The purpose of this study was to assess the results of bleb needling in glaucomatous patients with late failed filtering blebs.
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective case series of 27 eyes of 27 patients was considered. All patients underwent needle bleb revision with adjuvant mitomycin-C performed at the slit lamp, during an office visit. Complete success was defined as postneedling intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 21 mmHg without any antiglaucoma medications and qualified success was IOP ≤ 21 mmHg with topical antiglaucoma medications.
There were 12 eyes with encapsulated blebs and 15 eyes with flat blebs. The mean interval between index filtering surgery and bleb revision was 32.74 ± 15.36 months. Mean IOP was 25.07 ± 4.80 mmHg before surgery and 19.66 ± 4.97 mmHg at last postoperative follow-up. The mean follow-up was 20.31 ± 15.63 months. Complete and qualified successes were 7.4% and 51.9%, respectively. Cumulative rates of success at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 76%, 65%, 49%, and 37%, respectively. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications was reduced from 3.15 ± 0.36 preoperatively to 2.33 ± 1.21 postoperatively (P<0.001).
Slit-lamp needle revision in office is a simple and effective method for treating late encapsulated or flat filtering blebs without significant complications even for late bleb failure.
Bleb Needling; Bleb Revision; Filtering Surgery; Glaucoma; Mitomycin-C
To report the outcomes of two different surgical techniques for the repair of late onset bleb leakage following trabeculectomy.
This retrospective study includes 21 eyes of 20 patients with prior trabeculectomy and late-onset bleb leaks; 14 eyes underwent excision of the filtering bleb together with conjunctival advancement while in the other 7 eyes the bleb was retained but de-epithelialized before conjunctival advancement. Success was defined as resolution of leakage with no need for additional glaucoma surgery together with intraocular pressure (IOP) of 5-21 mmHg. Complete and qualified success was considered when the above mentioned was achieved without or with glaucoma medications, respectively.
Mean duration of follow-up was 20.3±14.4 months. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of complete, qualified and overall success rates (P>0.05), however more antiglaucoma medications were necessary in the bleb excision group (P=0.02).
Both surgical techniques of bleb repair were comparably effective, however the bleb de-epithelialization technique was associated with less need for glaucoma medications after the procedure.
Bleb Leakage; Bleb Repair; Conjunctival Advancement; Trabeculectomy
To report a case with hypotony due to late leakage of the filtering bleb performed during childhood and treated surgically using human pericardium graft.
A man with hypotony related to bleb's leakage in his right eye was presented. During his childhood trabeculectomy was performed to manage ocular hypertension due to pediatric glaucoma. Biomicroscopy revealed choroidal tissue incarcerated in the sclerectomy under the conjunctiva. Bleb revision was performed. Human pericardium graft was used to cover the sclerectomy and a new bleb with controlled outflow was created. The intraocular pressure (IOP) and Seidel test represent the main outcomes. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Fifteen days postoperatively the IOP was of 7 mmHg and the bleb seemed to filter properly. Five months later the IOP was 9 mmHg and no complications were noticed. During the follow up time, the Seidel test was negative.
We used human pericardium graft with no complications in a case of bleb leakage performed for pediatric glaucoma.
late bleb leakage; human pericardium; bleb revision; pediatric glaucoma
To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) on improving the outcomes of trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Fifty-nine eyes affected by primary open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in this prospective randomized study. Thirty-two eyes underwent amnion-shielded trabeculectomy (study group) and 27 eyes underwent trabeculectomy without any antimetabolites (control group). Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg without any medications at 24 months follow-up. The two groups were compared in terms of IOP, bleb morphology, bleb survival and risk of failure, glaucoma medications, and complications.
There was no statistically significant difference in terms of postoperative IOP between the two groups and at 24 months median IOP was 15.5 mmHg for the AMT group and 16 mmHg for the control group. IOP postoperative reduction was 8 mmHg for the AMT group versus 6 mmHg for the non AMT group (P = 0.276). Two patients from the study group developed IOP >21 mmHg in contrast to seven patients from the classic trabeculectomy group. The study group had 61.0% less risk of developing IOP >21 mmHg (P = 0.203). No major complications in the AMT group were observed. AMT blebs were diffuse with mild vascularization.
