Cyclodextrins (CDs) are used in oral pharmaceutical formulations, by means of inclusion complexes formation, with the following advantages for the drugs: (1) solubility, dissolution rate, stability, and bioavailability enhancement; (2) to modify the drug release site and/or time profile; and (3) to reduce or prevent gastrointestinal side effects and unpleasant smell or taste, to prevent drug–drug or drug–additive interactions, or even to convert oil and liquid drugs into microcrystalline or amorphous powders. A more recent trend focuses on the use of CDs as nanocarriers, a strategy that aims to design versatile delivery systems that can encapsulate drugs with better physicochemical properties for oral delivery. Thus, the aim of this work was to review the applications of the CDs and their hydrophilic derivatives on the solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs in order to increase their dissolution rate and get immediate release, as well as their ability to control (to prolong or to delay) the release of drugs from solid dosage forms, either as complexes with the hydrophilic (e.g., as osmotic pumps) and/or hydrophobic CDs. New controlled delivery systems based on nanotechnology carriers (nanoparticles and conjugates) have also been reviewed.
controlled release; cyclodextrin; inclusion complex; solid dosage forms; solubility
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60°C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.
controlled release; dextromethorphan hydrobromide; gum exudates of Terminalia catappa; viscosity
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate different preparations of sustained delivery systems, using Carbopols as carriers, in the form of matrices and three-layer tablets with isosorbite mononitrate. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression whereas three-layer tablets were prepared by compressing polymer barrier layers on both sides of the core containing the drug. The findings of the study indicated that all systems demonstrated sustained release. The properties of the polymer used and the structure of each formulation appear to considerably affect drug release and its release rate. The three-layer formulations exhibit lower drug release compared to the matrices. This was due to the fact that the barrier-layers hindered the penetration of liquid into the core and modified drug dissolution and release. The geometrical characteristics/structure of the tablets as well as the weight/thickness of the barriers-layers considerably influence the rate of drug release and the release mechanisms. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated that drug release from matrices was mainly attributed to Fickian diffusion while three-layer tablets exhibited either anomalous diffusion or erosion/relaxation mechanisms. The advantage of Carbopol formulations is that a range of release profiles can easily be obtained through variations in tablet structure and thus Carbopols are appropriate carriers of oral sustained drug delivery systems for soluble drugs such as the isosorbite mononitrate.
Carbopol; isosorbide mononitrate; release kinetics; sustained release; three-layer tablets
The objective of this study was to design oral controlled release matrix tablets of lamivudine using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the retardant polymer and to study the effect of various formulation factors such as polymer proportion, polymer viscosity, and compression force on the in vitro release of drug. In vitro release studies were performed using US Pharmacopeia type 1 apparatus (basket method) in 900 mL of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer at 100 rpm. The release kinetics were analyzed using the zero-order model equation, Higuchi’s square-root equation, and the Ritger-Peppas empirical equation. Compatibility of the drug with various excipients was studied. In vitro release studies revealed that the release rate decreased with increase in polymer proportion and viscosity grade. Increase in compression force was found to decrease the rate of drug release. Matrix tablets containing 60% HPMC 4000 cps were found to show good initial release (26% in first hour) and extended the release up to 16 hours. Matrix tablets containing 80% HPMC 4000 cps and 60% HPMC 15 000 cps showed a first-hour release of 22% but extended the release up to 20 hours. Methematical analysis of the release kinetics indicated that the nature of drug release from the matrix tablets was dependent on drug diffusion and polymer relaxation and therefore followed non-Fickian or anomalous release. No incompatibility was observed between the drug and excipients used in the formulation of matrix tablets. The developed controlled release matrix tablets of lamivudine, with good initial release (20%–25% in first hour) and extension of release up to 16 to 20 hours, can overcome the disadvantages of conventional tablets of lamivudine.
Controlled release; matrix tablets; hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; lamivudine
This study discusses efforts made to design drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite for sustained delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. The characterization studies involve measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic images clearly showed the formation of interconnected pores, capillary channels, and the cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose molecules around the peripheries of pores. The prepared system floated and delivered the ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 h. The release profile of ranitidine hydrochloride was studies by changing the retardant polymer in the system. To ascertain the drug release kinetics, the dissolution profiles were fitted to different mathematical models that include zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models. The in vitro dissolution from system was explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The diffusion exponent values in Korsmeyer-Peppas model range between 0.48±0.01 and 0.70±0.01, which appears to indicate an anomalous non-Fickian transport. It is concluded that the proposed mechanically stable floating drug-delivery system based on superporous hydrogel composite containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose as a composite material is promising for stomach specific delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride.
