PMID: 23351340
Tramadol HCl; Acrylic acid; Ter-polymer; Cross-linked; Release behavior
23.  Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of a Stomach Specific Drug Delivery System based on Superporous Hydrogel Composite 
This study discusses efforts made to design drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite for sustained delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. The characterization studies involve measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic images clearly showed the formation of interconnected pores, capillary channels, and the cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose molecules around the peripheries of pores. The prepared system floated and delivered the ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 h. The release profile of ranitidine hydrochloride was studies by changing the retardant polymer in the system. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the dissolution profiles were fitted to different mathematical models that include zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. The in vitro dissolution from system was explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The diffusion exponent values in Korsmeyer-Peppas model range between 0.48±0.01 and 0.70±0.01, which appears to indicate an anomalous non-Fickian transport. It is concluded that the proposed mechanically stable floating drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a composite material is promising for stomach specific delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride.
PMCID: PMC3224407  PMID: 22131619
Floating drug-delivery system; kinetic modeling; ranitidine hydrochloride; sodium carboxymethylcellulose; superporous hydrogel composite
24.  A bioresorbable, polylactide reservoir for diffusional and osmotically controlled drug delivery 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2000;1(4):26-34.
The purpose of this study was to design and characterize a zero-order bioresorbable reservoir delivery system (BRDS) for diffusional or osmotically controlled delivery of model drugs including macromolecules. The BRDS was manufactured by casting hollow cylindrical poly (lactic acid) (PLA): polyethylene glycol (PEG) membranes (10×1.6 mm) on a stainless steel mold. Physical properties of the PLA:PEG membranes were characterized by solid-state thermal analysis. After filling with drug (5 fluorouracil [5FU] or fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-dextranmannitol, 5:95 wt/wt mixture) and sealing with viscous PLA solution, cumulative in vitro dissolution studies were performed and drug release monitored by ultraviolet (UV) or florescence spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Minitab® (Version 12). Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of PLA:PEG membranes dried at 25°C lacked the crystallization exotherms, dual endothermal melting peaks. and endothermal glass transition observed in PLA membranes dried at −25°C. In vitro release studies demonstrated zero-order release of 5FU for up to 6 weeks from BRDS manufactured with 50% wt/wt PEG (drying temperature, 25°C). The release of FITC dextrans of molecular weights 4400, 42 000, 148 000, and 464 000 followed zero-order kinetics that were independent of the dextran molecular weight. When monitored under different concentrations of urea in the dissolution medium, the release rate of FITC dextran 42 000 showed a linear correlation with the calculated osmotic gradient (Δπ). PEG inclusion at 25°C enables manufacture of uniform, cylindrical PLA membranes of controlled permeability. The absence of molecular weight effects and a linear dependence of FITC-dextran release rate on Δπ confirm that the BRDS can be modified to release model macromolecules by an osmotically controlled mechanism.
PMCID: PMC2750453  PMID: 14727894
Zero-order; Reservoir; PLA; Osmotic Delivery; Thermal Analysis
25.  Prolonged Intragastric Drug Delivery Mediated by Eudragit®E-Carrageenan Polyelectrolyte Matrix Tablets 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2011;12(1):354-361.
Interpolyelectrolyte (IPE) complexation between carrageenan (CG) and Eudragit E (EE) was studied in 0.1 M HCl and was used to develop floating matrix tablets aimed to prolong gastric-residence time and sustain delivery of the loaded drug. The optimum EE/CG IPE complexation weight ratio (0.6) was determined in 0.1 M HCl using apparent viscosity measurements. The IPE complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Metronidazole matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression using EE, CG, or hybrid EE/CG with ratio optimal for IPE complexation. Corresponding effervescent tablets were prepared by including Na bicarbonate as an effervescent agent. Tablets were evaluated for in vitro buoyancy and drug release in 0.1 M HCl. Both CG and EE–CG effervescent matrices (1:2 drug to polymer weight ratio, 60 mg Na bicarbonate) achieved fast and prolonged floating with floating lag times less than 30 s and floating duration of more than 10 h. The corresponding EE effervescent matrices showed delayed floating and rapid drug release, and completely dissolved after 3 h of dissolution. CG matrices showed an initial burst drug release (48.3 ± 5.0% at 1 h) followed by slow drug release over 8 h. EE–CG matrices exhibited sustained drug release in almost zero-order manner for 10 h (68.2 ± 6.6%). The dissolution data of these matrices were fitted to different dissolution models. It was found that drug release followed zero-order kinetics and was controlled by the superposition of the diffusion and erosion.
PMCID: PMC3066363  PMID: 21302009
Eudragit E; carrageenan; gastric retention; polyelectrolyte complexation

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