In patients with POAG, AMT showed favorable effects on bleb survival, however data failed to provide firm evidence that AMT could be used as a routine procedure in trabeculectomy.
amniotic membrane; trabeculectomy; primary open-angle glaucoma; glaucoma filtering bleb
To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure.
A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.
There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001). The overall success rate was 92%.
Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery.
bleb; failure; 5-FU; needling; gonioscopy
Aim: To report a clinical pilot study investigating photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with glaucoma filtration surgery. BCECF-AM was used as the photosensitising substance. The clinical safety and tolerability of BCECF-AM, and its efficacy in controlling postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed.
Methods: Before trabeculectomy (TE), 42 consecutive eyes of 36 glaucoma patients received one subconjunctival injection of 80 μg BCECF-AM (2,7,-bis- (2-carboxyethyl) -5- (and-6) -carboxy-fluorescein, acetoxymethyl-ester) followed by an intraoperative illumination with blue light (λ = 450–490 nm) for 8 minutes. Antifibrotic efficacy was established as postoperative IOP reduction of >20% and/or an IOP constantly < 21 mm Hg without antiglaucomatous medication. Follow up of the filtering bleb was documented by slit lamp examination.
Results: Eyes had mean 1.1 preoperative surgical interventions (filtration and non-filtration glaucoma surgery). Mean preoperative IOP was 31.6 (SD 9.7) mm Hg. Patients were followed for mean 496 days (range 3.5–31.8 months). Of the 42 eyes, 25 eyes had an IOP decreased to 15.8 (3.4) mm Hg without medication (complete success: 59.5%; p<0.001; t test). Seven eyes showed good IOP reduction < 21 mm Hg under topical antiglaucomatous medication (qualified success: 16.7%). 10 eyes failed because of scarring within 2–67 weeks (23.8%). Clinical follow up examinations revealed no local toxicity, no uveitis, and no endophthalmitis.
Conclusions: This method is a new approach in modulating postoperative wound healing in human eyes undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery. The data of the first human eyes combining TE with PDT underline the clinical safety of this method and its possible potential to prolong bleb survival.
wound healing; glaucoma filtration surgery
To report the role of Healon5™ injection combined with medications in patient with malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy with unplanned zonulectomy.
Two days after trabeculectomy with unplanned zonulectomy for neovascular glaucoma in an eye with diabetic retinopathy, a patient developed malignant glaucoma due to the ciliovitreal block caused by the vitreous herniation through the peripheral iridectomy to the limbal incision with flat bleb and anterior chamber, and the intraocular pressure was elevated to 33 mmHg. The medications for the management of malignant glaucoma failed to relieve the malignant mechanism, and Healon5™, a viscoadaptive, viscoelastic, and ophthalmic viscosurgical device, was injected through a paracentesis until the anterior chamber became deep enough to block the vitreous herniation to the limbal incision.
After Healon5™ injection, the intraocular pressure was reduced enough that the bleb was re-formed, and the anterior chamber remained deep, even without medication.
In patients presenting with malignant glaucoma after trabeculectomy with unplanned zonulectomy, Healon5™ injection, combined with medications, may be a safe and effective approach before performing vitrectomy.
malignant glaucoma; unplanned zonulectomy; ophthalmic viscosurgical device; corneal endothelial cell
Bleb needling is a recognised procedure in the management of patients with failing trabeculectomies. Suprachoroidal haemorrhage can occur as an unusual complication. We report a pseudophakic man who had early surgical intervention for this complication. This intervention may have contributed to the good recovery of his visual acuity and the minimum changes to his visual fields.
A 79-year-old pseudophakic man with chronic open angle glaucoma presented with further deterioration of his right visual field despite maximum medical therapy and a previous trabeculectomy. The right visual acuity was 6/9 with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 16 mmHg. Bleb needling with 5-fluouracil was performed in a standard manner. His postoperative IOP was 6 mmHg. Thirty-six hours later the visual acuity was reduced to hand movements and two large choroidal detachments where observed clinically, which progressed to suprachoroidal haemorrhages. Five days after the initial needling, the patient had complex surgery involving anterior chamber reformation, a bleb compression suture and drainage of the haemorrhagic suprachoroidal detachments. Subsequently, the patient had a right vitrectomy with endolaser following a vitreous haemorrhage. The final visual acuity was 6/9 with an intraocular pressure of 8 mmHg on travoprost and brinzolamide. The final visual field showed little change when compared with the pre-suprachoroidal haemorrhage visual field.