Floating drug-delivery system; kinetic modeling; ranitidine hydrochloride; sodium carboxymethylcellulose; superporous hydrogel composite
In this study efforts have been made to design a drug delivery system based on a superporous hydrogel composite, for floating and sustained delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
Materials and Methods:
The characterization studies were performed by the measurement of apparent density, porosity, swelling studies, mechanical strength studies, and scanning electron microscopy studies. The prepared formulation was evaluated for buoyant behavior, in vitro drug release, kinetics of drug release, and stability. The release profile of Ranitidine hydrochloride was investigated by changing the release retardant polymer in the formulation. To ascertain the kinetics of drug release, the drug release profiles were fitted to mathematical models that included zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull, and Hopfenberg models.
Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicated the formation of interconnected pores and capillary channels, and cross-linked Chitosan molecules were observed around the peripheries of the pores. The prepared drug delivery system floated and delivered the Ranitidine hydrochloride for about 17 hours. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The values of the diffusion exponent in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model ranged between 0.47 ± 0.02 and 0.66 ± 0.02, which appeared to indicate a coupling of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms, anomalous non-Fickian transport.
It was concluded that the proposed floating drug delivery system, based on the superporous hydrogel composite containing Chitosan as a composite material, is promising for stomach-specific delivery of Ranitidine hydrochloride.
Chitosan; floating drug delivery; Ranitidine hydrochloride; superporous hydrogel composite; stomach specific drug delivery
Ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids, reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities and shows poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and bioavailability of this drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) and to study the effect of microemulsion (ME) on the oral bioavailability of ampelopsin. Capmul MCM-based ME formulation with Cremophor EL as surfactant and Transcutol as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ampelopsin. Optimised ME was evaluated for its transparency, viscosity, percentage assay and so forth. Solubilisation capacity of the ME system was also determined. The prepared ME was compared with the pure drug solution and commercially available tablet for in vitro drug release. The optimised ME formulation containing ampelopsin, Capmul MCM (5.5%), Cremophor EL (25%), Transcutol P (8.5%), and distilled water showed higher in vitro drug release, as compared to plain drug suspension and the suspension of commercially available tablet. These results demonstrate the potential use of ME for improving the bioavailability of poor water soluble compounds, such as ampelopsin.
The purpose of this research was to reduce the polymer concentration and to obtain reasonable viscosity at a lower concentration of pluronic by the addition of a viscosity modifier. A 20% wt/wt pluronic gel was prepared on a weight basis using the cold method. The effect of the amount of tetracycline and Aerosil on gel properties was studied. The gel was evaluated using different parameters: polarizing microscopy, gelation, gel melting, bioadhesivity, viscosity, drug release, and stability of enzyme. An in vivo study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the liquid crystalline gel. Addition of Aerosil to the gel favored hexagonal phase formation. Viscosity and bioadhesivity increased with an increase in the concentration of Aerosil. Release of tetracycline was sustained as the concentration of Aerosil increased. Various clinical parameters confirmed the acceptability and efficiency of this gel system.
periodontitis; pluronic; Aerosil; serratiopeptidase; clinical study
Nicotine (NCT) buccal tablets consisting of sodium alginate (SA) and nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate (NCT–MAS) complexes acting as drug carriers were prepared using the direct compression method. The effects of the preparation pH levels of the NCT–MAS complexes and the complex/SA ratios on NCT release, permeation across mucosa, and mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated. The NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets had good physical properties and zero-order release kinetics of NCT, which indicate a swelling/erosion-controlled release mechanism. Measurement of unidirectional NCT release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa using a modified USP dissolution apparatus 2 showed that NCT delivery was controlled by the swollen gel matrix of the tablets. This matrix, which controlled drug diffusion, resulted from the molecular interactions of SA and MAS. Tablets containing the NCT–MAS complexes prepared at pH 9 showed remarkably higher NCT permeation rates than those containing the complexes prepared at acidic and neutral pH levels. Larger amounts of SA in the tablets decreased NCT release and permeation rates. Additionally, the presence of SA could enhance the mucoadhesive properties of the tablets. These findings suggest that SA plays the important role not only in controlling release and permeation of NCT but also for enhancing the mucoadhesive properties of the NCT–MAS complex-loaded SA tablets, and these tablets demonstrate a promising buccal delivery system for NCT.