It is important to consider the possibility of delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage as a complication in bleb needling, and early surgical intervention may be beneficial.
To evaluate the efficacy of excision of avascular bleb and advancement of adjacent conjunctiva (EBAC) for treatment of hypotony after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC).
Fifteen patients (17 eyes) who received EBAC for correction of hypotony between September 1996 and October 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcomes were intraocular pressure (IOP) and postoperative complications.
Hypotony (IOP <6 mmHg) of eight eyes (47.1%, seven patients) was caused by bleb perforation. Of these, two eyes (two patients) had a history of trauma. Hypotony appeared at 33.9±30.8 months, and EBAC was performed at 48.2±35.3 months after trabeculectomy with MMC. The mean follow-up period was 38.3±29.8 months. The qualified success rate of EBAC was 100% at 51 months after EBAC, and the complete success rate of EBAC was 76.5% at six months and 70.6% at 51 months, as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Post-EBAC complications included blepharoptosis in four eyes (23.5%) and bleb perforation in one (5.9%). The blepharoptosis resolved within one month after EBAC in two patients. However, in the other patients, mild blepharoptosis remained at 17 and 22 months postoperatively.
EBAC was found to be an effective method for treatment of hypotony after trabeculectomy with MMC, and postoperative blepharoptosis was a major complication.
Bleb; Conjunctiva; Excision; Hypotony
To compare the efficacy of transconjunctival needling revision with 5-fluorouracil versus medical treatment in glaucomatous eyes with uncontrolled intraocular pressure due to encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy.
Prospective, randomized, interventional study. A total of 40 eyes in 39 patients with elevated intraocular pressure and encapsulated blebs diagnosed at a maximum five months after primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were included. The eyes were randomized to either transconjunctival needling revision with 5- fluorouracil or medical treatment (hypotensive eyedrops). A maximum of two transconjunctival needling revisions per patient was allowed in the needling arm. All patients underwent follow-up for 12 months. Successful treatment was defined as an intraocular pressure ≤ 18 mmHg and a 20% reduction from baseline at the final follow-up. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01887223.
Mean intraocular pressure at the final 12-month follow-up was lower in the transconjunctival needling revision group compared to the medical treatment group. Similar numbers of eyes reached the criteria for treatment success in both the transconjunctival needling revision group and the medical treatment group.
Despite similar success rates in eyes randomized to transconjunctival needling revision with 5-fluorouracil compared to eyes receiving medical treatment, there was a significantly lower mean intraocular pressure at 12 months after transconjunctival needling revision.
Needling; Medical Treatment; Glaucoma; Encapsulated bleb; Revision; 5-Fluorouracil
A prospective trial of topical antiprostaglandins versus placebo in the treatment of postoperative fistulising surgery followed up for 12 months is described. It is concluded that antiprostaglandins have little place in the management of these cases. A photographic record of evolution of the fistulising bleb is described, together with a scoring system devised for the evolution of the successful fistulising bleb. A comparison is made between appearance and function of the fistulising bleb based on the use of the water drinking test and tonography together with intraocular pressure as tests of bleb function. It is concluded that the appearance of the established bleb alone is an insufficient guide to function, particularly if further surgery--for example, cataract extraction--is required.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of topical bevacizumab on the formation and function of filtering blebs in eyes with early bleb failure after antiglaucoma surgery.
Of all patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy for glaucoma in the Department of Ophthalmology at the Medical University in Lublin, Poland, between March 2009 and March 2010, a total of 21 eyes from 20 patients with injected filtration bleb 9.8 ± 4.7 days after surgery were included in this observational case series. All patients were treated with standard steroid therapy and topical bevacizumab 5 mg/mL five times a day for 20.9 ± 9.8 days. Patients were followed up every other day, and a full eye examination was performed 14, 30, 60, and 180 days after initiation of treatment. Blebs were evaluated for vascularity by slit-lamp examination with concomitant photographic documentation and intraocular pressure measurement.
Elevated functional bleb with significantly reduced vascularity was present in 16 eyes, and was flat and nonfunctional in five eyes. Intraocular pressure in all eyes decreased from a mean of 26.6 ± 9.6 mmHg before surgery to 14.6 ± 7.7 mmHg and 15.8 ± 8.3 mmHg at 2 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Filtration bleb leak was noted in three eyes while on treatment with bevacizumab.