buccal tablets; magnesium aluminum silicate; nicotine; release and permeation; sodium alginate
A novel gastro retentive controlled release drug delivery system of verapamil HCl was formulated in an effort to increase the gastric retention time of the dosage form and to control drug release. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), carbopol, and xanthan gum were incorporated for gel-forming properties. Buoyancy was achieved by adding an effervescent mixture of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid. In vitro drug release studies were performed, and drug release kinetics was evaluated using the linear regression method. The optimized intragastric floating tablet composed of 3:2 of HPMC K4M to xanthan gum exhibited 95.39% drug release in 24 h in vitro, while the buoyancy lag time was 36.2 s, and the intragastric floating tablet remained buoyant for >24 h. Zero-order and non-Fickian release transport was confirmed as the drug release mechanism from the optimized formulation (F7). X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of verapamil HCl intragastric floating tablet in mongrel dogs for more than 4 h. Optimized intragastric floating tablet showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, total buoyancy time, or in vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 40°C/75% relative humidity for 3 months.
intragastric floating tablet; sustained release; verapamil hydrochloride
The aim of the present study was the development of thermo-sensitive in-situ gels for in-vitro evaluation of ophthalmic delivery systems of ketorolac tromethamine (KT), based on methylcellulose (MC) in combination with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). The gel temperature of 1% MC solution was observed at 60°C. It was found that 6% oral rehydration salt without dextrose (ORS) was capable to reduce the gel temperature below physiological temperature. HPMC was added to increase viscosity and drug release time. The results indicated a large increase in viscosity at 37°C with addition of HPMC whch provided sustained release of the drug over a 4h period. From in-vitro release studies, it could be concluded that the developed systems were thus a better alternative to conventional eye drops.
Methylcellulose; Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; In-situ gel; ORS
Conventional drug delivery systems are known to provide an immediate release of drug, in which one can not control the release of the drug and can not maintain effective concentration at the target site for longer time. Controlled drug delivery systems offer spatial control over the drug release. Osmotic pumps are most promising systems for controlled drug delivery. These systems are used for both oral administration and implantation. Osmotic pumps consist of an inner core containing drug and osmogens, coated with a semipermeable membrane. As the core absorbs water, it expands in volume, which pushes the drug solution out through the delivery ports. Osmotic pumps release drug at a rate that is independent of the pH and hydrodynamics of the dissolution medium. The historical development of osmotic systems includes development of the Rose-Nelson pump, the Higuchi-Leeper pumps, the Alzet and Osmet systems, the elementary osmotic pump, and the push-pull system. Recent advances include development of the controlled porosity osmotic pump, and systems based on asymmetric membranes. This paper highlights the principle of osmosis, materials used for fabrication of pumps, types of pumps, advantages, disadvantages, and marketed products of this system.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) blocks the passage of active molecules from the blood which makes drug delivery to the brain a challenging problem. Oral drug delivery using chemically modified drugs to enhance their transport properties or remove the blocking of drug transport across the BBB is explored as a common approach to address these problems, but with limited success. Local delivery of drugs directly to the brain interstitium using implants such as polymeric wafers, gels, and catheters has been recognized as a promising alternative particularly for the treatment of brain cancer (glioma) and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to introduce a new solution by engineering a drug-releasing implant for local drug delivery in the brain, based on titanium (Ti) wires with titania nanotube (TNT) arrays on their surfaces. Drug loading and drug release characteristics of this system were explored using two drugs commonly used in oral brain therapy: dopamine (DOPA), a neurotransmitter agent; and doxorubicin (DOXO), an anticancer drug. Results showed that TNT/Ti wires could provide a considerable amount of drugs (>170 μg to 1000 μg) with desirable release kinetics and controllable release time (1 to several weeks) and proved their feasibility for use as drug-releasing implants for local drug delivery in the brain.
In this report, a new drug-releasing platform in the form of nanoengineered Ti wires with TNT arrays is proposed as an alternative for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the brain to bypass the BBB. To prove this concept, drug loading and release characteristics of two drugs important for brain therapy (the neurotransmitter DOPA and the anticancer drug DOXO) were explored.
Titania nanotube arrays on the surface of Ti wires (TNT/Ti) were fabricated using a simple anodization process, followed by separate loading of two drugs (DOPA and DOXO) inside the nanotube structures. The loading and in vitro release characteristics of prepared TNT/Ti implants were examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed that well-ordered, vertically aligned, densely packed nanotube arrays with an average diameter of 170 nm and length 70 μm were formed on the surface of TNT/Ti wires. TGA results showed a total drug loading of 170 μg and 1200 μg inside the TNTs for DOPA and DOXO respectively. Two-phase drug release behavior was observed including a fast release (burst) for the first 6 hours and a prolonged slow release phase for 8 days, both with acceptable dosage and desirable release kinetics. The physical, structural, loading and release characteristics of prepared TNT/Ti implants showed several advantages in comparison with existing and clinically proved brain implants.