Topical application of bevacizumab might favor functional bleb formation after trabeculectomy in eyes with a high risk of failure.
glaucoma; trabeculectomy; bleb failure; bevacizumab
To compare the efficacy and safety of topical mitomycin-C (MMC) drops with that of subconjunctival 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections for management of early bleb failure after trabeculectomy or combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PT+PCIOL).
In a randomized comparative study, 37 eyes of 37 patients with impending early bleb failure received MMC 0.02% eye drops for 2 or 4 weeks (19 eyes) or subconjunctival 5-FU injections, 5 mg per dose (18 eyes). Complete success was defined as 5 < IOP ≤ 18 mmHg without medications.
Baseline characteristics were comparable between the study groups. However, there were more cases of combined PT+PCIOL in the MMC group [11 (57.9%) eyes versus 3 (16.7%) eyes, P = 0.017]. Mean preoperative IOP was 20.5±8.85 mmHg in the MMC group and 25.82±11.35 mmHg in the 5-FU group (P = 0.129), which was decreased to 13.2±6.1 and 10.6±4.8 mmHg respectively after 12 months (P = 0.159). There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of bleb extent (P = 0.170), height (P = 0.178) or vascularity (P = 0.366). At the end of the study, complete success was achieved in 13 eyes (68.4%) in the MMC group and 14 eyes (77.8%) in the 5-FU group (P = 0.714). The survival of success at 8 months (median follow-up) was 89.5% and 86.5% in the MMC and 5-FU groups respectively; the number of glaucoma medications (P = 0.707) and best-corrected visual acuity (P = 0.550) were also comparable. Complication rates were similar in the study groups (P = 0.140).
Topical MMC 0.02% has comparable safety and efficacy to subconjunctival 5-FU injections for management of early bleb failure. Topical MMC 0.02% drops are more convenient and can be initiated first, while 5-FU injections may be reserved for eyes with an insufficient response to topical MMC.
Glaucoma; Mitomycin-C; 5-Fluorouracil; Trabeculectomy
Scarring after glaucoma filtering surgery remains the most frequent cause for bleb failure. The aim of this study was to assess if the postoperative injection of bevacizumab reduces the number of postoperative subconjunctival 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections. Further, the effect of bevacizumab as an adjunct to 5-FU on the intraocular pressure (IOP) outcome, bleb morphology, postoperative medications, and complications was evaluated.
Glaucoma patients (N = 61) who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were analyzed retrospectively (follow-up period of 25 ± 19 months). Surgery was performed exclusively by one experienced glaucoma specialist using a standardized technique. Patients in group 1 received subconjunctival applications of 5-FU postoperatively. Patients in group 2 received 5-FU and subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab.
Group 1 had 6.4 ± 3.3 (0–15) (mean ± standard deviation and range, respectively) 5-FU injections. Group 2 had 4.0 ± 2.8 (0–12) (mean ± standard deviation and range, respectively) 5-FU injections. The added injection of bevacizumab significantly reduced the mean number of 5-FU injections by 2.4 ± 3.08 (P ≤ 0.005). There was no significantly lower IOP in group 2 when compared to group 1. A significant reduction in vascularization and in cork screw vessels could be found in both groups (P < 0.0001, 7 days to last 5-FU), yet there was no difference between the two groups at the last follow-up. Postoperative complications were significantly higher for both groups when more 5-FU injections were applied. (P = 0.008). No significant difference in best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.852) and visual field testing (P = 0.610) between preoperative to last follow-up could be found between the two groups.
The postoperative injection of bevacizumab reduced the number of subconjunctival 5-FU injections significantly by 2.4 injections. A significant difference in postoperative IOP reduction, bleb morphology, and postoperative medication was not detected.
bevacizumab; 5-fluorouracil; glaucoma; trabeculectomy; bleb failure; bleb scarring
Ocular hypotony results in an increased break down of the blood-aqueous barrier and an increase in inflammatory mediator release. We postulate that this release may lead to an increased risk of trabeculectomy failure through increased bleb scarring. This study was designed to try to address the question if hypotony within one month of trabeculectomy for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG), is a risk factor for future failure of the filter.