Our results confirmed that TNT/Ti wires can be successfully employed as a suitable platform to release neurotransmitters such as DOPA and anticancer drugs such as DOXO. Hence, they are a feasible alternative as drug-releasing implants for local drug delivery in the brain to combat neurodegenerative disorders or brain tumors.
titania nanotubes; brain implants; local drug delivery; dopamine; doxorubicin
Microemulsions (ME)—nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants—have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins’ release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.
antioxidant; microemulsion gel; rheology; skin permeation; vitamin
Gel dosage forms are successfully used as drug delivery systems to control drug release and protect the medicaments from a hostile environment. The main objective is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of clotrimazole based on the concept of pH triggered and ion activated systems. The system utilizes polymers that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters. A pH triggered system consisting of carbopol 934P (0.2-1.4% w/v) and ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.1-0.75% w/v) along with hydroxylpropylmethylcelluose E50LV was used to prolong the release of clotrimazole (0.1% w/v). Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, viscosity, gel strength, bioadhesive force, spreadability, microbiological studies and in vitro release. The use of carbopol as in situ gel forming system was substantiated by the property to transform into stiff gels when the pH was raised, whereas in gellan gum this transformation occurred in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations. Effect of calcium carbonate and other process parameters optimized and found that increase in calcium ions produced stronger gels. The drug content, clarity, and pH of the formulation were found to be satisfactory. The viscosity was found to be in the range 5 to 85 centipoise for the sol, whereas for the gels it was up to 16000 centipoise. The formulation showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotrophy. The maximum gel strength (using texture analyzer) and bioadhesion was found to be up to 6.5 g and 4 g, respectively. The optimized formulations were able to release the drug up to 6 h. The formulation containing gellan gum showed better sustained release compared to carbopol based gels.
Mucoadhesive in situ gels; prolonged release; carbopol; gellan gum; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; clotrimazole
The aim of the present study was to investigate transfersomes as a transdermal delivery system for the poorly soluble drug, sertraline, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different transfersomal formulations were prepared with non-ionic surfactant (span 80), soya lecithin, and carbopol 940 by the rotary evaporation sonication method. The prepared formulations were characterized for light microscopy, particle size analysis, drug entrapment, turbidity, drug content, rheological studies, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and stability studies. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo studies using the modified forced swim model test. FTIR studies showed compatibility of the drug with excipients. The result revealed that sertraline in all of the formulations was successfully entrapped with uniform drug content. Transfersomal gel containing 1.6% of the drug and 20% of span 80 was concluded to be the optimized formulation (EL-SP4), as it showed maximum drug entrapment (90.4±0.15%) and cumulative percent drug release(73.8%). The ex vivo permeation profile of EL-SP4 was compared with the transfersomal suspension, control gel, and drug solution. The transfersomal gel showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) cumulative amount of drug permeation and flux along with lower lag time than the drug solution and drug gel. It also owed to better applicability due to the higher viscosity imparted by the gel rather than the transfersomal suspension, and no skin irritation was observed. The modified forced swim test in mice revealed that the transfersomal gel had better antidepressant activity as compared to the control gel. Thus, the study substantiated that the transfersomal gel can be used as a feasible alternative to the conventional formulations of sertraline with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application.
Sertraline; Transfersomes; Transdermal; Permeation studies; In vivo study
In this paper, ketoprofen and ketoprofen lysinate were used as model drugs in order to investigate release profiles of poorly soluble and very soluble drug from sodium alginate beads manufactured by prilling. The effect of polymer concentration, viscosity, and drug/polymer ratio on bead micromeritics and drug release rate was studied. Ketoprofen and ketoprofen lysinate loaded alginate beads were obtained in a very narrow dimensional range when the Cross model was used to set prilling operative conditions. Size distribution of alginate beads in the hydrated state was strongly dependent on viscosity of drug/polymer solutions and frequency of the vibration. The release kinetics of the drugs showed that drug release rate was related with alginate concentration and solubility of the drug. Alginate solutions with concentration higher than 0.50% (w/w) were suitable to prepare ketoprofen gastro-resistant formulation, while for ketoprofen lysinate alginate, concentration should be increased to 1.50% (w/w) in order to retain the drug in gastric environment. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and Fourier transform infrared analyses of drug-loaded alginate beads indicated complex chemical interactions between carboxyl groups of the drug and polymer matrix in drug-loaded beads that contribute to the differences in release profile between ketoprofen and ketoprofen lysinate. Total release of the drugs in intestinal medium was dependent on the solubility of the drug and was achieved between 4 and 6 h.
controlled release; encapsulation; ketoprofen; microparticles; prilling
Ophthalmic drug delivery systems are the challenging subject for the researchers because of delicate nature of ocular membrane and preventive barriers leading to less than 1 % of Bioavailability. Reasons for reduced bioavailability are due to rapid pre corneal elimination, tear turnover, lacrimal drainage, blinking and degradation by enzymes. Less bioavailability causes short duration of action and increased frequency of administration.
Materials and Methods:
Timolol maleate was used as model drug. Dynamic drug release studies were used to study the polymeric hydrogels and ophthalmic inserts. Rheological studies were carried out by Brookfield Viscometer LVDV- II+.
Result and Discussion:
Viscosity value lies in the range of 4.08 to 31.8 cps. Drug release data was fitted to various kinetic equations such as First order plots, Higuchi plots, Peppa's exponential plots. The results shows fairly linear curve and the slope value of the Peppa's equation is less than 0.5 and hence follows the fickian diffusion.
The developed hydrogels and inserts were therapeutically effacious, stable, non irritant and provide a sustained release of drug over 8 hours time period.
Polymeric hydrogel; ophthalmic inserts; timolol maleate; ophthalmic deliver
The objective of the study was to develop guar gum matrix tablets for oral controlled release of water-soluble diltiazem hydrochloride. Matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride, using various viscosity grades of guar gum in 2 proportions, were prepared by wet granulation method and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Diltiazem hydrochloride matrix tablets containing either 30% wt/wt lowviscosity (LM1), 40% wt/wt medium-viscosity (MM2), or 50% wt/wt high-viscosity (HM2) guar gum showed controlled release. The drug release from all guar gum matrix tablets followed first-order kinetics via Fickian-diffusion. Further, the results of in vitro drug release studies in simulated gastrointestinal and colonic fluids showed that HM2 tablets provided controlled release comparable with marketed sustained release diltiazem hydrochloride tablets (D-SR tablets). Guar gum matrix tablets HM2 showed no change in physical appearance, drug content, or in dissolution pattern after storage at 40°C/relative humidity 75% for 6 months. When subjectd to in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in healthy volunteers, the HM2 tablets provided a slow and prolonged drug release when compared with D-SR tablets. Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies it was concluded that that guar gum matrix tablets provided oral controlled release of water-soluble diltiazem hydrochloride.
guar gum; matrix tablets; oral controlled release; diltiazem hydrochloride; in vitro drug release; in vivo evaluation
The purpose of this research was to design oral controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of zidovudine (AZT) using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC) and carbopol-971P (CP) and to study the effect of various formulation factors on in vitro drug release. Release studies were carried out using USP type 1 apparatus in 900 ml of dissolution media. Release kinetics were analyzed using zero-order, Higuchi’s square root and Ritger–Peppas’ empirical equations. Release rate decreased with increase in polymer proportion and compression force. The release rate was lesser in formulations prepared using CP (20%) as compared to HPMC (20%) as compared to EC (20%). No significant difference was observed in the effect of pH of dissolution media on drug release from formulations prepared using HPMC or EC, but significant difference was observed in CP based formulations. Decrease in agitation speed from 100 to 50 rpm decreased release rate from HPMC and CP formulations but no significant difference was observed in EC formulations. Mechanism of release was found to be dependent predominantly on diffusion of drug through the matrix than polymer relaxation incase of HPMC and EC formulations, while polymer relaxation had a dominating influence on drug release than diffusion incase of CP formulations. Designed CR tablets with pH independent drug release characteristics and an initial release of 17–25% in first hour and extending the release up to 16–20 h, can overcome the disadvantages associated with conventional tablets of AZT.
controlled release; matrix tablets; release kinetics; zidovudine
Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge-like spherical particles with a large porous surface. Moreover, they may enhance stability, reduce side effects and modify drug release favorably. Microsponge technology has many favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge Systems are based on microscopic, polymer-based microspheres that can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is typically porous, allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponges are porous, polymeric microspheres that are used mostly for topical use and have recently been used for oral administration. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to enhance stability, reduce side effects, and modify drug release.