We performed a retrospective, case notes review, of patients who underwent trabeculectomy for POAG between Jan 1995 and Jan 1996 at our hospital. We identified those with postoperative hypotony within 1 month of surgery. Hypotony was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) < 8 mmHg or an IOP of less than 10 mmHg with choroidal detachment or a shallow anterior chamber. We compared the survival times of the surgery in this group with a control group (who did not suffer hypotony as described above), over a 5 year period. Failure of trabeculectomy was defined as IOP > 21 mmHg, or commencement of topical antihypertensives or repeat surgery.
97 cases matched our inclusion criteria, of these 38 (39%) experienced hypotony within 1 month of surgery. We compared the survival times in those patients who developed hypotony with those who did not using the log-rank test. This data provided evidence of a difference (P = 0.0492) with patients in the hypotony group failing more rapidly than the control group.
Early post-trabeculectomy hypotony (within 1 month) is associated with reduced survival time of blebs.
Introduction. Late-onset bleb leaks occur more frequently after the use of adjunctive antimetabolites and require surgical management to seal and preserve filtrating bleb. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old female presented with decreased visual acuity for five days in her left eye. She had a left penetrating keratoplasty one year earlier and two trabeculectomies 7 years earlier. Visual acuity was hand motions, intraocular pressure was 3 mmHg, corneal graft was clear, mature cataract was present, and axial length was 30.48 mm. The conjunctiva covering the superotemporal sclerotomy was avascular, flat, and partially lost. After heavily painting the bleb with a fluorescein, late-onset point leak was revealed. Overlying conjunctiva was excised. The atrophic, irregular, and partially absent scleral flap was covered by a processed human pericardium graft and conjunctival advancement. Postoperatively, intraocular pressure stabilized around 16 mmHg. After four months, phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed. Visual acuity did not exceed 0.1 (in decimal notation) due to degenerative myopia-related macular atrophy. Corneal graft remained clear at her 6-month followup period. Conclusion. Surgical bleb revision using a pericardium graft and conjunctival advancement seems to be an effective method for treating late bleb leaks. However, careful follow-up is required for detecting recurrent leaks and elevated intraocular pressure.
Aim: To evaluate the influence of clear cornea phacoemulsification on filtering bleb morphology, function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes with previously successful filtering surgery.
Methods: The clinical course of 30 patients (30 eyes) who underwent clear cornea phacoemulsification after successful filtering glaucoma surgery was prospectively evaluated. Mean IOP and filtering bleb morphology (standardised assessment criteria and score 0–12, 12 = optimum) were determined before surgery, and 3 days, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. The control group consisted of 36 patients with glaucoma after clear cornea phacoemulsification without previous filtering surgery.
Results: Mean IOP increased after phacoemulsification by about 2 mm Hg (preoperatively 14.28 (SD 3.71) mm Hg, 12 months postoperatively 16.33 (3.31) mm Hg, p = 0.006). 15 patients (50%) showed an IOP increase of >2 mm Hg, 11 patients (36.7%) had no IOP difference (within 2 mm Hg), and in four patients (13.3%) IOP decreased >2 mm Hg. Mean score of filtering bleb morphology 1 year after surgery decreased from 9.5 to 9.0 (p = 0.154). In three of 30 preoperatively IOP regulated eyes the postoperative IOP was 21 mm Hg. The control group showed an average IOP decrease of 2.01 mm Hg (p = 0.014) 12 months after cataract surgery.
Conclusion: An increase in IOP was found 1 year after phacoemulsification in half of the filtered glaucomatous eyes. IOP in glaucomatous eyes without previous filtering surgery decreased in the same period. Cataract extraction using clear cornea phacoemulsification may be associated with a partial loss of the previously functioning filter and with an impairment of filtering bleb morphology.
phacoemulsification; intraocular pressure
In order to determine if post-traumatic angle recession is a risk factor for failure of glaucoma filtering surgery independent of age or race, the surgical results of trabeculectomy performed in 35 consecutive patients with angle recession glaucoma were compared with those of 35 matched patients with primary open angle glaucoma. A postoperative intraocular pressure of < or = 21 mm Hg (with or without glaucoma medication) was found in 15 of the 35 (43%) patients with angle recession glaucoma compared with 26 of the 35 (74%) patients with primary open angle glaucoma. The long term success of trabeculectomy was significantly worse in angle recession glaucoma when the results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Bleb failure occurred a mean period of 3.1 (SD 1.2) months after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma compared with 9.4 (5) months in primary open angle glaucoma (p < or = 0.001). The finding that posttraumatic angle recession is a risk factor for failure of trabeculectomy, supports the use of antimetabolite therapy to suppress fibrosis after trabeculectomy in these patients.
To report a new technique of blunt needle revision with viscoelastic materials via the anterior chamber for the treatment of early failed filtering blebs and elevated intraocular pressure after trabeculectomy, in which digital ocular massage and laser suture lysis have been ineffective.
A 27-gauge blunt needle attached to a syringe containing viscoelastic material was inserted into the anterior chamber from the inferior paracentesis. The needle tip was inserted into the subscleral flap space from the filtering fistula at the anterior chamber side, and the scleral flap was lifted bluntly. The needle tip was then inserted into the subconjunctival space where the viscoelastic agent was injected and the adhesion between the sclera and conjunctiva was separated bluntly. Blunt needle revision via the anterior chamber was performed 14 times in six eyes of six patients at Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University from January 2007 to May 2009. All procedures were performed within 1 month after trabeculectomy.
The intraocular pressure remained 21 mmHg or lower for more than 6 months in three of six eyes. Slight bleeding from the iris occurred in one of the 14 procedures, and hypotony (intraocular pressure below 5 mmHg) occurred in one of the 14 procedures. No serious complications developed.
Blunt needle revision via the anterior chamber for early failed filtering blebs is a new, simple, and safe procedure.
glaucoma; trabeculectomy; filtering bleb; needle revision; blunt needle
To report the occurrence of endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy for glaucoma that was treated by vitrectomy without bleb closure and recurred 3 times after an initial clinically inapparent period of about 2 years.
Interventional case report and short review of the pertinent literature.
A 73-year-old Caucasian female underwent trabeculectomy (without mitomycin) for glaucoma. Four years after the trabeculectomy, an endophthalmitis with Staphylococcus epidermidis as the causative organism occurred and was treated with a pars plana vitrectomy (20-gauge) and a combined antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug regimen. The bleb was not covered during the emergency procedure because the filtering bleb was heavily infected and filled with pus. As the filtering bleb healed nicely and the filtering function was restored, the filtering bleb was left as it was, and best-corrected visual acuity initially recovered to 0.8. After 22 months, the endophthalmitis recurred, this time with Enterococcus faecalis as the causative organism. Its treatment required a total of four further vitrectomies (23-gauge), each accompanied by the same antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug regimen that had been applied previously. However, the visual acuity could not be preserved, and the eye is blind with defective light projection.
The literature suggests an aggressive surgical approach to endophthalmitis, and the present case report confirms this. Since the visual prognosis of eyes after endophthalmitis is poor, the course of treatment for endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy should emphasize recurrence prophylaxis rather than address glaucoma symptoms and therefore include safe bleb leak coverage.
Glaucoma surgery; Complications; Endophthalmitis; Vitrectomy; Filtering bleb
Various methods have been investigated to avoid postoperative scarring of the filtering bleb in modern glaucoma surgery. Most deal with the application of antimetabolic drugs such as mitomycin C (MMC). 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM) is a locally acting intracellular photosensitizer which could control and decrease postoperative fibrosis at the trabeculectomy site.
To compare the effect of photodynamic therapy in combination with trabeculectomy to the effect of MMC combined with the same procedure in controlling postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (1ry OAG).
A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 76 eyes of 76 patients divided into three groups undergoing trabeculectomy, trabeculectomy with BCECF-AM (group A), trabeculectomy with MMC (group B), and trabeculectomy only as a control group (group C). Patients were reviewed postoperatively for clinical evaluation and photo documentation of the blebs with a fundus camera and ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM). The desirable effect of the adjunctive material was evaluated according to the clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety by comparison with the control group.
Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt.
After a mean follow-up of 24 months, all procedures succeeded in lowering IOP. The cumulative probability of complete success at the 24 month follow-up was 91% for group B, compared to 82% and 81.5% for group A and group C, respectively. The percentage of complete success was highest for group B, second highest for group A, and lowest for group C over the follow-up period; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Regarding the bleb morphology and UBM reflectivity, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The mean bleb height and breadth were larger in groups A and B in comparison to group C over the study period. The mean aqueous drainage route was similar in groups A and C, but less than in group B at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Complications were generally mild and less marked in group A and C than group B.