Controlled release; drug delivery; healthcare systems; microsponges
The purpose of this study is to fabricate the polyethylene glycol matrix tablet by mold technique. Indomethacin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were used as model drug and polymer, respectively, in PEG matrix system. The physical and drug release characteristics of developed matrix tablet were studied. This inert carrier system comprising 7:3 polyethylene glycol 4000: polyethylene glycol 400 could effectively enhance the solubility of indomethacin and an addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could sustain the drug release. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph indicated the drug diffusion outward through the porous network of this developed matrix tablet into the dissolution fluid. Least square fitting the experimental dissolution data to the mathematical expressions (power law, first-order, Higuchi's and zero-order) indicated the drug release kinetics primarily as Fickian diffusion. Both the enhancement of drug dissolution and the prolongation of the drug release could be achieved for aqueous insoluble drug such as, indomethacin, by using polyethylene glycol-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix system prepared with melting and mold technique.
Characterization; drug; release; mold tablet; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose; polyethylene glycol
The aim of the current study was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive compressed hydrophilic matrices of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion using response surface methodology. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated for bioadhesive strength and in vitro dissolution parameters. A central composite design for 2 factors at 3 levels each was employed to systematically optimize drug release profile and bioadhesive strength. Carbopol 934P and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were taken as the independent variables. Response surface plots and contour plots were drawn, and optimum formulations were selected by feasibility and grid searches. Compressed matrices exhibited non-Fickian drug release kinetics approaching zero-order, as the value of release rate exponent (n) varied between 0.6672 and 0.8646, resulting in regulated and complete release until 24 hours. Both the polymers had significant effect on the bioadhesive strength of the tablets, measured as force of detachment against porcine gastric mucosa (P<.001). Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables using multiple linear regression analysis, were found to be statistically significant (P<.01). Validation of optimization study, performed using 8 confirmatory runs, indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology, with mean percentage error (±SD) as −0.0072±1.087. Besides unraveling the effect of the 2 factors on the various response variables, the study helped in finding the optimum formulation with excellent bioadhesive strength and controlled release.
drug delivery; bioadhesion; mucoadhesive systems; central composite design; Carbopol; carboxymethylcellulose; controlled release
The purpose of the present research was to produce a quick/slow biphasic delivery system for ibuprofen. A dual-component tablet made of a sustained release tableted core and an immediate release tableted coat was prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained a model drug (ibuprofen). The sustained release effect was achieved with a polymer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC] or ethylcellulose) to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profile from these tablets showed the desired biphasic release behavior: the ibuprofen contained in the fast releasing component was dissolved within 2 minutes, whereas the drug in the core tablet was released at different times (⊂16 or >24 hours), depending on the composition of the matrix tablet. Based on the release kinetic parameters calculated, it can be concluded that the HPMC core was suitable for providing a constant and controlled release (zero order) for a long period of time.
Biphasic delivery system; dual-component tablet
The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic preparations due to rapid precorneal elimination, dilution and nasolacrimal drainage of the drug may be vanquished by the use of in situ gelling systems that are instilled as drops in to the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. Timolol eye drops may cause systemic side effects in glaucoma patients due to absorption of the drug into systemic circulation. In situ gelling system of this drug can provide localized effect with reduced contraindications, improved patient compliance and better therapeutic index. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antiglaucoma drug, timolol maleate (TM) based on the concept of pH-triggered in situ gelation. Polyacrylic acid (carbopol) was used as the gelling agent in combination with chitosan (amine polysaccharide), which was acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. Formulations were evaluated for pH, viscosity, gelling capacity and drug content. The 0.4% w/v carbopol/0.5% w/v chitosan based in situ gelling system was in liquid state at room temperature and at the pH formulated (pH 6.0) and underwent rapid transition into the viscous gel phase at the pH of the tear fluid (lacrimal fluid) (pH 7.4). The in vitro drug release and in vivo effects of the developed in situ gelling system were compared with that of Glucomol® (a 0.25% TM ophthalmic solution), 0.4% w/v carbopol solution as well as liposomal formulation. The results clearly demonstrated that developed carbopol-chitosan based formulation was therapeutically efficacious and showed a fickian (diffusion controlled) type of release behaviour over 24 h periods. The developed system is thus a viable alternative to conventional eye drops and can also prevent the rapid drainage as in case of liposomes.
Ocular delivery; In situ gelation; Timolol maleate; Glaucoma; Sustained delivery