Cellular photoablation using BCECF-AM seems to be a feasible new method to use in combination with glaucoma filtration surgery. Although MMC might be considered a more potent adjunctive to trabeculectomy in promoting IOP reduction, photodynamic therapy carries relatively less risk of adverse effects and complications. Cellular photoablation using BCECF-AM could be considered efficient, tolerable and relatively safer in managing patients with 1ry OAG. Further studies are necessary to determine the safety and the reliability of this therapy.
photodynamic therapy; mitomycin C; trabeculectomy; open angle glaucoma; ultrasonic biomicroscopy
To describe the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging intrableb morphology after trabeculectomy.
14 post‐trabeculectomy eyes from 11 primary open angle glaucoma and 3 primary angle closure glaucoma subjects were studied. The blebs were classified with reference to slit lamp morphology and bleb function. They included diffuse filtering (n = 7), cystic (n = 2), encapsulated (n = 2) and flattened (n = 3) bleb types. One eye in each patient was imaged with the Visante anterior segment OCT. A vertical scan line of 10 mm consisting of 512 A‐scans was positioned at the centre of the bleb. The images were then analysed by built‐in software. Intrableb morphologies and structures, including bleb wall thickness, subconjunctival fluid collections, suprascleral fluid space, scleral flap thickness, intrableb intensity (low, medium or high) and the route under the scleral flap were characterised and measured.
Diffuse filtering blebs were found by subconjunctival fluid collections. Suprascleral fluid space and the route under the scleral flap were identified in four of the seven cases. Cystic blebs were composed of a large hyporeflective space with multiloculated fluid collections covered by a thin layer of conjunctiva. Encapsulated blebs had a thick bleb wall with high reflectivity and an enclosed fluid filled space. Flattened blebs demonstrated high scleral reflectivity and no bleb elevation.
Visante anterior segment OCT can be used for bleb imaging. The different patterns of intrableb morphology identified by OCT were related to slit lamp appearance and bleb function. This information may be useful to study the different surgical outcomes and the process of wound healing in trabeculectomised eyes.
Dysesthetic blebs can complicate filtration surgery. Lubrication often reduces symptoms; however, some cases require surgical intervention. Limited conjunctivoplasty reduces the symptoms of dysesthetic blebs without sacrificing control of intraocular pressure (IOP). However, this may not sufficiently lower these blebs, particularly if the bleb is thick and dense. We describe a modified conjunctivoplasty technique that includes removal of sub-conjunctival scar tissue within the interpalpebral fissure and provide a 1-year follow-up of 13 eyes treated in this manner. All patients reported rapid, complete symptom resolution. The IOP was controlled in all 13 eyes following conjunctivoplasty; 3 required topical antiglaucoma therapy. Subconjunctival scar tissue may contribute to the formation of dysesthetic blebs owing to its thickness and by encouraging local dissection of aqueous humor. Our report demonstrates that removal of this tissue does not compromise IOP control when performed with conjunctivoplasty.
To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma.
This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had wellcontrolled intraocular pressure with medication(s). The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA), and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III) photographs and scores.
Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50–75) years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02), LOCS III photographs (P=0.05) and LOCS III scores (P=0.01). However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023) and LOCS III scores (P=0.057) but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or progression without reduced VA.
Cataracts seem to progress following trabeculectomy; therefore it might be advisable to perform a combined procedure in older patients with moderate lens opacities.
This prospective observational case series study included 6 eyes of 6 consecutive glaucomatous patients. Each patient underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, and received a 1.25 mg of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection at completion of the trabeculectomy. Study eyes included two with neovascular glaucoma, three with uveitic glaucoma, and one with secondary glaucoma following vitrectomy. All eyes had undergone failed glaucoma laser/surgical treatment or an intraocular surgical procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) at the following postoperative visits: preoperative, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months, was measured. We also evaluated postoperative bleb findings and complications. IOP measured at each visit was 37.5±14.4 mmHg, 6.2±3.4 mmHg, 8.3±7.2 mmHg, 12.0±4.4 mmHg, 10.8±3.1 mmHg, and 12.2±3.3 mmHg, respectively, for each visit. All eyes had functioning blebs with normal IOP at postoperative 6 months with no additional IOP-lowering medication.
Angiogenesis Inhibitors; Glaucoma; Monoclonal antibodies; Trabeculectomy; Vascular endothelial growth factors